ISM band

ISM2.4 GHz13.56 MHz2.45 GHz2.4GHz5 GHzISM bands2.42.45 GHz ISM radio band900 MHz
The Industrial, Scientific and Medical (ISM) radio bands are radio bands (portions of the radio spectrum) reserved internationally for the use of radio frequency (RF) energy for industrial, scientific and medical purposes other than telecommunications.wikipedia
229 Related Articles

Bluetooth

Bluetooth 4.0Bluetooth 5.0Bluetooth 2.0
Cordless phones, Bluetooth devices, near field communication (NFC) devices, garage door openers, baby monitors and wireless computer networks (WiFi) may all use the ISM frequencies, although these low power transmitters are not considered to be ISM devices.
Bluetooth is a wireless technology standard used for exchanging data between fixed and mobile devices over short distances using short-wavelength UHF radio waves in the industrial, scientific and medical radio bands, from 2.400 to 2.485GHz, and building personal area networks (PANs).

Near-field communication

NFCnear field communicationnear-field communications
Cordless phones, Bluetooth devices, near field communication (NFC) devices, garage door openers, baby monitors and wireless computer networks (WiFi) may all use the ISM frequencies, although these low power transmitters are not considered to be ISM devices.
Like other "proximity card" technologies, NFC is based on inductive coupling between two so-called antennas present on NFC-enabled devices—for example a smartphone and a printer—communicating in one or both directions, using a frequency of 13.56 MHz in the globally available unlicensed radio frequency ISM band using the ISO/IEC 18000-3 air interface standard at data rates ranging from 106 to 424 kbit/s.

Radio

radio communicationradio communicationswireless
The powerful emissions of these devices can create electromagnetic interference and disrupt radio communication using the same frequency, so these devices are limited to certain bands of frequencies.
Many of these devices use the ISM bands, a series of frequency bands throughout the radio spectrum reserved for unlicensed use.

Microwave oven

microwavemicrowave ovensmicrowaving
Examples of applications in these bands include radio-frequency process heating, microwave ovens, and medical diathermy machines.
Microwave ovens use frequencies in one of the ISM (industrial, scientific, medical) bands, which are otherwise used for communication amongst devices that don't need a license to operate, so they do not interfere with other vital radio services.

Diathermy

diathermiadiathermy devicesurface diathermy
Examples of applications in these bands include radio-frequency process heating, microwave ovens, and medical diathermy machines.
Short wave diathermy operations use the ISM band frequencies of 13.56, 27.12, and 40.68 megahertz.

Radiolocation

Radiolocation serviceCellular networkradio
In the United States, unlicensed transmission is allowed in several bands, such as the 902-928 MHz and 2.4-2.483 GHz Industrial, Scientific, and Medical ISM bands, but high-power transmission cannot extend outside of these bands.

Dielectric heating

microwave heatingdiathermyradio frequency heating
Examples of applications in these bands include radio-frequency process heating, microwave ovens, and medical diathermy machines.
Typical domestic microwave ovens operate at 2.45 GHz, but 915 MHz ovens also exist.

Radio spectrum

bandradio bandspectrum
The Industrial, Scientific and Medical (ISM) radio bands are radio bands (portions of the radio spectrum) reserved internationally for the use of radio frequency (RF) energy for industrial, scientific and medical purposes other than telecommunications.
The ISM bands were initially reserved for non-communications uses of RF energy, such as microwave ovens, radio-frequency heating, and similar purposes.

Sulfur lamp

sulfur lampsFusion lightingFuture prospects
Sulfur lamps are commercially available plasma lamps, which use a 2.45 GHz magnetron to heat sulfur into a brightly glowing plasma.
A magnetron, much like the ones in home microwave ovens, bombards the bulb, via a waveguide, with 2.45 GHz microwaves.

Plastic welding

solvent weldingweldingfused
Industrial heating is another big application area; such as induction heating, microwave heat treating, plastic softening, and plastic welding processes.
When the press comes together, high frequency waves (usually 27.120 MHz) are passed through the small area between the die and the table where the weld takes place.

Radio-frequency identification

RFIDradio frequency identificationRFID tag
Other short range devices using the ISM bands are: wireless microphones, baby monitors, garage door openers, wireless doorbells, keyless entry systems for vehicles, radio control channels for UAVs (drones), wireless surveillance systems, RFID systems for merchandise, and wild animal tracking systems.
These frequencies are known as the ISM bands (Industrial Scientific and Medical bands).

LPD433

433.92 MHzLPD deviceLPD radio
In most of Europe, LPD433 band is allowed for license-free voice communication in addition to PMR446.
The frequencies correspond with the ITU region 1 ISM band of 433.050 MHz to 434.790 MHz, and operation is limited to CEPT countries.

ZigBee

ZigBee AllianceIEEE 802.15.4RF4CE
IEEE 802.15.4, ZigBee and other personal area networks may use the 915 MHz and 2450 MHz ISM bands because of frequency sharing between different allocations.
ZigBee operates in the industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) radio bands: 2.4 GHz in most jurisdictions worldwide; though some devices also use 784 MHz in China, 868 MHz in Europe and 915 MHz in the US and Australia, however even those regions and countries still use 2.4 GHz for most commercial ZigBee devices for home use.

Wi-Fi

WiFiwireless internetwireless
Cordless phones, Bluetooth devices, near field communication (NFC) devices, garage door openers, baby monitors and wireless computer networks (WiFi) may all use the ISM frequencies, although these low power transmitters are not considered to be ISM devices.
Wi-Fi most commonly uses the 2.4 GHz UHF and 5 GHz SHF ISM radio bands; these bands are subdivided into multiple channels.

Helicon double-layer thruster

Helicon Double Layer Thrusterdouble layer thrusterHelicon Double Layer
Also in space applications, a Helicon Double Layer ion thruster is a prototype spacecraft propulsion engine which uses a 13.56 MHz transmission to break down and heat gas into plasma.
Radio frequency AC power (at 13.56 MHz in the prototype design) is coupled into a specially shaped antenna wrapped around the chamber.

IEEE 802.11

802.11802.11b/g/n802.11b/g
802.11b and 802.11g use the 2.4 GHz ISM band, operating in the United States under Part 15 of the U.S. Federal Communications Commission Rules and Regulations; 802.11n can also use that band.

Doorbell

door belldoor chimedoorbells
Other short range devices using the ISM bands are: wireless microphones, baby monitors, garage door openers, wireless doorbells, keyless entry systems for vehicles, radio control channels for UAVs (drones), wireless surveillance systems, RFID systems for merchandise, and wild animal tracking systems.
Frequencies in the 2.4 GHz ISM band are usually used.

2.4 GHz radio use

Electromagnetic interference at 2.4 GHz2.4 GHzinterference in the 2.4 GHz band
Newer Bluetooth versions also feature Adaptive Frequency Hopping which attempts to detect existing signals in the ISM band, such as Wi-Fi channels, and avoid them by negotiating a channel map between the communicating Bluetooth devices.

Space-based solar power

solar power satellitesolar power satellitesSpace Solar Power
NASA has studied using microwave power transmission on 2.45 GHz to send energy collected by solar power satellites back to the ground.
For example, the 1978 NASA SPS study required a 1-km diameter transmitting antenna, and a 10 km diameter receiving rectenna, for a microwave beam at 2.45 GHz.

Ion thruster

ion engineion propulsionion drive
Also in space applications, a Helicon Double Layer ion thruster is a prototype spacecraft propulsion engine which uses a 13.56 MHz transmission to break down and heat gas into plasma.
Radio frequency AC power (at 13.56 MHz in the prototype design) is coupled into a specially shaped antenna wrapped around the chamber.

Wireless power transfer

Wireless energy transferwireless power transmissionwireless power
NASA has studied using microwave power transmission on 2.45 GHz to send energy collected by solar power satellites back to the ground. Long-distance wireless power systems have been proposed and experimented with which would use high-power transmitters and rectennas, in lieu of overhead transmission lines and underground cables, to send power to remote locations.
For example, the 1978 NASA study of solar power satellites required a 1 km transmitting antenna and a 10 km receiving rectenna for a microwave beam at 2.45 GHz.

Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications

DECTDECT 6.0DECT Standard Cipher
DECT phones use allocated spectrum outside the ISM bands that differs in Europe and North America.
Like DECT, DECT ULE standard uses the 1.9 GHz band, and so suffers less interference than Zigbee, Bluetooth, or Wi-Fi from microwave ovens, which all operate in the unlicensed 2.4 GHz ISM band.

Plasma (physics)

plasmaplasma physicsplasmas
Sulfur lamps are commercially available plasma lamps, which use a 2.45 GHz magnetron to heat sulfur into a brightly glowing plasma.

Cordless telephone

cordless phonecordless phonescordless telephones
Cordless phones, Bluetooth devices, near field communication (NFC) devices, garage door openers, baby monitors and wireless computer networks (WiFi) may all use the ISM frequencies, although these low power transmitters are not considered to be ISM devices.
The newer 1.9 GHz band is reserved for use by phones that use the DECT standard, which should avoid interference issues that are increasingly being seen in the unlicensed 900 MHz, 2.4 GHz, and 5.8 GHz bands.

Short-range device

Short Range DevicesShort Range Devicelow-power communication device
In Europe, the ETSI is responsible for regulating the use of Short Range Devices, some of which operate in ISM bands.