Hypothermia

exposurehypothermiclow body temperaturecoldcold stresscold incapacitationH'''ypothermiafreeze to deathfreezes to deathparadoxical undressing
Hypothermia is defined as a body core temperature below 35.0 C in humans.wikipedia
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Hyperthermia

heat stresshyperthermicheat stroke
The opposite of hypothermia is hyperthermia, an increased body temperature due to failed thermoregulation.
The opposite is hypothermia, which occurs when the temperature drops below that required to maintain normal metabolism.

Frostbite

frostbittenfrost bitecold burn
Complications may include hypothermia or compartment syndrome.

Anorexia nervosa

anorexiaanorexicanorexics
Commonly this includes alcohol intoxication but may also include low blood sugar, anorexia, and advanced age. Hypothermia occurs frequently in major trauma, and is also observed in severe cases of anorexia nervosa.

Hypoglycemia

low blood sugarhypoglycaemiahypoglycemic
Commonly this includes alcohol intoxication but may also include low blood sugar, anorexia, and advanced age.
In newborns, hypoglycemia can produce irritability, jitters, myoclonic jerks, cyanosis, respiratory distress, apneic episodes, sweating, hypothermia, somnolence, hypotonia, refusal to feed, and seizures or "spells."

Confusion

mental confusionconfusedconfusing
In mild hypothermia there is shivering and mental confusion.

Cardiac arrest

sudden cardiac deathsudden deathcardiopulmonary arrest
In severe hypothermia, there may be paradoxical undressing, in which a person removes their clothing, as well as an increased risk of the heart stopping. For example, plunged into freezing seas, around 20% of victims die within two minutes from cold shock (uncontrolled rapid breathing, and gasping, causing water inhalation, massive increase in blood pressure and cardiac strain leading to cardiac arrest, and panic); another 50% die within 15–30 minutes from cold incapacitation (inability to use or control limbs and hands for swimming or gripping, as the body "protectively" shuts down the peripheral muscles of the limbs to protect its core).
Exceptions to this include certain cases with hypothermia or who have drowned.

Sepsis

septicaemiablood poisoningseptic
Thus, hypothermia risk factors include: substance abuse (including alcohol abuse), homelessness, any condition that affects judgment (such as hypoglycemia), the extremes of age, poor clothing, chronic medical conditions (such as hypothyroidism and sepsis), and living in a cold environment.
In the very young, old, and people with a weakened immune system, there may be no symptoms of a specific infection and the body temperature may be low or normal, rather than high.

Vital signs

vital signvital statisticsvital function
Temperature depression (hypothermia) also needs to be evaluated.

Trauma triad of death

cyclelethal triadtrauma
Hypothermia occurs frequently in major trauma, and is also observed in severe cases of anorexia nervosa.
The trauma triad of death is a medical term describing the combination of hypothermia, acidosis and coagulopathy.

Sinking of the RMS Titanic

sinking of the RMS ''Titanicsinkingsinking of the ''Titanic
During the sinking of the Titanic, most people who entered the -2 C water died in 15–30 minutes.
Almost all those who jumped or fell into the water either drowned or died within minutes due to the effects of cold shock and incapacitation.

Underwater diving

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Hypothermia continues to be a major limitation to swimming or diving in cold water.
Hypothermia is reduced body temperature that happens when a body loses more heat than it generates.

Homelessness

homelesshomeless peoplehomeless person
Thus, hypothermia risk factors include: substance abuse (including alcohol abuse), homelessness, any condition that affects judgment (such as hypoglycemia), the extremes of age, poor clothing, chronic medical conditions (such as hypothyroidism and sepsis), and living in a cold environment.
There have been significant numbers of unsheltered persons dying of hypothermia, adding impetus to the trend of establishing warming centers as well as extending enumeration surveys with vulnerability indexes.

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation

CPRresuscitationmouth-to-mouth resuscitation
In those without a pulse, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is indicated along with the above measures.
Hypothermia seems to protect by slowing down metabolic and physiologic processes, greatly decreasing the tissues' need for oxygen.

Heart rate

heartbeatresting heart ratemaximum heart rate
As the temperature decreases, further physiological systems falter and heart rate, respiratory rate, and blood pressure all decrease.
The heart rate can be slowed by altered sodium and potassium levels, hypoxia, acidosis, alkalosis, and hypothermia.

Human body temperature

body temperaturecore body temperaturenormal human body temperature
Body temperature is usually maintained near a constant level of 36.5 – through thermoregulation.
Significant core temperature elevation (hyperthermia) or depression (hypothermia) over more than a brief period of time is incompatible with human life.

Cardiopulmonary bypass

heart-lung machineheart-lung machinesheart lung machine
In severe hypothermia, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) or cardiopulmonary bypass may be useful.
Similarly, CPB can be used to rewarm individuals suffering from hypothermia.

J wave

Osborn waveJ-waveOsborn J wave
These occur in the cardiovascular system leading to the Osborn J wave and other dysrhythmias, decreased central nervous system electrical activity, cold diuresis, and non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema.
They are usually observed in people suffering from hypothermia with a temperature of less than 32°C (90°F), though they may also occur in people with high blood levels of calcium (hypercalcemia), brain injury, vasospastic angina,Acute Pericarditis, or ventricular fibrillation and could also be a normal variant.

Drowning

drowneddrowndrowns
Children who have near-drowning accidents in water near 0 C can occasionally be revived, even over an hour after losing consciousness.
Drowning may be complicated by low body temperature, aspiration of vomit, or acute respiratory distress syndrome.

Afterdrop

These concerns were partly believed to be due to afterdrop, a situation detected during laboratory experiments where there is a continued decrease in core temperature after rewarming has been started.
Afterdrop is a continued cooling of a patient's core temperature during the initial stages of rewarming from hypothermia.

Asystole

flatlinesasystolicasystolic event
Also, ventricular fibrillation frequently occurs below 28 C and asystole below 20 C. The Osborn J may look very similar to those of an acute ST elevation myocardial infarction.

Cold shock response

cold shockbodily defenseshitting the cold water
For example, plunged into freezing seas, around 20% of victims die within two minutes from cold shock (uncontrolled rapid breathing, and gasping, causing water inhalation, massive increase in blood pressure and cardiac strain leading to cardiac arrest, and panic); another 50% die within 15–30 minutes from cold incapacitation (inability to use or control limbs and hands for swimming or gripping, as the body "protectively" shuts down the peripheral muscles of the limbs to protect its core).
Hypothermia from exposure to cold water is not as sudden as is often believed.

Thermoregulation

body temperaturethermoregulatethermoregulatory
Body temperature is usually maintained near a constant level of 36.5 – through thermoregulation.
The opposite condition, when body temperature decreases below normal levels, is known as hypothermia.

Bair Hugger

These may function by warmed forced air (Bair Hugger is a commonly used device), chemical reactions, or electricity.
The Bair Hugger system uses convective warming, also known as forced-air warming, to prevent and treat perioperative hypothermia.

Heat escape lessening position

Heat Escape Lessening Posture (H.E.L.P)
A heat escape lessening position can be used to increase survival in cold water.
The HELP is an attempt to reduce heat loss enough to lessen the effect of hypothermia.

Nazi human experimentation

human experimentationmedical experimentshuman experiments
Nazi human experimentation during World War II amounting to medical torture included hypothermia experiments, which killed many victims.
In 1941, the Luftwaffe conducted experiments with the intent of discovering means to prevent and treat hypothermia.