NACA researchers using an IBM type 704 electronic data processing machine in 1957
An IBM System/360 in use at the University of Michigan c. 1969
IBM guidance computer hardware for the Saturn V Instrument Unit
IBM inventions: (clockwise from top-left) the hard-disk drive, DRAM, the UPC bar code, and the magnetic stripe card
Pangu Plaza, one of IBM's offices in Beijing, China
Blue Gene was awarded the National Medal of Technology and Innovation in 2009.
IBM Q System One (2019), the first circuit-based commercial quantum computer
The Thomas J. Watson Research Center in Yorktown Heights, New York, is one of 12 IBM research labs worldwide.
IBM Fellow Benoit Mandelbrot discusses fractal geometry, 2010.
IBM ads at John F. Kennedy International Airport, 2013
New IBM employees being welcomed to a bootcamp at IBM Austin, 2015
Employees demonstrating IBM Watson capabilities in a Jeopardy! exhibition match on campus, 2011

American multinational technology corporation headquartered in Armonk, New York, with operations in over 171 countries.


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IBM System/360

IBM System/360 Model 30 central processor unit (CPU)
IBM System/360 Model 30 central processor unit (CPU)
IBM System/360 Model 20 CPU with front panels removed, with IBM 2560 MFCM (Multi-Function Card Machine)
IBM System/360 Model 30 CPU (red, middle of picture), tape drives to its left, and disk drives to its right, at the Computer History Museum
IBM System/360 Model 50 CPU, computer operator's console, and peripherals at Volkswagen
System/360 Model 65 operator's console, with register value lamps and toggle switches (middle of picture) and "emergency pull" switch (upper right)
IBM System/360 Model 91 operator's console at NASA, sometime in the late 1960s.
Magnetic-core memory, probably from a 360
IBM System/360 Model 40 microcode transformer read-only storage (TROS)
Cable used as Bus or Tag cable for IBM System/360
Bus and tag terminators
A single-width SLT card
Many SLT cards plugged into an SLT board
IBM 2311 disk drive
IBM 2314 disk drives and IBM 2540 card reader/punch at the University of Michigan
IBM 2401 tape drives
IBM 1403 line printer
Model 30
Model 40
Model 44
Model 50
Model 65
Model 67
Model 85
Model 91

The IBM System/360 (S/360) is a family of mainframe computer systems that was announced by IBM on April 7, 1964, and delivered between 1965 and 1978.

Hard disk drive

Electro-mechanical data storage device that stores and retrieves digital data using magnetic storage and one or more rigid rapidly rotating platters coated with magnetic material.

Partially disassembled IBM 350 (RAMAC)
Internals of a 2.5-inch laptop hard disk drive
A disassembled and labeled 1997 HDD lying atop a mirror
Magnetic cross section & frequency modulation encoded binary data
Destroyed hard disk, glass platter visible
Diagram labeling the major components of a computer HDD
Recording of single magnetisations of bits on a 200 MB HDD-platter (recording made visible using CMOS-MagView).
Longitudinal recording (standard) & perpendicular recording diagram
An HDD with disks and motor hub removed, exposing copper-colored stator coils surrounding a bearing in the center of the spindle motor. The orange stripe along the side of the arm is a thin printed-circuit cable, the spindle bearing is in the center and the actuator is in the upper left.
Head stack with an actuator coil on the left and read/write heads on the right
Close-up of a single read-write head, showing the side facing the platter
Leading-edge hard disk drive areal densities from 1956 through 2009 compared to Moore's law. By 2016, progress had slowed significantly below the extrapolated density trend.
Two Seagate Barracuda drives, from 2003 and 2009 - respectively 160GB and 1TB. Seagate offers capacities up to 20TB.
8-, 5.25-, 3.5-, 2.5-, 1.8- and 1-inch HDDs, together with a ruler to show the size of platters and read-write heads
A newer 2.5-inch (63.5 mm) 6,495 MB HDD compared to an older 5.25-inch full-height 110 MB HDD
Inner view of a 1998 Seagate HDD that used the Parallel ATA interface
2.5-inch SATA drive on top of 3.5-inch SATA drive, showing close-up of (7-pin) data and (15-pin) power connectors
Close-up of an HDD head resting on a disk platter; its mirror reflection is visible on the platter surface. Unless the head is on a landing zone, the heads touching the platters while in operation can be catastrophic.
Two 2.5" external USB hard drives
Diagram of HDD manufacturer consolidation

Introduced by IBM in 1956, HDDs were the dominant secondary storage device for general-purpose computers beginning in the early 1960s.

Magnetic stripe card

Type of card capable of storing data by modifying the magnetism of tiny iron-based magnetic particles on a band of magnetic material on the card.

An example of the reverse side of a typical credit card:
Green circle #1 labels the magnetic stripe.
Visualization of magnetically stored information on a magnetic stripe card (recorded with CMOS-MagView, dark colors correspond to magnetic north, light colors correspond to magnetic south)
The first prototype of magnetic stripe card created by IBM in the late 1960s. A stripe of cellophane magnetic tape is fixed to a piece of cardboard with clear adhesive tape
Front side of the first magnetic stripe plastic credit card. Note that the narrow magnetic stripe is on the front of the card. It was later switched to the back side.
Back side of the first magnetic stripe plastic credit card
Back of early magnetic striped encoded paper card. The narrow magnetic stripe in the center of the card was applied using a magnetic slurry paint.
Example of a card from the late 1980s used in food vending machines in the UK
Detailed visualization of magnetically stored information on a magnetic stripe card (recorded with CMOS-MagView, dark colors correspond to magnetic north, light colors correspond to magnetic south).

In 1960, IBM used the magnetic tape idea to develop a reliable way of securing magnetic stripes to plastic cards, under a contract with the US government for a security system.

Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company

Front cover of a January 1920 sales catalog showing clocks, scales and tabulating equipment)
Hollerith's plant in 1893
Charles Ranlett Flint had already created a number of successful consolidations, including creating industrial giant U.S. Rubber.
Thomas J. Watson
1917 organizational chart. This style of chart, pyramids dividing into five parts, was required by Patterson and one of the many things Watson brought from NCR to CTR.
IBM songbooks with Think signs in several languages and punched cards

The Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company (CTR) was a holding company of manufacturers of record-keeping and measuring systems subsequently known as IBM.

IBM mainframe

IBM 704 mainframe at NACA in 1957
IBM 1401 undergoing restoration at the Computer History Museum
IBM System/360 Model 50
IBM System z800

IBM mainframes are large computer systems produced by IBM since 1952.

Endicott, New York

Village in Broome County, New York, United States.

Endicott is best known as the "Birthplace of IBM".

Charles Ranlett Flint

Flint in 1907

Charles Ranlett Flint (January 24, 1850 – February 26, 1934) was the founder of the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company which later became IBM.

Automated teller machine

Electronic telecommunications device that enables customers of financial institutions to perform financial transactions, such as cash withdrawals, deposits, funds transfers, balance inquiries or account information inquiries, at any time and without the need for direct interaction with bank staff.

An NCR Personas 75-Series interior, multi-function ATM in the United States
Otto., a Finnish ATM
Smaller indoor ATMs dispense money inside convenience stores and other busy areas, such as this off-premises Wincor Nixdorf mono-function ICA ATM in Sweden.
An old Nixdorf ATM
Actor Reg Varney using the world's first cash machine in Enfield Town, north London on 27 June 1967
Sberbank ATM in Tolyatti, Russia
A Chase Bank ATM in 2008
The world's highest ATM at the Khunjerab Pass in Gilgit Baltistan, Pakistan, which is located at the height of 4693 m above sea level
An ATM in the Netherlands. The logos of a number of interbank networks to which it is connected are shown. PIN card logo are not placed, although this system was in use here at the time.
A Diebold 1063ix with a dial-up modem visible at the base
Number of automated teller machines (ATMs) per 100,000 adults (2017)
HSBC Express Banking ATM in, Shatin, Hong Kong
Assortment of ATMs in Siam Paragon shopping centre, Bangkok, Thailand
A block diagram of an ATM
Two Loomis employees refilling an ATM at the Downtown Seattle REI
Although Microsoft discontinued support for the operating system in 2014, a significant number of ATMs as of 2020 still use versions of Windows XP, as seen with this machine at a branch of Tesco Express in Slough, Berkshire.
A Wincor Nixdorf ATM running Windows 2000 (system screen removed due to copyright infringement)
A Wincor Nixdorf Procash 2100xe Frontload that was opened with an angle grinder
A BTMU ATM with a palm scanner (to the right of the screen)
ATMs that are exposed to the outside must be vandal- and weather-resistant.
Dunbar armored personnel watching over ATMs that have been installed in a van
Two NCR Personas 84 ATMs at a bank in Jersey dispensing two types of pound sterling banknotes: Bank of England on the left, and States of Jersey on the right
Gold vending ATM in New York City
A South Korean ATM with mobile bank port and bar code reader
A NCR Interactive Teller Machine running uGenius software
An ATM running Microsoft Windows that has crashed due to a peripheral component failure
ATM lineup
Some ATMs may display warning messages to customers to be vigilant of possible tampering.
10 euro notes from an ATM robbery made unusable with red dye

The online version of the Swedish machine is listed to have been operational on 6 May 1968, while claiming to be the first online ATM in the world, ahead of similar claims by IBM and Lloyds Bank in 1971, and Oki in 1970.

Universal Product Code

Barcode symbology that is widely used worldwide for tracking trade items in stores.

A UPC barcode
The UPC Label showing the general characteristics of Baumeister's proposals

Technology firms including Charegon, IBM, Litton-Zellweger, Pitney Bowes-Alpex, Plessey-Anker, RCA, Scanner Inc., Singer, and Dymo Industries/Data General, put forward alternative proposals for symbol representations to the council.


Domain-specific language used in programming and designed for managing data held in a relational database management system (RDBMS), or for stream processing in a relational data stream management system (RDSMS).

Relational database terminology

SQL was initially developed at IBM by Donald D. Chamberlin and Raymond F. Boyce after learning about the relational model from Edgar F. Codd in the early 1970s.