Hypoventilation

respiratory depressiondecreased effort to breathedecreased breathinghypoventilatingrespiratory depressantBreathingdecreased ability to breathedecreased breathing ratedecreased rate of breathingdepressed respiration
Compare hypopnea, bradypnea, and hyperventilation.wikipedia
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Breathing

breathventilationrespiration
Hypoventilation (also known as respiratory depression) occurs when ventilation is inadequate (hypo meaning "below") to perform needed gas exchange.
Over-breathing (hyperventilation) and under-breathing (hypoventilation), which decrease and increase the arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide respectively, cause a rise in the pH of ECF in the first case, and a lowering of the pH in the second.

Respiratory acidosis

acidosis, respiratoryacidityP CO 2
By definition it causes an increased concentration of carbon dioxide (hypercapnia) and respiratory acidosis.
Respiratory acidosis is a medical emergency in which decreased ventilation (hypoventilation) increases the concentration of carbon dioxide in the blood and decreases the blood's pH (a condition generally called acidosis).

Hypercapnia

carbon dioxide poisoninghypercarbiacarbon dioxide retention
By definition it causes an increased concentration of carbon dioxide (hypercapnia) and respiratory acidosis.
Carbon dioxide may accumulate in any condition that causes hypoventilation, a reduction of alveolar ventilation (the clearance of air from the small sacs of the lung where gas exchange takes place).

Opioid

opioidsopioid-induced constipationopioid analgesic
Many different central nervous system (CNS) depressant drugs such as ethanol, benzodiazepines, barbiturates, GHB, sedatives and opioids produce respiratory depression when taken in large or excessive doses, or mixed with other depressants.
Side effects of opioids may include itchiness, sedation, nausea, respiratory depression, constipation, and euphoria.

Oxycodone

OxyContinEukodalRoxicodone
Severe side effects may include addiction, respiratory depression (a decreased effort to breathe), and low blood pressure.

Hydromorphone

DilaudidPalladonedihydromorphinone
Serious side effects may include abuse, low blood pressure, seizures, respiratory depression, and serotonin syndrome.

Obesity hypoventilation syndrome

Pickwickian syndromeobesity-hypoventilation syndrome
Obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS), also known as Pickwickian syndrome, is a condition in which severely overweight people fail to breathe rapidly or deeply enough, resulting in low oxygen levels and high blood carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) levels.

Respiratory arrest

respiratoryabnormal or absent breathingCardiorespiratory failure
Hypoventilation is not synonymous with respiratory arrest, in which breathing ceases entirely and death occurs within minutes due to hypoxia and leads rapidly into complete anoxia, although both are medical emergencies.

Alprazolam

XanaxCalmaxXanny
Strong opiates (such as fentanyl, heroin, or morphine), barbiturates, and certain benzodiazepines (short acting ones and alprazolam) are known for depressing respiration.
The poly-drug use of powerful depressant drugs poses the highest level of health concerns due to a significant increase in the likelihood of experiencing an overdose, which may cause fatal respiratory depression.

Depressant

depressantsdownerscentral depressant
Many different central nervous system (CNS) depressant drugs such as ethanol, benzodiazepines, barbiturates, GHB, sedatives and opioids produce respiratory depression when taken in large or excessive doses, or mixed with other depressants.
When depressants are used, effects often include ataxia, anxiolysis, pain relief, sedation or somnolence, and cognitive/memory impairment, as well as in some instances euphoria, dissociation, muscle relaxation, lowered blood pressure or heart rate, respiratory depression, and anticonvulsant effects, and even similar effects of General Anaesthesia and/or death at high doses.

Heroin

diamorphinediacetylmorphinesmack
Strong opiates (such as fentanyl, heroin, or morphine), barbiturates, and certain benzodiazepines (short acting ones and alprazolam) are known for depressing respiration.
Common side effects include respiratory depression (decreased breathing), dry mouth, drowsiness, impaired mental function, constipation, and addiction.

Fentanyl

ActiqDuragesicfentanyl citrate
Strong opiates (such as fentanyl, heroin, or morphine), barbiturates, and certain benzodiazepines (short acting ones and alprazolam) are known for depressing respiration.
Serious side effects may include decreased breathing (respiratory depression), serotonin syndrome, low blood pressure, addiction, or coma.

Recreational drug use

recreational drugdrug userecreational drugs
As a side effect of medicines or recreational drugs, hypoventilation may become potentially life-threatening.
When these are used, effects may include anxiolysis (reduction of anxiety), analgesia (pain relief), sedation, somnolence, cognitive/memory impairment, dissociation, muscle relaxation, lowered blood pressure/heart rate, respiratory depression, anesthesia, and anticonvulsant effects.

Morphine

morphiamorphine addictionmorphine sulfate
Strong opiates (such as fentanyl, heroin, or morphine), barbiturates, and certain benzodiazepines (short acting ones and alprazolam) are known for depressing respiration.
Activation of the MOR is associated with analgesia, sedation, euphoria, physical dependence, and respiratory depression.

Lorazepam

Ativanbenzodiazepine lorazepamdrug of the same name
Signs of overdose range through mental confusion, dysarthria, paradoxical reactions, drowsiness, hypotonia, ataxia, hypotension, hypnotic state, coma, cardiovascular depression, respiratory depression, and death.

Benzodiazepine

benzodiazepinesbenzodiazapinesbenzo
Many different central nervous system (CNS) depressant drugs such as ethanol, benzodiazepines, barbiturates, GHB, sedatives and opioids produce respiratory depression when taken in large or excessive doses, or mixed with other depressants.
Because of their muscle relaxant action, benzodiazepines may cause respiratory depression in susceptible individuals.

Opioid overdose

heroin overdoseopioid-overdoseoverdose
If the respiratory depression occurs from opioid overdose, usually an opioid antagonist, most likely naloxone, will be administered.
Symptoms include insufficient breathing, small pupils, and unconsciousness.

Gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid

GHBγ-hydroxybutyric acidgamma-hydroxybutyrate
Many different central nervous system (CNS) depressant drugs such as ethanol, benzodiazepines, barbiturates, GHB, sedatives and opioids produce respiratory depression when taken in large or excessive doses, or mixed with other depressants.
GHB tends to cause rapid unconsciousness at doses above 3500 mg, with single doses over 7000 mg often causing life-threatening respiratory depression, and higher doses still inducing bradycardia and cardiac arrest.

BIMU8

BIMU-8
A new respiratory stimulant drug called BIMU8 is being investigated which seems to be significantly more effective and may be useful for counteracting the respiratory depression produced by opiates and similar drugs without offsetting their therapeutic effects.
The most obvious practical use of BIMU-8 is to combine it with opioid analgesic drugs in order to counteract the dangerous respiratory depression which can occur when opioids are used in excessive doses.

Opioid use disorder

heroin addictionopioid addictionheroin addict
However an opioid antagonist may also precipitate an opioid withdrawal syndrome in chronic users.

Central hypoventilation syndrome

Congenital central hypoventilation syndromeOndine's curseacquired central hypoventilation syndrome
Disorders like congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS) and ROHHAD (rapid-onset obesity, hypothalamic dysfunction, hypoventilation, with autonomic dysregulation) are recognized as conditions that are associated with hypoventilation.
In the most severe cases, hypoventilation is present during other nonrapid eye movement sleep stages and even wakefulness.

ROHHAD

Disorders like congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS) and ROHHAD (rapid-onset obesity, hypothalamic dysfunction, hypoventilation, with autonomic dysregulation) are recognized as conditions that are associated with hypoventilation.

Gas exchange

pulmonary gas exchangegaseous exchangealveolar gas exchange
Hypoventilation (also known as respiratory depression) occurs when ventilation is inadequate (hypo meaning "below") to perform needed gas exchange.