Hypnotic induction

Hypnotic induction is the process undertaken by a hypnotist to establish the state or conditions required for hypnosis to occur.wikipedia
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Hypnosis

hypnotismhypnotisthypnotic
Hypnotic induction is the process undertaken by a hypnotist to establish the state or conditions required for hypnosis to occur.
Hypnosis usually begins with a hypnotic induction involving a series of preliminary instructions and suggestion.

Theodore X. Barber

T. X. BarberTheodore BarberTheodore Xenophon Barber
Theodore X. Barber argued that techniques of hypnotic induction were merely empty-but-popularly-expected rituals, inessential for hypnosis to occur: hypnosis on this view is a process of influence, which is only enhanced (or formalized) through expected cultural rituals.
Throughout his numerous articles and research programs, he argued that diverse variables affected hypnotic responsiveness and that hypnosis could be elicited without any hypnotic induction at all.

Posthypnotic amnesia

unable to recall
Oliver Zangwill pointed out in opposition that, while cultural expectations are important in hypnotic induction, seeing hypnosis only as a conscious process of influence fails to account for such phenomena as posthypnotic amnesia or post-hypnotic suggestion.
In a typical study examining this type of amnesia, individuals are administered a hypnotic induction procedure which is immediately followed by a series of questions concerning unfamiliar facts, for example "what year was Freud born in?".

Self-hypnosis

autohypnosisself hypnosisself-hypnotic
Self-hypnosis is also possible, in which a subject listens to a recorded induction or plays the roles of both hypnotist and subject.

James Braid (surgeon)

James BraidBraidBraid, James
James Braid in the nineteenth century saw fixing the eyes on a bright object as the key to hypnotic induction.

Sigmund Freud

FreudFreudianFreudian theory
A century later Freud saw fixing the eyes, or listening to a monotonous sound as indirect methods of induction, as opposed to “the direct methods of influence by way of staring or stroking” —all leading however to the same result, the subject's unconscious concentration on the hypnotist.

Hypnosis in popular culture

Chris JonesHypnosis in fictionhypnotic induction in film and television
The swinging watch and intense eye gaze, which are the staples of hypnotic induction in film and television, are not used in reality as both the rapidly changing movements and the simple cliche of their usage would be distracting rather than focusing.

Trance

trance statesystemic trancetrance states
Hypnotic induction may be defined as whatever is necessary to get a person into the state of trance — i.e., when understood as a state of increased suggestibility, during which critical faculties are reduced, and subjects are more prone to accept the hypnotist's commands and suggestions.

Suggestibility

suggestiblehypnotic suggestibilitysusceptibility to incorrect suggestions
Hypnotic induction may be defined as whatever is necessary to get a person into the state of trance — i.e., when understood as a state of increased suggestibility, during which critical faculties are reduced, and subjects are more prone to accept the hypnotist's commands and suggestions.

Oliver Zangwill

Oliver Louis ZangwillOliver L. ZangwillZangwill
Oliver Zangwill pointed out in opposition that, while cultural expectations are important in hypnotic induction, seeing hypnosis only as a conscious process of influence fails to account for such phenomena as posthypnotic amnesia or post-hypnotic suggestion.

Imagination

imaginativeimaginaryimaginative faculty
Methods were designed to relax the hypnotic subject into a state of inner focus (during which their imagination would come to the forefront) and the hypnotist would be better able to influence them and help them effect changes at the subconscious level.

Subconscious

subconscious mindsubconsciousnesssubconsciously
Methods were designed to relax the hypnotic subject into a state of inner focus (during which their imagination would come to the forefront) and the hypnotist would be better able to influence them and help them effect changes at the subconscious level.

Hypnotherapy

hypnotherapistclinical hypnosishypnotherapists
These are still used, notably in hypnotherapy, where the gradual relaxation of a client may be preferred over faster inductions.

Dave Elman

Modern alternatives to the drawn-out muscle relaxation methods include the Elman Induction, introduced by Dave Elman, which involves having the subject imagine that their eyes are too relaxed to open, so that the harder that they try to open them, the harder it becomes to open them (otherwise known as a double-bind); followed by an arm-drop deepener; and lastly, to have the subject visualize clouds and numbers within those clouds, as they blow away (each number that blows away increases the effect of the trance) until the subject is too tired to think of any more numbers.

George du Maurier

George Louis Palmella Busson du MaurierDu MaurierG. du Maurier

Ricky Kalmon

Using hypnotic induction techniques, and the power of suggestion, he convinces participants to act out comic scenarios.

Fantasy prone personality

fantasy pronenessfantasy-prone personalityoveractive imagination
They suggested that this trait was almost synonymous with those who responded dramatically to hypnotic induction, that is, "high hypnotizables".

Sleep induction

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