Hypothesis

hypotheseshypotheticalhypothesizedscientific hypothesishypothesizehypothesizinghypotheticallyconjecturalScientific questionclaims
A hypothesis (plural hypotheses) is a proposed explanation for a phenomenon.wikipedia
1,026 Related Articles

Scientific method

scientific researchscientificmethod
For a hypothesis to be a scientific hypothesis, the scientific method requires that one can test it.
It involves formulating hypotheses, via induction, based on such observations; experimental and measurement-based testing of deductions drawn from the hypotheses; and refinement (or elimination) of the hypotheses based on the experimental findings.

Theory

theoreticaltheoriestheorist
Even though the words "hypothesis" and "theory" are often used synonymously, a scientific hypothesis is not the same as a scientific theory.
Scientific theories are the most reliable, rigorous, and comprehensive form of scientific knowledge, in contrast to more common uses of the word "theory" that imply that something is unproven or speculative (which in formal terms is better characterized by the word hypothesis).

Working hypothesis

working hypotheseswrong'' working hypothesis
A working hypothesis is a provisionally accepted hypothesis proposed for further research, in a process beginning with an educated guess or thought.
A working hypothesis is a hypothesis that is provisionally accepted as a basis for further research in the hope that a tenable theory will be produced, even if the hypothesis ultimately fails.

Observation

observerobservationsobserved
Scientists generally base scientific hypotheses on previous observations that cannot satisfactorily be explained with the available scientific theories.

Antecedent (logic)

antecedentantecedentsProtasis
A different meaning of the term hypothesis is used in formal logic, to denote the antecedent of a proposition; thus in the proposition "If P, then Q", P denotes the hypothesis (or antecedent); Q can be called a consequent.
An antecedent is the first half of a hypothetical proposition, whenever the if-clause precedes the then-clause.

Explanation

explainrationaleexplanatory
A hypothesis (plural hypotheses) is a proposed explanation for a phenomenon.
The formal hypothesis is the theoretical tool used to verify explanation in empirical research.

Scientific theory

theoryscientific theoriestheories
Even though the words "hypothesis" and "theory" are often used synonymously, a scientific hypothesis is not the same as a scientific theory.
The scientific method involves the proposal and testing of hypotheses, by deriving predictions from the hypotheses about the results of future experiments, then performing those experiments to see whether the predictions are valid.

Research

researcherresearchersoriginal research
A working hypothesis is a provisionally accepted hypothesis proposed for further research, in a process beginning with an educated guess or thought.
The research question may be parallel to the hypothesis.

Experiment

experimentalexperimentationexperiments
The formulated hypothesis is then evaluated where either the hypothesis is proven to be "true" or "false" through a verifiability- or falsifiability-oriented experiment.
An experiment is a procedure carried out to support, refute, or validate a hypothesis.

Prediction

predictpredictionspredictive
Any useful hypothesis will enable predictions by reasoning (including deductive reasoning).
In a non-statistical sense, the term "prediction" is often used to refer to an informed guess or opinion.

Falsifiability

falsifiableunfalsifiablefalsification
The formulated hypothesis is then evaluated where either the hypothesis is proven to be "true" or "false" through a verifiability- or falsifiability-oriented experiment.
A statement, hypothesis, or theory is falsifiable if it can be demonstrated to be false by observation.

Thought experiment

thought experimentsGedankenexperimentthought-experiment
A thought experiment might also be used to test the hypothesis as well.
A thought experiment (Gedankenexperiment, Gedanken-Experiment, or Gedankenerfahrung ) considers a hypothesis, theory, or principle for the purpose of thinking through its consequences.

Socrates

SocraticSokratesSocrate
In Plato's Meno (86e–87b), Socrates dissects virtue with a method used by mathematicians, that of "investigating from a hypothesis."
The Socratic method is a negative method of hypothesis elimination, in that better hypotheses are found by steadily identifying and eliminating those that lead to contradictions.

Experimentum crucis

crucial experimentcritical experiment
In contrast, unfettered observation is not as likely to raise unexplained issues or open questions in science, as would the formulation of a crucial experiment to test the hypothesis.
In the sciences, an experimentum crucis (English: crucial experiment or critical experiment) is an experiment capable of decisively determining whether or not a particular hypothesis or theory is superior to all other hypotheses or theories whose acceptance is currently widespread in the scientific community.

Occam's razor

parsimonyparsimoniousOckham's razor
Occam's razor says that when presented with competing hypotheses that make the same predictions, one should select the solution with the fewest assumptions, and it is not meant to be a way of choosing between hypotheses that make different predictions.

Testability

testabletestdifficult to test
For a hypothesis to be a scientific hypothesis, the scientific method requires that one can test it.

Statistical hypothesis testing

hypothesis testingstatistical teststatistical tests
Instead, statistical tests are used to determine how likely it is that the overall effect would be observed if the hypothesized relation does not exist.
A statistical hypothesis, sometimes called confirmatory data analysis, is a hypothesis that is testable on the basis of observing a process that is modeled via a set of random variables.

Guessing

guessing gameGuesseducated guess
People refer to a trial solution to a problem as a hypothesis, often called an "educated guess" because it provides a suggested outcome based on the evidence.
Uninformed guesses can be distinguished from the kind of informed guesses that lead to the development of a scientific hypothesis.

Null hypothesis

nullnull hypotheseshypothesis
These are called the null hypothesis and the alternative hypothesis.
Testing (accepting, approving, rejecting, or disproving) the null hypothesis—and thus concluding that there are or are not grounds for believing that there is a relationship between two phenomena (e.g. that a potential treatment has a measurable effect)—is a central task in the modern practice of science; the field of statistics gives precise criteria for rejecting a null hypothesis.

Verificationism

verification principleverificationVerification theory
Other philosophers of science have rejected the criterion of falsifiability or supplemented it with other criteria, such as verifiability (e.g., verificationism) or coherence (e.g., confirmation holism).
Notably, all universal generalizations are empirically unverifiable, such that, under verificationism, vast domains of science and reason, such as scientific hypothesis, would be rendered meaningless.

Exploratory research

exploratory
Like all hypotheses, a working hypothesis is constructed as a statement of expectations, which can be linked to the exploratory research purpose in empirical investigation.
This methodology is also at times referred to as a grounded theory approach to qualitative research or interpretive research, and is an attempt to unearth a theory from the data itself rather than from a predisposed hypothesis.

Research design

designhowResearch designs
The design of a study defines the study type (descriptive, correlation, semi-experimental, experimental, review, meta-analytic) and sub-type (e.g., descriptive-longitudinal case study), research problem, hypotheses, independent and dependent variables, experimental design, and, if applicable, data collection methods and a statistical analysis plan.

Conceptual framework

frameworkframeworksconceptual
Working hypotheses are often used as a conceptual framework in qualitative research.
The formal hypothesis of a scientific investigation is the framework associated with explanation.

Logical positivism

logical positivistslogical empiricismlogical positivist
And yet, "no proposition, other than a tautology, can possibly be anything more than a probable hypothesis".