Hypoxemia

hypoxaemialow blood oxygenAnoxemiahypoxemichypoxiahypoxiclow blood oxygen levelsLow oxygen levelsblood levels of oxygen are lowdecreased oxygen content
Hypoxemia is an abnormally low level of oxygen in the blood.wikipedia
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Hypoxia (medical)

hypoxiahypoxicanoxia
Hypoxemia has many causes, often respiratory disorders, and can cause tissue hypoxia as the blood is not supplying enough oxygen to the body. Hypoxemia can cause hypoxia (hypoxemic hypoxia), but hypoxia can also occur via other mechanisms, such as anemia.
Hypoxia differs from hypoxemia and anoxemia in that hypoxia refers to a state in which oxygen supply is insufficient, whereas hypoxemia and anoxemia refer specifically to states that have low or zero arterial oxygen supply.

Respiratory failure

respiratory paralysisrespiratory insufficiencyacute respiratory failure
Severe hypoxia can lead to respiratory failure
A drop in the oxygen carried in blood is known as hypoxemia; a rise in arterial carbon dioxide levels is called hypercapnia.

Heart failure

congestive heart failurecardiac failurechronic heart failure
However, in a chronic context, and if the lungs are not well ventilated generally, this mechanism can result in pulmonary hypertension, overloading the right ventricle of the heart and causing cor pulmonale and right sided heart failure.
Cyanosis which suggests severe low blood oxygen, is a late sign of extremely severe pulmonary edema.

Hemoglobin

haemoglobinoxyhemoglobindeoxyhemoglobin
Hypoxemia is usually defined in terms of reduced partial pressure of oxygen (mm Hg) in arterial blood, but also in terms of reduced content of oxygen (ml oxygen per dl blood) or percentage saturation of hemoglobin (the oxygen-binding protein within red blood cells) with oxygen, which is either found singly or in combination.
Hemoglobin deficiency is, in general, strictly distinguished from hypoxemia, defined as decreased partial pressure of oxygen in blood, although both are causes of hypoxia (insufficient oxygen supply to tissues).

Pulmonary hypertension

pulmonary arterial hypertensionPrimary pulmonary hypertensionpulmonary artery hypertension
However, in a chronic context, and if the lungs are not well ventilated generally, this mechanism can result in pulmonary hypertension, overloading the right ventricle of the heart and causing cor pulmonale and right sided heart failure.
Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn occurs when the circulatory system of a newborn baby fails to adapt to life outside the womb; it is characterized by high resistance to blood flow through the lungs, right-to-left cardiac shunting and severe hypoxemia.

Shortness of breath

dyspnearespiratory distressdyspnoea
In an acute context, hypoxemia can cause symptoms such as those in respiratory distress. These include breathlessness, an increased rate of breathing, use of the chest and abdominal muscles to breathe, and lip pursing.
Signs that represent significant severity include hypotension, hypoxemia, tracheal deviation, altered mental status, unstable dysrhythmia, stridor, intercostal indrawing, cyanosis, tripod positioning, pronounced use of accessory muscles (sternocleidomastoid, scalenes) and absent breath sounds.

Oxygen–hemoglobin dissociation curve

Oxygen-haemoglobin dissociation curveoxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curveoxygen–haemoglobin dissociation curve
Serious hypoxemia occurs (1) when the partial pressure of oxygen in blood is less than 60 mm Hg, (the beginning of the steep portion of the oxygen–haemoglobin dissociation curve, where a small decrease in the partial pressure of oxygen results in a large decrease in the oxygen content of the blood); or (2) when hemoglobin oxygen saturation is less than 90%.
The production of 2,3-BPG is likely an important adaptive mechanism, because the production increases for several conditions in the presence of diminished peripheral tissue O 2 availability, such as hypoxaemia, chronic lung disease, anaemia, and congestive heart failure, among others.

Obstructive sleep apnea

obstructive sleep apnea syndromeobstructive sleep apnoeaobstructive sleep apnea syndrome or obstructive sleep apnea–hypopnea syndrome
Poor academic performances have been linked to OSA and suggested to result from cortical and sympathetic arousals and hypoxemia which affects memory consolidation.

Central sleep apnea

central sleep apnea syndromecentralCentral Apnea

Altitude sickness

acute mountain sicknesshigh altitude sicknessmountain sickness
Extreme hypoxemia may occur during exercise, during sleep, and in the presence of high altitude pulmonary edema or other acute lung conditions.

Acute respiratory distress syndrome

ARDSacute lung injuryadult respiratory distress syndrome
Signs and symptoms may include shortness of breath, fast breathing, and a low oxygen level in the blood due to abnormal ventilation.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

emphysemaCOPDpulmonary emphysema
Low oxygen levels, and eventually, high carbon dioxide levels in the blood, can occur from poor gas exchange due to decreased ventilation from airway obstruction, hyperinflation, and a reduced desire to breathe.

Alveolar–arterial gradient

Alveolar-arterial gradientdifference between the alveolar and the arterial oxygen levels
Key to understanding whether the lung is involved in a particular case of hypoxemia is the difference between the alveolar and the arterial oxygen levels; this A-a difference is often called the A-a gradient and is normally small.
It is used in diagnosing the source of hypoxemia.

Fink effect

Diffusion hypoxia
The decrease in CO 2 pressure can also potentiate this effect when ventilation is suppressed, leading to potential hypoxaemia.

Right-to-left shunt

right to left shuntright to left shunts in heart or great vesselsright-left
A right-to-left shunt results in decreased blood flow through the pulmonary system, leading to decreased blood oxygen levels (hypoxemia).

Oxygen

OO 2 molecular oxygen
Hypoxemia is an abnormally low level of oxygen in the blood.

Blood

human bloodhematologicaloxygen consumption
Hypoxemia is an abnormally low level of oxygen in the blood.

Artery

arteriesarterialarterial system
More specifically, it is oxygen deficiency in arterial blood.

Respiratory disease

lung diseasepulmonary diseaserespiratory diseases
Hypoxemia has many causes, often respiratory disorders, and can cause tissue hypoxia as the blood is not supplying enough oxygen to the body.

Anemia

anaemiaanemicanaemic
Hypoxemia can cause hypoxia (hypoxemic hypoxia), but hypoxia can also occur via other mechanisms, such as anemia.

Partial pressure

gas pressurepartial pressuresoxygen pressure
Hypoxemia is usually defined in terms of reduced partial pressure of oxygen (mm Hg) in arterial blood, but also in terms of reduced content of oxygen (ml oxygen per dl blood) or percentage saturation of hemoglobin (the oxygen-binding protein within red blood cells) with oxygen, which is either found singly or in combination.

Protein

proteinsproteinaceousstructural proteins
Hypoxemia is usually defined in terms of reduced partial pressure of oxygen (mm Hg) in arterial blood, but also in terms of reduced content of oxygen (ml oxygen per dl blood) or percentage saturation of hemoglobin (the oxygen-binding protein within red blood cells) with oxygen, which is either found singly or in combination.

Red blood cell

red blood cellserythrocyteserythroid
Hypoxemia is usually defined in terms of reduced partial pressure of oxygen (mm Hg) in arterial blood, but also in terms of reduced content of oxygen (ml oxygen per dl blood) or percentage saturation of hemoglobin (the oxygen-binding protein within red blood cells) with oxygen, which is either found singly or in combination.

Arterial blood gas test

arterial blood gasblood gasesarterial blood gases
While there is general agreement that an arterial blood gas measurement which shows that the partial pressure of oxygen is lower than normal constitutes hypoxemia, there is less agreement concerning whether the oxygen content of blood is relevant in determining hypoxemia.

Pursed-lip breathing

pursed lip breathingbreathe through pursed lipslip pursing
These include breathlessness, an increased rate of breathing, use of the chest and abdominal muscles to breathe, and lip pursing.