The Compaq Portable was one of the first nearly 100% IBM-compatible PCs.
One 8-bit and five 16-bit ISA slots on a motherboard
The original IBM PC (Model 5150) motivated the production of clones during the early 1980s.
8-bit XT, 16-bit ISA, EISA (top to bottom)
The DEC Rainbow 100 runs MS-DOS but is not compatible with the IBM PC.
8-bit XT: Adlib FM Sound card
MS-DOS version 1.12 for Compaq Personal Computers
16-bit ISA: Madge 4/16 Mbps Token Ring NIC
The PowerPak 286, an IBM PC compatible computer running AutoCAD under MS-DOS.
16-bit ISA: Ethernet 10Base-5/2 NIC
8-bit XT: US Robotics 56k Modem

The bus was (largely) backward compatible with the 8-bit bus of the 8088-based IBM PC, including the IBM PC/XT as well as IBM PC compatibles.

- Industry Standard Architecture

It was later re-named the Industry Standard Architecture (ISA) bus, after the Extended Industry Standard Architecture bus open standard for IBM PC compatibles was announced in September 1988 by a consortium of PC clone vendors, led by Compaq and called the Gang of Nine, as an alternative to IBM's proprietary Micro Channel architecture (MCA) introduced in its PS/2 series.

- IBM PC compatible
The Compaq Portable was one of the first nearly 100% IBM-compatible PCs.

7 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Three EISA slots

Extended Industry Standard Architecture

3 links

Three EISA slots
SCSI controller (Adaptec AHA-1740)
Fast SCSI RAID controller (DPT PM2022)
ELSA Winner 1000 Video card for ISA and EISA
200px

The Extended Industry Standard Architecture (in practice almost always shortened to EISA and frequently pronounced "eee-suh") is a bus standard for IBM PC compatible computers.

In comparison with the AT bus, which the Gang of Nine retroactively renamed to the ISA bus to avoid infringing IBM's trademark on its PC/AT computer, EISA is extended to 32 bits and allows more than one CPU to share the bus.

Compaq

3 links

American information technology company founded in 1982 that developed, sold, and supported computers and related products and services.

American information technology company founded in 1982 that developed, sold, and supported computers and related products and services.

First Compaq logo, used until 1993
Compaq Portable
Compaq Portable 386 BIOS
Aerial map of the Compaq headquarters, now the HP USA campus in unincorporated Harris County, Texas
Former Compaq headquarters, now the Hewlett-Packard United States campus
Post merger logo for Compaq products.
An example of a HP Compaq.

Compaq produced some of the first IBM PC compatible computers, being the second company after Columbia Data Products to legally reverse engineer the IBM Personal Computer.

Although Compaq had become successful by being 100 percent IBM-compatible, it decided to continue with the original AT bus—which it renamed ISA—instead of licensing IBM's MCA.

IBM XGA-2 32-bit Graphics Card

Micro Channel architecture

3 links

Proprietary 16- or 32-bit parallel computer bus introduced by IBM in 1987 which was used on PS/2 and other computers until the mid-1990s.

Proprietary 16- or 32-bit parallel computer bus introduced by IBM in 1987 which was used on PS/2 and other computers until the mid-1990s.

IBM XGA-2 32-bit Graphics Card
IBM XGA-2 32-bit Graphics Card
CHIPS P82C612 in a PLCC package
IBM 83X9648 16-bit Network Interface Card
Roland MPU-IMC; second revision with IRQ jumpers
ChipChat 16 with software-controlled IRQ selection

In IBM products, it superseded the ISA bus and was itself subsequently superseded by the PCI bus architecture.

The PC clone market did not want to pay royalties to IBM in order to use this new technology, and stayed largely with the 16-bit AT bus, (embraced and renamed as ISA to avoid IBM's "AT" trademark) and manual configuration, although the VESA Local Bus (VLB) was briefly popular for Intel '486 machines.

Three 5-volt 32-bit PCI expansion slots on a motherboard (PC bracket on left side)

Peripheral Component Interconnect

2 links

Local computer bus for attaching hardware devices in a computer and is part of the PCI Local Bus standard.

Local computer bus for attaching hardware devices in a computer and is part of the PCI Local Bus standard.

Three 5-volt 32-bit PCI expansion slots on a motherboard (PC bracket on left side)
A typical 32-bit, 5 V-only PCI card, in this case, a SCSI adapter from Adaptec
A motherboard with two 32-bit PCI slots and two sizes of PCI Express slots
Diagram showing the different key positions for 32-bit and 64-bit PCI cards
A PCI-X Gigabit Ethernet expansion card with both 5 V and 3.3 V support notches, side B toward the camera
A semi-inserted PCI-X card in a 32-bit PCI slot, illustrating the need for the rightmost notch and the extra room on the motherboard to remain backward compatible
64-bit SCSI card working in a 32-bit PCI slot
A Mini PCI slot
Mini PCI Wi-Fi card Type IIIB
PCI-to-MiniPCI converter Type III
MiniPCI and MiniPCI Express cards in comparison
A PCI POST card that displays power-on self-test (POST) numbers during BIOS startup
A full-height bracket
A low profile one

The PCI Local Bus was first implemented in IBM PC compatibles, where it displaced the combination of several slow Industry Standard Architecture (ISA) slots and one fast VESA Local Bus (VLB) slot as the bus configuration.

IBM Personal Computer with keyboard and monitor

IBM Personal Computer

1 links

IBM Personal Computer with keyboard and monitor
IBM Personal Computer with keyboard and monitor
Internal view of a PC compatible computer, showing components and layout.
Original IBM Personal Computer motherboard
IBM PC with MDA monitor
IBM Model F keyboard
IBM Personal Computer with IBM CGA monitor (model 5153), IBM PC keyboard, IBM 5152 printer and paper stand. (1988)
The back of a PC, showing the five expansion slots
PC DOS 3.30 running on an IBM PC
Digital Research CP/M-86 Version 1.0 for the IBM PC

The IBM Personal Computer (model 5150, commonly known as the IBM PC) is the first microcomputer released in the IBM PC model line and the basis for the IBM PC compatible de facto standard.

IBM referred to these as "I/O slots," but after the expansion of the PC clone industry they became retroactively known as the ISA bus.

IBM Personal Computer/AT

1 links

Released in 1984 as the fourth model in the IBM Personal Computer line, following the IBM PC/XT and its IBM Portable PC variant.

Released in 1984 as the fourth model in the IBM Personal Computer line, following the IBM PC/XT and its IBM Portable PC variant.

The AT is IBM PC compatible, with the most significant difference being a move to the 80286 processor from the 8088 processor of prior models.

The AT bus became the de facto "ISA" (Industry Standard Architecture), while PC XT slots were retroactively named "8-bit ISA".

A pair of AMD BIOS chips for a Dell 310 computer from the 1980s

BIOS

1 links

Firmware used to provide runtime services for operating systems and programs and to perform hardware initialization during the booting process (power-on startup).

Firmware used to provide runtime services for operating systems and programs and to perform hardware initialization during the booting process (power-on startup).

A pair of AMD BIOS chips for a Dell 310 computer from the 1980s
Boot process
BIOS chips in a Dell 310 that were updated by replacing the chips
Award BIOS setup utility on a standard PC
BIOS replacement kit for a Dell 310 from the late 1980s. Included are two chips, a plastic holder for the chips, and a chip puller.
American Megatrends BIOS 686. This BIOS chip is housed in a PLCC package in a socket.
Compaq Portable 386 BIOS
An American Megatrends BIOS showing an "Intel CPU uCode Loading Error" after a failed attempt to upload microcode patches into the CPU
A detached BIOS chip

The BIOS firmware comes pre-installed on an IBM PC or IBM PC compatible's system board and exists in UEFI-based systems too.

Once the system is booted, hardware monitoring and computer fan control is normally done directly by the Hardware Monitor chip itself, which can be a separate chip, interfaced through I2C or SMBus, or come as a part of a Super I/O solution, interfaced through Industry Standard Architecture (ISA) or Low Pin Count (LPC).