IG Farben

I.G. FarbenI. G. FarbenI.G. FarbenindustrieI.G. Farbenindustrie AGIG-FarbenDeutsche LänderbankGerman Dye TrustI.G.FarbenFarbenI G Farben Industrie
Interessengemeinschaft Farbenindustrie AG, commonly known as IG Farben, was a German chemical and pharmaceutical conglomerate.wikipedia
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Carl Bosch

BoschBosch, Karl
Otto Bayer discovered the polyaddition for the synthesis of polyurethane in 1937, and three company scientists became Nobel laureates: Carl Bosch and Friedrich Bergius in 1931 "for their contributions to the invention and development of chemical high pressure methods", and Gerhard Domagk in 1939 "for the discovery of the antibacterial effects of prontosil".
He was a pioneer in the field of high-pressure industrial chemistry and founder of IG Farben, at one point the world's largest chemical company.

Polyurethane

urethanepolyurethanesurethanes
Otto Bayer discovered the polyaddition for the synthesis of polyurethane in 1937, and three company scientists became Nobel laureates: Carl Bosch and Friedrich Bergius in 1931 "for their contributions to the invention and development of chemical high pressure methods", and Gerhard Domagk in 1939 "for the discovery of the antibacterial effects of prontosil".
Otto Bayer and his coworkers at IG Farben in Leverkusen, Germany, first made polyurethanes in 1937.

IG Farben Trial

trialhighly influentialI.G. Farben trial
Held from 1947 to 1948 as one of the subsequent Nuremberg trials, the IG Farben trial saw 23 IG Farben directors tried for war crimes and 13 convicted.
IG Farben was the private German chemicals company allied with the Nazis that manufactured the Zyklon B gas used to commit genocide against millions of European Jews in the Holocaust.

Friedrich Bergius

Bergius, Friedrich Karl Rudolf
Otto Bayer discovered the polyaddition for the synthesis of polyurethane in 1937, and three company scientists became Nobel laureates: Carl Bosch and Friedrich Bergius in 1931 "for their contributions to the invention and development of chemical high pressure methods", and Gerhard Domagk in 1939 "for the discovery of the antibacterial effects of prontosil".
Having worked with IG Farben during World War II, his citizenship came into question following the war, causing him to ultimately flee to Argentina, where he acted as adviser to the Ministry of Industry.

Hoechst AG

HoechstHoechst Marion RousselFarbwerke Hoechst
Formed in 1925 from a merger of six chemical companies—BASF, Bayer, Hoechst, Agfa, Chemische Fabrik Griesheim-Elektron, and Chemische Fabrik vorm. Weiler Ter Meer —it was seized by the Allies after World War II and divided back into its constituent companies.
In 1916, the Hoechst AG was one of the co-founders of IG Farben, an advocacy group of Germany's chemicals industry to gain industrial power during and after World War I. In 1925, IG Farben turned from an advocacy group into the well-known conglomerate.

Otto Bayer

Otto Bayer discovered the polyaddition for the synthesis of polyurethane in 1937, and three company scientists became Nobel laureates: Carl Bosch and Friedrich Bergius in 1931 "for their contributions to the invention and development of chemical high pressure methods", and Gerhard Domagk in 1939 "for the discovery of the antibacterial effects of prontosil".
Otto Bayer (November 4, 1902 in Frankfurt – August 1, 1982 in Burscheid) was a German industrial chemist at IG Farben who was head of the research group that in 1937 discovered the polyaddition for the synthesis of polyurethanes out of poly-isocyanate and polyol.

BASF

BASF SEBadische Anilin- und Soda-FabrikBASF Corporation
Formed in 1925 from a merger of six chemical companies—BASF, Bayer, Hoechst, Agfa, Chemische Fabrik Griesheim-Elektron, and Chemische Fabrik vorm. Weiler Ter Meer —it was seized by the Allies after World War II and divided back into its constituent companies.
Under the leadership of Carl Bosch - a critic of Nazi policies - BASF founded IG Farben with Hoechst, Bayer, and three other companies, thus losing its independence.

Prontosil

Sulfonamidochrysoidinecarboxysulfamidochrysoidineprontosil red
Otto Bayer discovered the polyaddition for the synthesis of polyurethane in 1937, and three company scientists became Nobel laureates: Carl Bosch and Friedrich Bergius in 1931 "for their contributions to the invention and development of chemical high pressure methods", and Gerhard Domagk in 1939 "for the discovery of the antibacterial effects of prontosil".
Prontosil was discovered in 1932 by a research team at the Bayer Laboratories of the IG Farben conglomerate in Germany.

John J. McCloy

John McCloyJohn Jay McCloyMcCloy
By 1951 all had been released by the American high commissioner for Germany, John J. McCloy.
He did a great deal of work for corporations in Nazi Germany and advised the major German chemical combine I. G. Farben, later notorious for manufacturing Zyklon B.

The Council of the Gods

Der Rat der Götter
The designation was used as the title of an East German film, The Council of the Gods (1950).
In the early 1930s, Dr. Scholz is a chemist working for IG Farben.

Imperial Chemical Industries

ICII.C.I.ICI Pharmaceuticals
In the United Kingdom Brunner Mond, Nobel Industries, United Alkali Company and British Dyestuffs merged to form Imperial Chemical Industries in September 1926.
Competing with DuPont and IG Farben, the new company produced chemicals, explosives, fertilisers, insecticides, dyestuffs, non-ferrous metals, and paints.

IG Farben Building

Abrams BuildingAbrams Building (IG Farben Building)I.G. Farben Building
In 2004 the University of Frankfurt, housed in the former IG Farben head office, set up a permanent exhibition on campus, the Norbert Wollheim memorial, for the slave labourers and those killed by Zyklon B.
It was built from 1928 to 1930 as the corporate headquarters of the IG Farben conglomerate, then the world's largest chemical company and the world's fourth-largest company overall.

Gerhard Domagk

Domagk, GerhardGerhard Johannes Paul Domagk
Otto Bayer discovered the polyaddition for the synthesis of polyurethane in 1937, and three company scientists became Nobel laureates: Carl Bosch and Friedrich Bergius in 1931 "for their contributions to the invention and development of chemical high pressure methods", and Gerhard Domagk in 1939 "for the discovery of the antibacterial effects of prontosil".
Domagk was appointed director of Bayer's Institute of Pathology and Bacteriology, where he continued the studies of Josef Klarer and Fritz Mietzsch, based on works by Paul Ehrlich, to use dyes, at that time a major product of IG Farben, as antibiotics.

Subsequent Nuremberg trials

Nuremberg Military TribunalsNuremberg Military TribunalNuremberg Trials
Held from 1947 to 1948 as one of the subsequent Nuremberg trials, the IG Farben trial saw 23 IG Farben directors tried for war crimes and 13 convicted.

Zyklon B

Zyklon-Bchemical gas poisoningCyclon
One of its subsidiaries supplied the poison gas, Zyklon B, that killed over one million people in gas chambers during the Holocaust.
In 1930, Degussa ceded 42.5 percent ownership of Degesch to IG Farben and 15 percent to Th. Goldschmidt AG, in exchange for the right to market pesticide products of those two companies through Degesch.

Goethe University Frankfurt

University of FrankfurtFrankfurt UniversityGoethe University
In 2004 the University of Frankfurt, housed in the former IG Farben head office, set up a permanent exhibition on campus, the Norbert Wollheim memorial, for the slave labourers and those killed by Zyklon B.
The style for the IG Farben Building was originally chosen as "a symbol for the scientific and mercantile German manpower, made out of iron and stone", as the IG Farben director at the time of construction, Baron von Schnitzler, stated in his opening speech in October 1930.

Coal liquefaction

Coal to liquidsCoal to liquidcoal-to-liquid
One product crucial to the operations of the Wehrmacht was synthetic fuel, made from lignite using the coal liquefaction process.
In the mid 1930s, companies like IG Farben and Ruhrchemie initiated industrial production of synthetic fuels derived from coal.

Carl Duisberg

Carl Duisberg SocietyCarl Duisberg scholarshipDuisberg
In contrast, the chairman of Bayer, Carl Duisberg, argued for a merger.
Inspired by Standard Oil on a US tour, Bayer became part of IG Farben, a conglomerate of German chemical industries.

Norbert Wollheim

In 2004 the University of Frankfurt, housed in the former IG Farben head office, set up a permanent exhibition on campus, the Norbert Wollheim memorial, for the slave labourers and those killed by Zyklon B.
Wollheim was brought to Auschwitz camp III, Monowitz, where he had to work as slave labourer for I.G. Farbenindustrie AG, helping build the new Buna-factory IV until the evacuation of Auschwitz on January 18, 1945.

Wollheim Memorial

memorial
In 2004 the University of Frankfurt, housed in the former IG Farben head office, set up a permanent exhibition on campus, the Norbert Wollheim memorial, for the slave labourers and those killed by Zyklon B.
These photographs show young people who would later become imprisoned in the concentration camp Buna/Monowitz, they illustrate Jewish everyday life before Holocaust and testify devastated lifeworlds on the former grounds of IG Farben, which is today home to the humanistic and cultural studies faculty of the Goethe University Frankfurt (Campus Westend).

Monowitz concentration camp

MonowitzBuna WerkeAuschwitz III
In February 1941 Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler signed an order supporting the construction of an IG Farben Buna-N (synthetic rubber) plant—known as Monowitz Buna Werke (or Buna)—near the Monowitz concentration camp, part of the Auschwitz concentration camp complex in German-occupied Poland.
The SS established the camp in October 1942 at the behest of IG Farben executives to provide slave labor for their Buna Werke (Buna Works) industrial complex.

Wilhelm Rudolf Mann

This message was repeated by Wilhelm Rudolf Mann, who chaired a meeting of the Bayer division board of directors on 16 February 1938, and who in an earlier meeting had referred to the "miracle of the birth of the German nation": "The chairman points out our incontestable being in line with the National Socialist attitude in the association of the entire 'Bayer' pharmaceutica and insecticides; beyond that, he requests the heads of the offices abroad to regard it as their self-evident duty to collaborate in a fine and understanding manner with the functionaries of the Party, with the DAF (German Workers' Front), et cetera. Orders to that effect again are to be given to the leading German gentlemen so that there may be no misunderstanding in their execution."
Wilhelm Rudolf Mann (born 4 April 1894 in Wiesbaden – died 10 March 1992 in Grainau) was a German factory manager for IG Farben and later with Bayer.

Aryanization

aryanizedAryanisationAryanised
Throughout the 1930s the company underwent a process of Aryanization, and by 1938 Jewish employees had been dismissed and the Jews on the board had resigned.
Among the largest "Aryanization profiteers" were IG Farben, the Flick family, and large banks.

Cassella

Cassella Farbwerke Mainkur AktiengesellschaftCaßel & Reiß
Five smaller firms, Agfa, Cassella, Chemische Fabrik Kalle, Chemische Fabrik Griesheim-Elektron and Chemische Fabrik vorm.
In 1925 Cassella merged into the new IG Farben trust, with Cassella co-owners Leo Gans and Arthur von Weinberg joining its supervisory board.

Elektron (alloy)

Elektronelectron metalcast-elektron
Five smaller firms, Agfa, Cassella, Chemische Fabrik Kalle, Chemische Fabrik Griesheim-Elektron and Chemische Fabrik vorm.
CFG joined the newly created IG Farben as an associate company in 1916.