Low blood pressure.

- Hypotension

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Horse colic

Defined as abdominal pain, but it is a clinical symptom rather than a diagnosis.

Ultrasound is a useful diagnostic tool for colics.

Heart rate rises with progression of colic, in part due to pain, but mainly due to decreased circulating volume secondary to dehydration, decreased preload from hypotension, and endotoxemia.

Sodium thiopental

Rapid-onset short-acting barbiturate general anesthetic.

As with nearly all anesthetic drugs, thiopental causes cardiovascular and respiratory depression resulting in hypotension, apnea, and airway obstruction.

Tricyclic antidepressant

Important for the management of depression.

Chemical structure of the prototypical and first marketed tricyclic antidepressant imipramine. Notice its three rings.

Other side effects may include drowsiness, anxiety, emotional blunting (apathy/anhedonia), confusion, restlessness, dizziness, akathisia, hypersensitivity, changes in appetite and weight, sweating, muscle twitches, weakness, nausea and vomiting, hypotension, tachycardia, and rarely, irregular heart rhythms.


Genus of single-stranded, enveloped, negative-sense RNA viruses in the family Hantaviridae within the order Bunyavirales.

The cotton rat, Sigmodon hispidus, is a hantavirus carrier that becomes a threat when it enters human habitation in rural and suburban areas.

A common feature of the two diseases is increased vascular permeability, which causes hypotension, thrombocytopenia, and leukocytosis.


Medication used to treat erectile dysfunction and pulmonary arterial hypertension.

Pfizer Viagra tablet in the trademark blue diamond shape
Crystal structure of human PDE5 with bound sildenafil, PDB entry
Bulk bag of counterfeit Viagra
Sildenafil 100 milligram tablets - (prescription in the European Union)

Rare but serious adverse effects found through postmarketing surveillance include prolonged erections, severe low blood pressure, myocardial infarction (heart attack), ventricular arrhythmias, stroke, increased intraocular pressure, and sudden hearing loss.


Substance that dissolves a solute, resulting in a solution.

Ethyl acetate, nail polisher solvent.

The solvent 2-butoxyethanol, used in fracking fluids, can cause hypotension and metabolic acidosis.


Organic compound and a form of vitamin B3, an essential human nutrient.

A man with pellagra, which is caused by a chronic lack of vitamin B3 in the diet
Niacin, serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine), and melatonin biosynthesis from tryptophan
Inositol hexanicotinate
Space-filling model of niacin

The acute adverse effects of high-dose niacin therapy (1–3 grams per day) – which is commonly used in the treatment of hyperlipidemias – can further include hypotension, fatigue, glucose intolerance and insulin resistance, heartburn, blurred or impaired vision, and macular edema.


Naturally produced alkaloid in the nightshade family of plants and is widely used recreationally as a stimulant and anxiolytic.

A 21 mg patch applied to the left arm. The Cochrane Collaboration finds that nicotine replacement therapy increases a quitter's chance of success by 50–60%, regardless of setting.
Possible side effects of nicotine.
Effect of nicotine on dopaminergic neurons.
Effect of nicotine on chromaffin cells
Urinary metabolites of nicotine, quantified as average percentage of total urinary nicotine.
Structure of protonated nicotine (left) and structure of the counterion benzoate (right). This combination is used in some vaping products to increase nicotine delivery to the lung.
Nicotine biosynthesis
Cigarette ad featuring baseball player Joe Dimaggio in 1941

The initial symptoms of a nicotine overdose typically include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, hypersalivation, abdominal pain, tachycardia (rapid heart rate), hypertension (high blood pressure), tachypnea (rapid breathing), headache, dizziness, pallor (pale skin), auditory or visual disturbances, and perspiration, followed shortly after by marked bradycardia (slow heart rate), bradypnea (slow breathing), and hypotension (low blood pressure).


Naturally occurring psychedelic prodrug compound produced by more than 200 species of fungi.

American psychologist and counterculture figure Timothy Leary conducted early experiments into the effects of psychedelic drugs, including psilocybin. (1989 photo)
The ability of psilocybin to cause perceptual distortions is linked to its influence on the activity of the prefrontal cortex.
In their studies on the psilocybin experience, Johns Hopkins researchers use peaceful music and a comfortable room to help ensure a comfortable setting, and experienced guides to monitor and reassure the volunteers.
Chart of dependence potential and effective dose/lethal dose ratio of several psychoactive drugs
The neurotransmitter serotonin is structurally similar to psilocybin.
Psilocybin is converted in the liver to the pharmacologically active psilocin, which is then either glucuronated to be excreted in the urine or further converted to various psilocin metabolites.
Biosynthetic route previously thought to lead to psilocybin. It has recently been shown that 4-hydroxylation and O-phosphorylation immediately follow decarboxylation, and neither DMT nor psilocin are intermediates, although spontaneously generated psilocin can be converted back to psilocybin.
Global distribution of over 100 psychoactive species of genus Psilocybe mushrooms.
Mayan "mushroom stones" of Guatemala
Albert Hofmann (shown here in 1993) purified psilocybin and psilocin from Psilocybe mexicana in the late 1950s.
The increasing availability of information on growing techniques made it possible for amateurs to grow psilocybin mushrooms (Psilocybe cubensis pictured) without access to laboratory equipment.
Dried Psilocybe mushrooms showing the characteristic blue bruising on the stems

Common responses include pupil dilation (93%); changes in heart rate (100%), including increases (56%), decreases (13%), and variable responses (31%); changes in blood pressure (84%), including hypotension (34%), hypertension (28%), and general instability (22%); changes in stretch reflex (86%), including increases (80%) and decreases (6%); nausea (44%); tremor (25%); and dysmetria (16%) (inability to properly direct or limit motions).

Darbepoetin alfa

Re-engineered form of erythropoietin containing 5 amino acid changes (N30, T32, V87, N88, T90) resulting in the creation of 2 new sites for N-linked carbohydrate addition.


Other reported adverse reactions include increased risk of seizure, hypotension, and chest pain.