I-beam

I beamI-beamsH-beamRSJrolled steel joistflangebeamH girderUniversal Beam-beam
An I-beam, also known as H-beam (for universal column, UC), w-beam (for "wide flange"), universal beam (UB), rolled steel joist (RSJ), or double-T (especially in Polish, Bulgarian, Spanish, Italian and German), is a beam with an I or -shaped cross-section.wikipedia
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Structural steel

plateangle ironsteel
I-beams are usually made of structural steel and are used in construction and civil engineering.
Most structural steel shapes, such as I-beams, have high second moments of area, which means they are very stiff in respect to their cross-sectional area and thus can support a high load without excessive sagging.

Flange

flangesflangedflanging
The horizontal elements of the I are flanges, and the vertical element is the "web".
A flange is an external or internal ridge, or rim (lip), for strength, as the flange of an iron beam such as an I-beam or a T-beam; or for attachment to another object, as the flange on the end of a pipe, steam cylinder, etc., or on the lens mount of a camera; or for a flange of a rail car or tram wheel.

Bending

flexurebendbeam
The Euler-Bernoulli beam equation shows that the I-shaped section is a very efficient form for carrying both bending and shear loads in the plane of the web.
Wide-flange beams (I-beams) and truss girders effectively address this inefficiency as they minimize the amount of material in this under-stressed region.

Rolling (metalworking)

rolling millrollinghot rolling
Roll stands holding pairs of rolls are grouped together into rolling mills that can quickly process metal, typically steel, into products such as structural steel (I-beams, angle stock, channel stock), bar stock, and rails.

Plate girder bridge

plate girderplate girdersdeck plate girder
In a plate girder bridge, the plate girders are typically I-beams made up from separate structural steel plates (rather than rolled as a single cross-section), which are welded or, in older bridges, bolted or riveted together to form the vertical web and horizontal flanges of the beam.

Forges de la Providence

CarsidCockerill-Ougrée-Providence's plant in Marchienne-au-PontLes Forges de la Providence
The method of producing an I-beam, as rolled from a single piece of steel, was patented by Alphonse Halbou of the company Forges de la Providence in 1849.
In 1849 Bonehill's successor Alphonse Halbou patented a method for the production of I-beams by rolling.

Hollow structural section

Structural tubingsteel tubetubing
On the other hand, the cross-section has a reduced capacity in the transverse direction, and is also inefficient in carrying torsion, for which hollow structural sections are often preferred.
HSS can also be used as beams, although wide flange or I-beam shapes are in many cases a more efficient structural shape for this application.

Construction

construction industrybuilding constructionconstruction site
I-beams are widely used in the construction industry and are available in a variety of standard sizes.

Box girder

box beambox girdersbox
For torsion dominated problems, box beams and other types of stiff sections are used in preference to the I-beam.
A box or tubular girder is a girder that forms an enclosed tube with multiple walls, as opposed to an I- or -beam.

I-joist

I joistI-beamsI-joists
I-joists—I-beams engineered from wood with fiberboard and/or laminated veneer lumber—are also becoming increasingly popular in construction, especially residential, as they are both lighter and less prone to warping than solid wooden joists.
* I-beam

Vibration

vibrationsvibratevibrating
An example of animating mode shapes is shown in the figure below for a cantilevered I-beam as demonstrated using modal analysis on ANSYS.

Stress (mechanics)

stressstressestensile stress
Significant shear stress occurs in the middle plate (the "web") of I-beams under bending loads, due to the web constraining the end plates ("flanges").

DIN 1025

DIN 1025 is a DIN standard which defines the dimensions, masses and sectional properties of hot rolled I-beams.

Weld access hole

The weld access hole or rat hole is a structural engineering technique in which a part of the web of an I-beam or T-beam is cut out at the end or ends of the beam.

Section modulus

plastic section modulussection moduli
The ideal beam is the one with the least cross-sectional area (and hence requiring the least material) needed to achieve a given section modulus.

Castellated beam

Cellular beams are the modern version of the traditional "castellated beam" which results in a beam approximately 40–60% deeper than its parent section.
A castellated beam is a beam style where an I-beam is subjected to a longitudinal cut along its web following a specific pattern in order to divide it, and reassemble the beam with a deeper web by taking advantage of the cutting pattern.

T-beam

tee beamtee-beamsteel I-beams
The -beam has a big disadvantage compared to an I-beam because it has no bottom flange with which to deal with tensile forces.

Open web steel joist

bar joistcomposite steel joistsopen web joist

Structural channel

(channels)C-beamsC-channel
It is distinguished from I-beam or H-beam or W-beam type steel cross sections in that those have flanges on both sides of the web.

Polish language

PolishplPolish-language
An I-beam, also known as H-beam (for universal column, UC), w-beam (for "wide flange"), universal beam (UB), rolled steel joist (RSJ), or double-T (especially in Polish, Bulgarian, Spanish, Italian and German), is a beam with an I or -shaped cross-section.

Bulgarian language

BulgarianBulgarian:Modern Bulgarian
An I-beam, also known as H-beam (for universal column, UC), w-beam (for "wide flange"), universal beam (UB), rolled steel joist (RSJ), or double-T (especially in Polish, Bulgarian, Spanish, Italian and German), is a beam with an I or -shaped cross-section.

Spanish language

SpanishSpanish-languageCastilian
An I-beam, also known as H-beam (for universal column, UC), w-beam (for "wide flange"), universal beam (UB), rolled steel joist (RSJ), or double-T (especially in Polish, Bulgarian, Spanish, Italian and German), is a beam with an I or -shaped cross-section.

Italian language

ItalianItalian-languageit
An I-beam, also known as H-beam (for universal column, UC), w-beam (for "wide flange"), universal beam (UB), rolled steel joist (RSJ), or double-T (especially in Polish, Bulgarian, Spanish, Italian and German), is a beam with an I or -shaped cross-section.

German language

GermanGerman-languageGerman-speaking
An I-beam, also known as H-beam (for universal column, UC), w-beam (for "wide flange"), universal beam (UB), rolled steel joist (RSJ), or double-T (especially in Polish, Bulgarian, Spanish, Italian and German), is a beam with an I or -shaped cross-section.