IBM

International Business MachinesIBM CorporationInternational Business Machines CorporationIBM’sInternational Business Machines (IBM)International Business Machines Corp. IBM CorporationIBM JapanIBM UKIBM Canada
International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational information technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, with operations in over 170 countries.wikipedia
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Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company

The Tabulating Machine CompanyComputing-Tabulating-Recording Company (CTR)Tabulating Machine Company
The company began in 1911 as the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company (CTR) and was renamed "International Business Machines" in 1924. On June 16, 1911, their four companies were amalgamated in New York State by Charles Ranlett Flint forming a fifth company, the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company (CTR) based in Endicott, New York.
The Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company (CTR) was a holding company of manufacturers of record-keeping and measuring systems subsequently known as IBM.

IBM mainframe

mainframemainframesIBM mainframe computers
The IBM mainframe, exemplified by the System/360, was the dominant computing platform during the 1960s and 1970s.
IBM mainframes are large computer systems produced by IBM since 1952.

Armonk, New York

ArmonkArmonk, New York, USArmonk, NY
International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational information technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, with operations in over 170 countries.
Armonk is well known as being the headquarters of IBM.

IBM System/360

System/360IBM 360IBM S/360
The IBM mainframe, exemplified by the System/360, was the dominant computing platform during the 1960s and 1970s.
The IBM System/360 (S/360) is a family of mainframe computer systems that was announced by IBM on April 7, 1964, and delivered between 1965 and 1978.

Hard disk drive

hard drivehard diskhard drives
Inventions by IBM include the automated teller machine (ATM), the floppy disk, the hard disk drive, the magnetic stripe card, the relational database, the SQL programming language, the UPC barcode, and dynamic random-access memory (DRAM).
Introduced by IBM in 1956, HDDs became the dominant secondary storage device for general-purpose computers by the early 1960s.

ThinkPad

IBM ThinkPadLenovo ThinkPadP series workstations
This includes spinning off printer manufacturer Lexmark in 1991 and the sale of personal computer (ThinkPad/ThinkCentre) and x86-based server businesses to Lenovo (in 2005 and 2014, respectively), and acquiring companies such as PwC Consulting (2002), SPSS (2009), The Weather Company (2016), and Red Hat (2018).
ThinkPad is a line of business laptop computers and tablets designed, developed, and sold by Lenovo, and formerly IBM.

Floppy disk

floppy disk drivefloppy drivediskette
Inventions by IBM include the automated teller machine (ATM), the floppy disk, the hard disk drive, the magnetic stripe card, the relational database, the SQL programming language, the UPC barcode, and dynamic random-access memory (DRAM).
These disks and associated drives were produced and improved upon by IBM and other companies such as Memorex, Shugart Associates, and Burroughs Corporation.

SPSS

IBM SPSS StatisticsPredictive Analytics SoftWare (PASW)SCSS
This includes spinning off printer manufacturer Lexmark in 1991 and the sale of personal computer (ThinkPad/ThinkCentre) and x86-based server businesses to Lenovo (in 2005 and 2014, respectively), and acquiring companies such as PwC Consulting (2002), SPSS (2009), The Weather Company (2016), and Red Hat (2018).
Long produced by SPSS Inc., it was acquired by IBM in 2009.

ThinkCentre

IBM ThinkCentre
This includes spinning off printer manufacturer Lexmark in 1991 and the sale of personal computer (ThinkPad/ThinkCentre) and x86-based server businesses to Lenovo (in 2005 and 2014, respectively), and acquiring companies such as PwC Consulting (2002), SPSS (2009), The Weather Company (2016), and Red Hat (2018).
The ThinkCentre is a line of business-oriented desktop computers designed, developed, and sold by Lenovo, and formerly IBM.

Automated teller machine

ATMATMsautomatic teller machine
Inventions by IBM include the automated teller machine (ATM), the floppy disk, the hard disk drive, the magnetic stripe card, the relational database, the SQL programming language, the UPC barcode, and dynamic random-access memory (DRAM).
The online version of the Swedish machine is listed to have been operational on 6 May 1968, while claiming to be the first online ATM in the world (ahead of a similar claim by IBM and Lloyds Bank in 1971).

Red Hat

Red Hat, Inc.JBossRedHat
This includes spinning off printer manufacturer Lexmark in 1991 and the sale of personal computer (ThinkPad/ThinkCentre) and x86-based server businesses to Lenovo (in 2005 and 2014, respectively), and acquiring companies such as PwC Consulting (2002), SPSS (2009), The Weather Company (2016), and Red Hat (2018).
On October 28, 2018, IBM announced its intent to acquire Red Hat for $34 billion.

Magnetic stripe card

magnetic stripemagnetic stripmagnetic card
Inventions by IBM include the automated teller machine (ATM), the floppy disk, the hard disk drive, the magnetic stripe card, the relational database, the SQL programming language, the UPC barcode, and dynamic random-access memory (DRAM).
In 1960, IBM used the magnetic tape idea to develop a reliable way of securing magnetic stripes to plastic cards, under a contract with the US government for a security system.

SQL

Structured Query LanguageSQL DatabasesWikibook SQL
Inventions by IBM include the automated teller machine (ATM), the floppy disk, the hard disk drive, the magnetic stripe card, the relational database, the SQL programming language, the UPC barcode, and dynamic random-access memory (DRAM).
SQL was initially developed at IBM by Donald D. Chamberlin and Raymond F. Boyce after learning about the relational model from Ted Codd in the early 1970s.

Binghamton, New York

BinghamtonBinghamton, NYcity of Binghamton
The five companies had 1,300 employees and offices and plants in Endicott and Binghamton, New York; Dayton, Ohio; Detroit, Michigan; Washington, D.C.; and Toronto.
IBM was founded nearby, and the flight simulator was invented in the city, leading to a notable concentration of electronics- and defense-oriented firms.

Thomas J. Watson

Thomas J. Watson, Sr.Thomas WatsonThomas J. Watson Sr.
Thomas J. Watson, Sr., fired from the National Cash Register Company by John Henry Patterson, called on Flint and, in 1914, was offered a position at CTR.
He served as the chairman and CEO of International Business Machines (IBM).

Bundy Manufacturing Company

Willard Bundy
Julius E. Pitrap patented the computing scale in 1885; Alexander Dey invented the dial recorder (1888); Herman Hollerith (1860–1929) patented the Electric Tabulating Machine; and Willard Bundy invented a time clock to record a worker's arrival and departure time on a paper tape in 1889.
The Bundy Manufacturing Company was a 19th-century American manufacturer of timekeeping devices that went through a series of mergers, eventually becoming part of International Business Machines then Simplex Time Recorder Company.

Personal computer

PCPCspersonal computers
This includes spinning off printer manufacturer Lexmark in 1991 and the sale of personal computer (ThinkPad/ThinkCentre) and x86-based server businesses to Lenovo (in 2005 and 2014, respectively), and acquiring companies such as PwC Consulting (2002), SPSS (2009), The Weather Company (2016), and Red Hat (2018).
In 1973, the IBM Los Gatos Scientific Center developed a portable computer prototype called SCAMP (Special Computer APL Machine Portable) based on the IBM PALM processor with a Philips compact cassette drive, small CRT, and full function keyboard.

Lexmark

Lexmark InternationalLexmark International Inc. (USA)Lexmark International, Inc.
This includes spinning off printer manufacturer Lexmark in 1991 and the sale of personal computer (ThinkPad/ThinkCentre) and x86-based server businesses to Lenovo (in 2005 and 2014, respectively), and acquiring companies such as PwC Consulting (2002), SPSS (2009), The Weather Company (2016), and Red Hat (2018).
Lexmark was formed on March 27, 1991 when IBM divested a number of its hardware manufacturing operations, including printer and printer supply operations, to the investment firm Clayton, Dubilier & Rice, Inc. in a leveraged buyout.

Turing Award

A.M. Turing AwardACM Turing AwardACM A.M. Turing Award
IBM employees have been awarded five Nobel Prizes, six Turing Awards, ten National Medals of Technology (USA) and five National Medals of Science (USA).
The first female recipient was Frances E. Allen of IBM in 2006.

Lenovo

Lenovo’s LenovoLenovo Group
This includes spinning off printer manufacturer Lexmark in 1991 and the sale of personal computer (ThinkPad/ThinkCentre) and x86-based server businesses to Lenovo (in 2005 and 2014, respectively), and acquiring companies such as PwC Consulting (2002), SPSS (2009), The Weather Company (2016), and Red Hat (2018).
Lenovo acquired IBM's personal computer business in 2005 and agreed to acquire its Intel-based server business in 2014.

IBM 704

704address registerIBM704
In 1956, the company demonstrated the first practical example of artificial intelligence when Arthur L. Samuel of IBM's Poughkeepsie, New York, laboratory programmed an IBM 704 not merely to play checkers but "learn" from its own experience.
The IBM 704, introduced by IBM in 1954, is the first mass-produced computer with floating-point arithmetic hardware.

Charles Ranlett Flint

Charles R. FlintCharles Flint
On June 16, 1911, their four companies were amalgamated in New York State by Charles Ranlett Flint forming a fifth company, the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company (CTR) based in Endicott, New York.
Charles Ranlett Flint (January 24, 1850 – February 26, 1934) was the founder of the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company which later became IBM.

Fortran

FORTRAN 77FORTRAN IVFortran 90
In 1957, the FORTRAN scientific programming language was developed.
Originally developed by IBM in the 1950s for scientific and engineering applications, FORTRAN came to dominate this area of programming early on and has been in continuous use for over half a century in computationally intensive areas such as numerical weather prediction, finite element analysis, computational fluid dynamics, computational physics, crystallography and computational chemistry.

IBM Selectric typewriter

IBM SelectricSelectricSelectric Composer
In 1961, IBM developed the SABRE reservation system for American Airlines and introduced the highly successful Selectric typewriter.
The IBM Selectric typewriter was a highly successful model line of electric typewriters introduced by IBM on 31 July 1961.

Lenovo System x

xiDataPlexxSeries
This includes spinning off printer manufacturer Lexmark in 1991 and the sale of personal computer (ThinkPad/ThinkCentre) and x86-based server businesses to Lenovo (in 2005 and 2014, respectively), and acquiring companies such as PwC Consulting (2002), SPSS (2009), The Weather Company (2016), and Red Hat (2018).
System x is a line of x86 servers produced by IBM, and later Lenovo.