ISM band

ISM2.4 GHz13.56 MHz2.45 GHz2.4GHz5 GHz2.42.45 GHz ISM radio bandISM radio band13.56
The industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) radio bands are radio bands (portions of the radio spectrum) reserved internationally for the use of radio frequency (RF) energy for industrial, scientific and medical purposes other than telecommunications.wikipedia
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Bluetooth

Bluetooth 2.1 + EDR4.0Bluetooth 2.1+EDR
Cordless phones, Bluetooth devices, near field communication (NFC) devices, garage door openers, baby monitors and wireless computer networks (WiFi) all may use the ISM frequencies, although these low power emitters are not considered ISM. Bluetooth 2450 MHz band falls under WPAN
Bluetooth is a wireless technology standard for exchanging data over short distances using short-wavelength UHF radio waves in the ISM band from 2.400 to 2.485GHz from fixed and mobile devices, and building personal area networks (PANs).

Near-field communication

NFCnear field communicationnear-field communications
Cordless phones, Bluetooth devices, near field communication (NFC) devices, garage door openers, baby monitors and wireless computer networks (WiFi) all may use the ISM frequencies, although these low power emitters are not considered ISM.
Like other "proximity card" technologies, NFC employs electromagnetic induction between two loop antennas when NFC-enabled devices—for example a smartphone and a printer—exchange information, operating within the globally available unlicensed radio frequency ISM band of 13.56 MHz on ISO/IEC 18000-3 air interface at rates ranging from 106 to 424 kbit/s.

Microwave oven

microwavemicrowave ovensmicrowaving
Examples of applications in these bands include radio-frequency process heating, microwave ovens, and medical diathermy machines.
Microwave ovens use frequencies in one of the ISM (industrial, scientific, medical) bands, which are reserved for this use, so they do not interfere with other vital radio services.

Diathermy

diathermiadiathermy deviceRF diathermy
Examples of applications in these bands include radio-frequency process heating, microwave ovens, and medical diathermy machines.
Short wave diathermy operations use the ISM band frequencies of 13.56, 27.12, and 40.68 megahertz.

IEEE 802.11

802.11802.11b/g/n802.11b/g
The IEEE 802.11 wireless networking protocols, the standards on which almost all wireless systems are based, use the ISM bands.
802.11b and 802.11g use the 2.4 GHz ISM band, operating in the United States under Part 15 of the U.S. Federal Communications Commission Rules and Regulations; 802.11n can also use that band.

Dielectric heating

microwave heatingdiathermyradio frequency heating
Examples of applications in these bands include radio-frequency process heating, microwave ovens, and medical diathermy machines.
Typical domestic microwave ovens operate at 2.45 GHz, but 915 MHz ovens also exist.

Radio spectrum

bandradio bandspectrum
The industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) radio bands are radio bands (portions of the radio spectrum) reserved internationally for the use of radio frequency (RF) energy for industrial, scientific and medical purposes other than telecommunications.
The ISM bands were initially reserved for non-communications uses of RF energy, such as microwave ovens, radio-frequency heating, and similar purposes.

Sulfur lamp

sulfur lampsFuture prospectssulphur lamp
Sulfur lamps are commercially available plasma lamps, which use a 2.45 GHz magnetron to heat sulfur into a brightly glowing plasma.
A magnetron, much like the ones in home microwave ovens, bombards the bulb, via a waveguide, with 2.45 GHz microwaves.

ISM applications

In general, communications equipment operating in these bands must tolerate any interference generated by ISM applications, and users have no regulatory protection from ISM device operation.
*ISM band

Plastic welding

solvent weldingweldingfused
Industrial heating is another big application area; such as induction heating, microwave heat treating, plastic softening, and plastic welding processes.
When the press comes together, high frequency waves (usually 27.120 MHz) are passed through the small area between the die and the table where the weld takes place.

Radio-frequency identification

RFIDradio frequency identificationRadio Frequency Identification (RFID)
Other short range devices using the ISM bands are: wireless microphones, baby monitors, garage door openers, wireless doorbells, keyless entry systems for vehicles, radio control channels for UAVs (drones), wireless surveillance systems, RFID systems for merchandise, and wild animal tracking systems.
These frequencies are known as the ISM bands (Industrial Scientific and Medical bands).

LPD433

433.92 MHzLPD deviceLPD radio
In most of Europe, LPD433 band is allowed for license-free voice communication in addition to PMR446.
The frequencies correspond with the ITU region 1 ISM band of 433.050 MHz to 434.790 MHz, and operation is limited to CEPT countries.

Zigbee

IEEE 802.15.4Zigbee lighting protocolZigBee or Zwave
IEEE 802.15.4, ZigBee and other personal area networks may use the 915 MHz and 2450 MHz ISM bands because of frequency sharing between different allocations.
Zigbee operates in the industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) radio bands: 2.4 GHz in most jurisdictions worldwide; though some devices also use 784 MHz in China, 868 MHz in Europe and 915 MHz in the USA and Australia, however even those regions and countries still use 2.4 GHz for most commercial Zigbee devices for home use.

Wi-Fi

WiFiwireless internetwireless
Cordless phones, Bluetooth devices, near field communication (NFC) devices, garage door openers, baby monitors and wireless computer networks (WiFi) all may use the ISM frequencies, although these low power emitters are not considered ISM.
Wi-Fi most commonly uses the 2.4 GHz UHF and 5.8 GHz SHF ISM radio bands; these bands are subdivided into multiple channels.

Helicon double-layer thruster

double layer thrusterHelicon Double Layer
Also in space applications, a Helicon Double Layer ion thruster is a prototype spacecraft propulsion engine which uses a 13.56 MHz transmission to break down and heat gas into plasma.
Radio frequency AC power (at 13.56 MHz in the prototype design) is coupled into a specially shaped antenna wrapped around the chamber.

Short-range device

short range devicelow-powerlow-power communication device
In Europe, the ETSI is responsible for regulating the use of Short Range Devices, some of which operate in ISM bands.

List of 2.4 GHz radio use

2.4 GHzElectromagnetic interference at 2.4 GHzinterference in the 2.4 GHz band
Electromagnetic interference at 2.4 GHz
There are several uses of the 2.4 GHz band. Interference may occur between devices operating at 2.4 GHz.

Ion thruster

ion engineion propulsionion drive
Also in space applications, a Helicon Double Layer ion thruster is a prototype spacecraft propulsion engine which uses a 13.56 MHz transmission to break down and heat gas into plasma.
Radio frequency AC power (at 13.56 MHz in the prototype design) is coupled into a specially shaped antenna wrapped around the chamber.

Space-based solar power

solar power satellitesolar power satellitessolar-power satellites
NASA has studied using microwave power transmission on 2.45 GHz to send energy collected by solar power satellites back to the ground.
For example, the 1978 NASA SPS study required a 1-km diameter transmitting antenna, and a 10 km diameter receiving rectenna, for a microwave beam at 2.45 GHz.

Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications

DECT DECTDECT Forum
DECT phones use allocated spectrum outside the ISM bands that differs in Europe and North America.
Like DECT, DECT ULE standard uses the 1.9 GHz band, and so suffers less interference than Zigbee, Bluetooth, or Wi-Fi from microwave ovens, which all operate in the unlicensed 2.4 GHz ISM band.

Wireless power transfer

wireless power transmissionwireless powerwireless energy transfer
NASA has studied using microwave power transmission on 2.45 GHz to send energy collected by solar power satellites back to the ground. Long-distance wireless power systems have been proposed and experimented with which would use high-power transmitters and rectennas, in lieu of overhead transmission lines and underground cables, to send power to remote locations.
For example, the 1978 NASA study of solar power satellites required a 1 km transmitting antenna and a 10 km receiving rectenna for a microwave beam at 2.45 GHz.

Plasma (physics)

plasmaplasma physicsplasmas
Sulfur lamps are commercially available plasma lamps, which use a 2.45 GHz magnetron to heat sulfur into a brightly glowing plasma.
Capacitively coupled plasma (CCP): similar to glow discharge plasmas, but generated with high frequency RF electric fields, typically 13.56 MHz. These differ from glow discharges in that the sheaths are much less intense. These are widely used in the microfabrication and integrated circuit manufacturing industries for plasma etching and plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition.

Cordless telephone

cordless phonecordless phonescordless
Cordless phones, Bluetooth devices, near field communication (NFC) devices, garage door openers, baby monitors and wireless computer networks (WiFi) all may use the ISM frequencies, although these low power emitters are not considered ISM.
2.4 GHz (2400–2500 MHz, allocated in 1998)

Loon (company)

Google LoonGoogle's Project LoonLoon
Google's Project Loon uses ISM bands (specifically 2.4 and 5.8 GHz bands) for balloon-to-balloon and balloon-to-ground communications.
Initially, the balloons communicated using unlicensed 2.4 and 5.8 GHz ISM bands, and Google claims that the setup allows it to deliver "speeds comparable to 3G" to users, but they then switched to LTE with cellular spectrum by cooperating with local telecommunication operators.

Personal area network

PANWPANwireless personal area network
Bluetooth 2450 MHz band falls under WPAN
IEEE 802.15 has produced standards for several types of PANs operating in the ISM band including Bluetooth.