Hypothesis

hypotheseshypotheticalhypothesizedhypothesizescientific hypothesishypothesizinghypotheticallyconjecturalclaimsdominant hypothesis
A hypothesis (plural hypotheses) is a proposed explanation for a phenomenon.wikipedia
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Scientific method

scientific researchscientificmethod
For a hypothesis to be a scientific hypothesis, the scientific method requires that one can test it. Scientists generally base scientific hypotheses on previous observations that cannot satisfactorily be explained with the available scientific theories.
It involves formulating hypotheses, via induction, based on such observations; experimental and measurement-based testing of deductions drawn from the hypotheses; and refinement (or elimination) of the hypotheses based on the experimental findings.

Theory

theoreticaltheoriestheorist
Even though the words "hypothesis" and "theory" are often used synonymously, a scientific hypothesis is not the same as a scientific theory.
Such theories are described in such a way that scientific tests should be able to provide empirical support for, or empirically contradict ("falsify") it. Scientific theories are the most reliable, rigorous, and comprehensive form of scientific knowledge, in contrast to more common uses of the word "theory" that imply that something is unproven or speculative (which in formal terms is better characterized by the word hypothesis). Scientific theories are distinguished from hypotheses, which are individual empirically testable conjectures, and from scientific laws, which are descriptive accounts of the way nature behaves under certain conditions.

Working hypothesis

working hypotheseswrong'' working hypothesis
A working hypothesis is a provisionally accepted hypothesis proposed for further research, in a process beginning with an educated guess or thought.
A working hypothesis is a hypothesis that is provisionally accepted as a basis for further research in the hope that a tenable theory will be produced, even if the hypothesis ultimately fails.

Observation

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For a hypothesis to be a scientific hypothesis, the scientific method requires that one can test it. Scientists generally base scientific hypotheses on previous observations that cannot satisfactorily be explained with the available scientific theories.
The scientific method requires observations of natural phenomena to formulate and test hypotheses.

Antecedent (logic)

antecedentantecedentsProtasis
A different meaning of the term hypothesis is used in formal logic, to denote the antecedent of a proposition; thus in the proposition "If P, then Q", P denotes the hypothesis (or antecedent); Q can be called a consequent.
An antecedent is the first half of a hypothetical proposition, whenever the if-clause precedes the then-clause.

Scientific theory

theoryscientific theoriestheories
Even though the words "hypothesis" and "theory" are often used synonymously, a scientific hypothesis is not the same as a scientific theory.
The scientific method involves the proposal and testing of hypotheses, by deriving predictions from the hypotheses about the results of future experiments, then performing those experiments to see whether the predictions are valid.

Explanation

explainrationaleexplanatory
A hypothesis (plural hypotheses) is a proposed explanation for a phenomenon.
The formal hypothesis is the theoretical tool used to verify explanation in empirical research.

Research

researcherresearchersoriginal research
A working hypothesis is a provisionally accepted hypothesis proposed for further research, in a process beginning with an educated guess or thought.
2) Hypothesis: A testable prediction which designates the relationship between two or more variables.

Experiment

experimentalexperimentationexperiments
The formulated hypothesis is then evaluated where either the hypothesis is proven to be "true" or "false" through a verifiability- or falsifiability-oriented experiment.
An experiment is a procedure carried out to support, refute, or validate a hypothesis.

Prediction

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Any useful hypothesis will enable predictions by reasoning (including deductive reasoning).
In a non-statistical sense, the term "prediction" is often used to refer to an informed guess or opinion.

Falsifiability

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The formulated hypothesis is then evaluated where either the hypothesis is proven to be "true" or "false" through a verifiability- or falsifiability-oriented experiment.
A statement, hypothesis, or theory has falsifiability (or is falsifiable) if it is contradicted by a basic statement, which, in an eventual successful or failed falsification, must respectively correspond to a true or hypothetical observation.

Thought experiment

thought experimentsgedanken experimenthypothetical question
A thought experiment might also be used to test the hypothesis as well.
A thought experiment (Gedankenexperiment, Gedanken-Experiment, or Gedankenerfahrung ) considers some hypothesis, theory, or principle for the purpose of thinking through its consequences.

Socrates

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In Plato's Meno (86e–87b), Socrates dissects virtue with a method used by mathematicians, that of "investigating from a hypothesis."
The Socratic method is a negative method of hypothesis elimination, in that better hypotheses are found by steadily identifying and eliminating those that lead to contradictions.

Experimentum crucis

crucial experimentcritical experiment
In contrast, unfettered observation is not as likely to raise unexplained issues or open questions in science, as would the formulation of a crucial experiment to test the hypothesis.
In the sciences, an experimentum crucis (English: crucial experiment or critical experiment) is an experiment capable of decisively determining whether or not a particular hypothesis or theory is superior to all other hypotheses or theories whose acceptance is currently widespread in the scientific community.

Occam's razor

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Parsimony (as in the application of "Occam's razor", discouraging the postulation of excessive numbers of entities)
When presented with competing hypotheses to solve a problem, one should select the solution with the fewest assumptions.

Testability

testabletestdifficult to test
For a hypothesis to be a scientific hypothesis, the scientific method requires that one can test it. Scientists generally base scientific hypotheses on previous observations that cannot satisfactorily be explained with the available scientific theories.
Testability, a property applying to an empirical hypothesis, involves two components:

Statistical hypothesis testing

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Instead, statistical tests are used to determine how likely it is that the overall effect would be observed if the hypothesized relation does not exist.
A statistical hypothesis, sometimes called confirmatory data analysis, is a hypothesis that is testable on the basis of observing a process that is modeled via a set of random variables.

Guessing

guessing gameguesseducated guess
People refer to a trial solution to a problem as a hypothesis, often called an "educated guess" because it provides a suggested outcome based on the evidence.
By contrast, a guess made using prior knowledge to eliminate clearly wrong possibilities may be called an informed guess or an educated guess. Uninformed guesses can be distinguished from the kind of informed guesses that lead to the development of a scientific hypothesis.

Null hypothesis

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These are called the null hypothesis and the alternative hypothesis.
Testing (accepting, approving, rejecting, or disproving) the null hypothesis—and thus concluding that there are or are not grounds for believing that there is a relationship between two phenomena (e.g. that a potential treatment has a measurable effect)—is a central task in the modern practice of science; the field of statistics gives precise criteria for rejecting a null hypothesis.

Verificationism

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Other philosophers of science have rejected the criterion of falsifiability or supplemented it with other criteria, such as verifiability (e.g., verificationism) or coherence (e.g., confirmation holism).
Notably, all universal generalizations are empirically unverifiable, such that, under verificationism, vast domains of science and reason, such as scientific hypothesis, would be rendered meaningless.

Exploratory research

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Like all hypotheses, a working hypothesis is constructed as a statement of expectations, which can be linked to the exploratory research purpose in empirical investigation.
This methodology is also at times referred to as a grounded theory approach to qualitative research or interpretive research, and is an attempt to unearth a theory from the data itself rather than from a predisposed hypothesis.

Research design

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Research design
The design of a study defines the study type (descriptive, correlation, semi-experimental, experimental, review, meta-analytic) and sub-type (e.g., descriptive-longitudinal case study), research problem, hypotheses, independent and dependent variables, experimental design, and, if applicable, data collection methods and a statistical analysis plan.

Theorem

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Theorem
In light of the interpretation of proof as justification of truth, the conclusion is often viewed as a necessary consequence of the hypotheses, namely, that the conclusion is true in case the hypotheses are true, without any further assumptions.

Conceptual framework

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Working hypotheses are often used as a conceptual framework in qualitative research.
The formal hypothesis of a scientific investigation is the framework associated with explanation.

Logical positivism

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Logical positivism
And yet, "no proposition, other than a tautology, can possibly be anything more than a probable hypothesis".