IBM PC compatible

PCPC compatibleIBM PC compatiblesIBM PCPC clonePCsIBM compatibleIBM-compatibleIBM PC-compatiblePC-compatible
IBM PC compatible computers are computers similar to the original IBM PC, XT, and AT that are able to use the same software and expansion cards.wikipedia
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Columbia Data Products

Columbia MPC
Columbia Data Products built the first clone of the IBM personal computer by a clean room implementation of its BIOS.
Columbia Data Products (CDP) was a company which produced some of the first IBM PC clones.

MS-DOS

DOSMS-DOS 5.0MS-DOS 6.0
Some of these computers ran MS-DOS but had enough hardware differences that IBM compatible software could not be used; examples include slight differences in the memory map, serial ports or video hardware.
MS-DOS was the main operating system for IBM PC compatible personal computers during the 1980s, from which point it was gradually superseded by operating systems offering a graphical user interface (GUI), in various generations of the graphical Microsoft Windows operating system.

Macintosh

Apple MacintoshMacMacs
The industry jargon "PC" sometimes doesn't mean "personal computer" generally, but rather a Windows computer, in contrast to a Mac. After 1987, IBM PC compatibles dominated both the home and business markets of commodity computers, with other notable alternative architectures being used in niche markets, like the Macintosh computers offered by Apple Inc. and used mainly for desktop publishing at the time, the aging 8-bit Commodore 64 which was selling for $150 by this time and became the world's best-selling computer, the 32-bit Commodore Amiga line used for television and video production and the 32-bit Atari ST used by the music industry.
Early Macintosh models were expensive, hindering its competitiveness in a market dominated by the Commodore 64 for consumers, as well as the IBM Personal Computer and its accompanying clone market for businesses.

Industry Standard Architecture

ISAISA busAT bus
The IBM AT compatible bus was later named the Industry Standard Architecture (ISA) bus by manufacturers of compatible computers.
The bus was (largely) backward compatible with the 8-bit bus of the 8088-based IBM PC, including the IBM PC/XT as well as IBM PC compatibles.

Conventional memory

640 KB barrierconventionallow memory
The 640 KB barrier on "conventional" system memory available to MS-DOS is a legacy of that period; other non-clone machines, while subject to a limit, could exceed 640 kB.
The 640 KB barrier is an architectural limitation of IBM PC compatible PCs.

Compaq Portable

PortableCompaq
Compaq announced its first IBM PC compatible in November 1982, the Compaq Portable.
The Compaq Portable is an early portable computer which was one of the first 100% IBM PC compatible systems.

Microsoft

Microsoft CorporationMicrosoft Corp.MS
The least expensive and most popular was PC DOS made by Microsoft.
, Microsoft is market-dominant in the IBM PC compatible operating system market and the office software suite market, although it has lost the majority of the overall operating system market to Android.

Portable computer

portableluggableportable computers
The Compaq was the first sewing machine-sized portable computer that was essentially 100% PC-compatible.
The next major portables were Osborne's 24 pound CP/M-based Osborne 1 (1981) and Compaq's 28 pound 100% IBM PC compatible Compaq Portable (1983).

Tulip Computers

TulipTulip Computers NVCompudata
At the same time, many manufacturers such as Tandy/RadioShack, Xerox, Hewlett-Packard, Digital Equipment Corporation, Sanyo, Texas Instruments, Tulip, Wang and Olivetti introduced personal computers that supported MS-DOS, but were not completely software- or hardware-compatible with the IBM PC.
Tulip Computers NV was a Dutch computer manufacturer that manufactured PC clones.

RadioShack

Radio ShackTandy/Radio ShackTandy
At the same time, many manufacturers such as Tandy/RadioShack, Xerox, Hewlett-Packard, Digital Equipment Corporation, Sanyo, Texas Instruments, Tulip, Wang and Olivetti introduced personal computers that supported MS-DOS, but were not completely software- or hardware-compatible with the IBM PC.
In the mid-1980s, Radio Shack began a transition from its proprietary 8-bit computers to its proprietary IBM PC compatible Tandy computers, removing the "Radio Shack" name from the product in an attempt to shake off the long-running nicknames "Radio Scrap" and "Trash 80" to make the product appeal to business users.

Reverse engineering

reverse engineeredreverse engineerreverse-engineered
This was facilitated by IBM's choice of commodity hardware components and by various manufacturers' ability to reverse engineer the BIOS firmware using a "clean room design" technique. The company could not copy the BIOS directly as a result of the court decision in Apple v. Franklin, but it could reverse-engineer the IBM BIOS and then write its own BIOS using clean room design.
One famous case of reverse engineering was the first non-IBM implementation of the PC BIOS which launched the historic IBM PC compatible industry that has been the overwhelmingly dominant computer hardware platform for many years.

Sanyo

Sanyo ElectricSanyo Electric Co., Ltd.Sanyo Bussan
At the same time, many manufacturers such as Tandy/RadioShack, Xerox, Hewlett-Packard, Digital Equipment Corporation, Sanyo, Texas Instruments, Tulip, Wang and Olivetti introduced personal computers that supported MS-DOS, but were not completely software- or hardware-compatible with the IBM PC.
In 1983 it introduced the MBC-550 PC, the lowest-cost IBM PC compatible personal computer available at the time, but its lack of full compatibility drove Sanyo from the market and no follow-on models were released.

Tandy Corporation

TandyTandy ComputersTandy Corp.
At the same time, many manufacturers such as Tandy/RadioShack, Xerox, Hewlett-Packard, Digital Equipment Corporation, Sanyo, Texas Instruments, Tulip, Wang and Olivetti introduced personal computers that supported MS-DOS, but were not completely software- or hardware-compatible with the IBM PC.
Tandy adopted the IBM PC compatible architecture with the Tandy 1000 and Tandy 2000 (1983–1984).

IBM Personal Computer

IBM PCPCIBM-PC
IBM PC compatible computers are computers similar to the original IBM PC, XT, and AT that are able to use the same software and expansion cards.
The IBM Personal Computer, commonly known as the IBM PC, is the original version of the IBM PC compatible hardware platform.

Turbo Pascal

Borland PascalPascalBorland Pascal 7
Despite finding what it described as "a serious bug" in version 3.0, and decreased compatibility with PC clones, the magazine in February 1986 stated that "it is hard to avoid recommending Turbo to anyone who wants to program in Pascal", citing improved speed and graphic routines.

Influence of the IBM PC on the personal computer market

before the PC-compatible market startedclosely emulated IBM hardwareclosely emulated IBM's hardware
Descendants of the IBM PC compatibles comprise the majority of personal computers on the market presently, with the dominant operating system being Microsoft Windows, although interoperability with the bus structure and peripherals of the original PC architecture may be limited or non-existent.
IBM's influence on the industry decreased, as competition increased and rivals introduced computers that improved on IBM's designs while maintaining compatibility.

Personal computer

PCPCspersonal computers
Columbia Data Products built the first clone of the IBM personal computer by a clean room implementation of its BIOS. The industry jargon "PC" sometimes doesn't mean "personal computer" generally, but rather a Windows computer, in contrast to a Mac.
Pocket PCs have many of the capabilities of desktop PCs.

Corona Data Systems

CordataCordata (company)
Corona Data Systems specified that "Our systems run all software that conforms to IBM PC programming standards. And the most popular software does."
It was one of the earliest IBM PC compatible computer system companies.

Commodore 64

C6464Commodore
After 1987, IBM PC compatibles dominated both the home and business markets of commodity computers, with other notable alternative architectures being used in niche markets, like the Macintosh computers offered by Apple Inc. and used mainly for desktop publishing at the time, the aging 8-bit Commodore 64 which was selling for $150 by this time and became the world's best-selling computer, the 32-bit Commodore Amiga line used for television and video production and the 32-bit Atari ST used by the music industry.
For a substantial period (1983–1986), the C64 had between 30% and 40% share of the US market and two million units sold per year, outselling IBM PC compatibles, Apple computers, and the Atari 8-bit family of computers.

Lotus 1-2-3

Lotus 1231-2-3Lotus 1-2-3 Release 2.2
The reliance on the specific hardware of the IBM PC led to 1-2-3 being utilized as one of the two stress test applications, along with Microsoft Flight Simulator, for true 100% compatibility when PC clones appeared in the early 1980s.

Microsoft Flight Simulator

Prepar3DFlight SimulatorEnterprise Simulation Platform
During development, Compaq engineers found that Microsoft Flight Simulator would not run because of what subLOGIC's Bruce Artwick described as "a bug in one of Intel's chips", forcing them to make their new computer bug compatible with the IBM PC.
In the early days of less-than-100% IBM PC compatible systems, Flight Simulator and Lotus 1-2-3 were used as unofficial compatibility test software for new PC clone models.

Texas Instruments

TITexas Instruments (TI)Texas Instruments Inc.
At the same time, many manufacturers such as Tandy/RadioShack, Xerox, Hewlett-Packard, Digital Equipment Corporation, Sanyo, Texas Instruments, Tulip, Wang and Olivetti introduced personal computers that supported MS-DOS, but were not completely software- or hardware-compatible with the IBM PC.
The TI Professional (1983) ultimately joined the ranks of the many unsuccessful DOS and x86-based—but non-compatible —competitors to the IBM PC (the founders of Compaq, an early leader in PC compatibles, all came from TI).

Apple Computer, Inc. v. Franklin Computer Corp.

Apple v. FranklinApple vs. Franklinlegal battle with Apple
The company could not copy the BIOS directly as a result of the court decision in Apple v. Franklin, but it could reverse-engineer the IBM BIOS and then write its own BIOS using clean room design.
IBM believed that some IBM PC clone makers such as Eagle Computer and Corona Data Systems similarly infringed on its copyright, and after Apple v. Franklin successfully forced them to stop using the BIOS.

Zenith Data Systems

ZenithHeathHeath/Zenith
Zenith Data Systems was bolder, bragging that its Z-150 ran all applications people brought to test with at the 1984 West Coast Computer Faire.
It continued selling computers in kit form—the equivalent of the ZDS Z-150 IBM PC compatible was the Heathkit H-150, for example —and opened more Heathkit Electronic Centers while also selling through Zenith dealers and seeking corporate customers.

Amiga

Commodore AmigaAmiga ComputerAmiga 500/600 (OCS/ECS)
After 1987, IBM PC compatibles dominated both the home and business markets of commodity computers, with other notable alternative architectures being used in niche markets, like the Macintosh computers offered by Apple Inc. and used mainly for desktop publishing at the time, the aging 8-bit Commodore 64 which was selling for $150 by this time and became the world's best-selling computer, the 32-bit Commodore Amiga line used for television and video production and the 32-bit Atari ST used by the music industry.
Poor marketing and the failure of the later models to repeat the technological advances of the first systems meant that the Amiga quickly lost its market share to competing platforms, such as the fourth generation game consoles, Macintosh, and the rapidly dropping prices of IBM PC compatibles, which gained 256-color VGA graphics in 1987.