Hypokalemia

hypokalaemialow blood potassiumhypokalemicpotassium deficiencylow potassiumlow blood potassium levelsH'''ypokalemialow potassium levelspotassiumvery low potassium
Hypokalemia is a low level of potassium (K + ) in the blood serum.wikipedia
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Cardiac arrest

sudden cardiac deathsudden deathcardiopulmonary arrest
Low potassium also increases the risk of an abnormal heart rhythm, which is often too slow and can cause cardiac arrest.
Less common causes include major blood loss, lack of oxygen, very low potassium, heart failure, and intense physical exercise.

Magnesium deficiency

hypomagnesemiamagnesiumlow blood magnesium
Causes of hypokalemia include vomiting, diarrhea, medications like furosemide and steroids, dialysis, diabetes insipidus, hyperaldosteronism, hypomagnesemia, and not enough intake in the diet.
Those with low magnesium often have low potassium.

Hyperaldosteronism

secondary hyperaldosteronismmineralocorticoid excessaldosteronism
Causes of hypokalemia include vomiting, diarrhea, medications like furosemide and steroids, dialysis, diabetes insipidus, hyperaldosteronism, hypomagnesemia, and not enough intake in the diet.
Hyperaldosteronism is a medical condition wherein too much aldosterone is produced by the adrenal glands, which can lead to lowered levels of potassium in the blood (hypokalemia) and increased hydrogen ion excretion (alkalosis).

Potassium

KK + potassium ion
Hypokalemia is a low level of potassium (K + ) in the blood serum.
Hypokalemia, a deficiency of potassium in the plasma, can be fatal if severe.

Furosemide

LasixDiucardinFlüssen
Causes of hypokalemia include vomiting, diarrhea, medications like furosemide and steroids, dialysis, diabetes insipidus, hyperaldosteronism, hypomagnesemia, and not enough intake in the diet.
The tendency, as for all loop diuretics, to cause low serum potassium concentration (hypokalemia) has given rise to combination products, either with potassium or with the potassium-sparing diuretic amiloride (Co-amilofruse).

Cramp

crampsmuscle crampsmuscle cramp
Symptoms may include feeling tired, leg cramps, weakness, and constipation. Severe hypokalemia, with serum potassium concentrations of 2.5–3 meq/l (Nl: 3.5–5.0 meq/l), may cause muscle weakness, myalgia, tremor, and muscle cramps (owing to disturbed function of skeletal muscle), and constipation (from disturbed function of smooth muscle).
Skeletal muscle cramps may be caused by muscle fatigue or a lack of electrolytes such as sodium (a condition called hyponatremia), potassium (called hypokalemia), or magnesium (called magnesium deficiency).

Diabetes insipidus

diabetesCentral diabetes insipidusdiabetic
Causes of hypokalemia include vomiting, diarrhea, medications like furosemide and steroids, dialysis, diabetes insipidus, hyperaldosteronism, hypomagnesemia, and not enough intake in the diet.
However, there is a continuous risk of dehydration and loss of potassium that may lead to hypokalemia.

Anorexia nervosa

anorexiaanorexicanorexics
This is a rare cause and may occur in those with anorexia nervosa or those on a ketogenic diet.
Hypokalaemia, a drop in the level of potassium in the blood, is a sign of anorexia nervosa.

Rhabdomyolysis

muscle breakdownrapid muscle breakdownbreakdown of skeletal muscle
Reports exist of rhabdomyolysis occurring with profound hypokalemia with serum potassium levels less than 2 meq/l.

Vomiting

emeticvomitemesis
Vomiting can also cause hypokalemia, although not much potassium is lost from the vomitus.
Combined with the resulting alkaline tide, this leads to hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis (low chloride levels together with high and and increased blood pH) and often hypokalemia (potassium depletion).

Hydrochlorothiazide

HydrodiurilOreticApresazide
Potential side effects include poor kidney function, electrolyte imbalances including low blood potassium and less commonly low blood sodium, gout, high blood sugar, and feeling lightheaded with standing.

Amphotericin B

amphotericinliposomal amphotericin BAbelcet
Other serious side effects include low blood potassium and inflammation of the heart.

Diabetic ketoacidosis

DKAketoacidosisacidosis
Usually, potassium is also needed to prevent the development of low blood potassium.

Myalgia

muscle painmuscle achesmuscle pains
Severe hypokalemia, with serum potassium concentrations of 2.5–3 meq/l (Nl: 3.5–5.0 meq/l), may cause muscle weakness, myalgia, tremor, and muscle cramps (owing to disturbed function of skeletal muscle), and constipation (from disturbed function of smooth muscle).

Primary aldosteronism

Conn's syndromeConn syndromeAldosterone-Producing Adenoma
Many suffer from fatigue, potassium deficiency and high blood pressure which may cause poor vision, confusion or headaches.

Gitelman syndrome

Gitelman's syndromeGittings syndrome
Gitelman syndrome is an autosomal recessive kidney disorder characterized by low blood levels of potassium and magnesium, decreased excretion of calcium in the urine, and elevated blood pH.

Alkalosis

respiratory alkalosisalkalemiaalkalotic
Metabolic alkalosis is usually accompanied by low blood potassium concentration, causing, e.g., muscular weakness, muscle pain, and muscle cramps (from disturbed function of the skeletal muscles), and muscle spasms (from disturbed function of smooth muscles).

Bartter syndrome

Bartter's syndromeBartter syndrome, antenatal form
Bartter syndrome is a rare inherited disease characterised by a defect in the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle, which results in low potassium levels (hypokalemia), increased blood pH (alkalosis), and normal to low blood pressure.

Apparent mineralocorticoid excess syndrome

apparent mineralocorticoid excessmineralocorticoid excess syndrome, apparentsyndrome of apparent mineralocorticoid excess
Apparent mineralocorticoid excess is an autosomal recessive disorder causing hypertension (high blood pressure) and hypokalemia (abnormally low levels of potassium).

Liquorice

licoriceGlycyrrhiza glabralicorice root
Excessive consumption of liquorice (more than 2 mg/kg/day of pure glycyrrhizinic acid, a liquorice component) may result in adverse effects, such as hypokalemia, increased blood pressure, and muscle weakness.

Hyperkalemia

high blood potassiumhyperkalaemiahigh blood potassium levels
Hyperkalemia refers to a high level of potassium in the blood serum.
Levels above 5.5mmol/L generally indicate hyperkalemia, and those below 3.5mmol/L indicate hypokalemia.

Salbutamol

albuterolVentolinSalbutamol (Albuterol)
Serious side effects may include worsening bronchospasm, irregular heartbeat, and low blood potassium levels.

Loop diuretic

loop diuretics
Common ADRs include: hyponatremia, hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, dehydration, hyperuricemia, gout, dizziness, postural hypotension, syncope.

Electrocardiography

electrocardiogramECGEKG
Low levels may also be suspected based on an electrocardiogram (ECG).
Changes in the normal ECG pattern occur in numerous cardiac abnormalities, including cardiac rhythm disturbances (such as atrial fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia), inadequate coronary artery blood flow (such as myocardial ischemia and myocardial infarction), and electrolyte disturbances (such as hypokalemia and hyperkalemia).