I Chingwikipedia
The I Ching, also known as Classic of Changes or Book of Changes, is an ancient Chinese divination text and the oldest of the Chinese classics.
YijingBook of ChangesYi JingI ChingClassic of ChangestrigramsThe Book of ChangesBook of ChangeI-chingI Ching (Yi jing)

I Ching's influence

influential text
Possessing a history of more than two and a half millennia of commentary and interpretation, the I Ching is an influential text read throughout the world, providing inspiration to the worlds of religion, psychoanalysis, literature, and art.
The I Ching (Yì Jīng), or Classic of Changes, which dates from over 3,000 years ago, is believed to be one of the world's oldest books.

Taoism

TaoistDaoistTaoists
The interpretation of the readings found in the I Ching is a matter of centuries of debate, and many commentators have used the book symbolically, often to provide guidance for moral decision making as informed by Taoism and Confucianism.
Early Taoism drew its cosmological notions from the School of Yinyang (Naturalists), and was deeply influenced by one of the oldest texts of Chinese culture, the I Ching, which expounds a philosophical system about how to keep human behavior in accordance with the alternating cycles of nature.

King Wen sequence

early formtrigramKing Wen order
Six numbers between 6 and 9 are turned into a hexagram, which can then be looked up in the I Ching book, arranged in an order known as the King Wen sequence.
The King Wen sequence is an arrangement of the sixty-four divination figures in 易經 Yì Jīng, the I Ching or Book of Changes.

Chinese classics

classic textConfucian classicsclassics
The I Ching, also known as Classic of Changes or Book of Changes, is an ancient Chinese divination text and the oldest of the Chinese classics.

Ten Wings

Commentaries
Originally a divination manual in the Western Zhou period (1000–750), over the course of the Warring States period and early imperial period (500–200) it was transformed into a cosmological text with a series of philosophical commentaries known as the "Ten Wings".
Ten Wings (十翼 shí yì) is a collection of commentaries (zhuan 傳) to the classical Chinese Book of Changes traditionally ascribed to Confucius.

Yin and yang

yin and yangyinyin-yang
The hexagrams themselves have often acquired cosmological significance and paralleled with many other traditional names for the processes of change such as yin and yang and Wu Xing.
This duality lies at the origins of many branches of classical Chinese science and philosophy, as well as being a primary guideline of traditional Chinese medicine, and a central principle of different forms of Chinese martial arts and exercise, such as baguazhang, taijiquan (t'ai chi), and qigong (Chi Kung), as well as appearing in the pages of the I Ching.

Hexagram (I Ching)

hexagramhexagramsHexagram symbols
The basic unit of the Zhou yi is the hexagram (卦 guà), a figure composed of six stacked horizontal lines (爻 yáo).
The I Ching book consists of 64 hexagrams.

Edward L. Shaughnessy

Shaughnessy, Edward L.Edward ShaughnessyShaughnessy
Based on a comparison of the language of the Zhou yi with dated bronze inscriptions, the American sinologist Edward Shaughnessy dated its compilation in its current form to the early decades of the reign of King Xuan of Zhou, in the last quarter of the 9th century BC. A copy of the text in the Shanghai Museum corpus of bamboo and wooden slips (recovered in 1994) shows that the Zhou yi was used throughout all levels of Chinese society in its current form by 300 BC, but still contained small variations as late as the Warring States period.
Edward Louis Shaughnessy (born July 29, 1952) is an American Sinologist, scholar, and educator, known for his studies of early Chinese history, particularly the Zhou dynasty, and his studies of the Classic of Changes (I Ching 易經).

Duke of Zhou

Duke of ZhouChou1 Kung1Dan
The Zhou yi was traditionally ascribed to the Zhou cultural heroes King Wen of Zhou and the Duke of Zhou, and was also associated with the legendary world ruler Fu Xi.
He is also a Chinese culture hero credited with writing the I Ching and the Book of Poetry, establishing the Rites of Zhou, and creating the yayue of Chinese classical music.

I Ching divination

divinationcasting hexagramsYijing divination
Another divination method, employing coins, became widely used in the Tang dynasty and is still used today.
Among the many forms of divination is a cleromancy method using the I Ching (易經, yì jīng) or Book of Changes.

Bagua

baguatrigramseight trigrams
According to the canonical Great Commentary, Fu Xi observed the patterns of the world and created the eight trigrams, "in order to become thoroughly conversant with the numinous and bright and to classify the myriad things."
The ancient Chinese classic, I Ching (Pinyin: Yi Jing), consists of the 64 pairwise permutations of trigrams, referred to as "hexagrams", along with commentary on each one.

Confucianism

ConfucianConfucianistConfucian philosophy
The interpretation of the readings found in the I Ching is a matter of centuries of debate, and many commentators have used the book symbolically, often to provide guidance for moral decision making as informed by Taoism and Confucianism.
In the I Ching it is used by the Duke of Wen.

Tao

DaotaoWay
The Japanese word for "metaphysics", keijijōgaku (形而上学; pinyin: xíng ér shàng xué) is derived from a statement found in the Great Commentary that "what is above form [xíng ér shàng] is called Dao; what is under form is called a tool".
The original use of the term was as a form of praxis rather than theory – a term used as a convention to refer to something that otherwise cannot be discussed in words – and early writings such as the Tao Te Ching and the I Ching make pains to distinguish between conceptions of the Tao (sometimes referred to as "named Tao") and the Tao itself (the "unnamed Tao"), which cannot be expressed or understood in language.

King Wen of Zhou

King WenJi ChangWen
The Zhou yi was traditionally ascribed to the Zhou cultural heroes King Wen of Zhou and the Duke of Zhou, and was also associated with the legendary world ruler Fu Xi.
King Wen is also credited with having stacked the eight trigrams in their various permutations to create the sixty-four hexagrams of the I Ching.

List of hexagrams of the I Ching

Hexagram 3201Qián
This is a list of the 64 hexagrams of the I Ching, or Book of Changes, and their Unicode character codes.

Guicang

It is possible that other divination systems existed at this time; the Rites of Zhou name two other such systems, the Lianshan and the Guizang.
Guicang (歸藏, "Return to the Hidden") is a divination text dating to the Zhou dynasty, which was once used in place of the I Ching.

Binary number

binarybinary numberbinary numeral system
The contemporary scholar Shao Yong rearranged the hexagrams in a format that resembles modern binary numbers, although he did not intend his arrangement to be used mathematically.
Leibniz was specifically inspired by the Chinese I Ching.

Gao Heng (scholar)

Gao Heng
In the modern period, Gao Heng attempted his own reconstruction, which varies from Zhu Xi in places.
Gao Heng (, July 29, 1900 - February 2, 1986) was a Chinese scholar who was known for his work on the modern interpretation of the Book of Changes.

Zhu Xi

Zhu XiZhuChu Hsi
From the Great Commentary's description, the Neo-Confucian Zhu Xi reconstructed a method of yarrow stalk divination that is still used throughout the Far East.
Rather than focusing on the I Ching like other Neo-Confucians, he chose to emphasize the Four Books: the Great Learning, the Doctrine of the Mean, the Analects of Confucius, and the Mencius as the core curriculum for aspiring scholar officials.

Old Chinese

old Chineseancient ChineseOC
The Zhou yi was written in Early Old Chinese, while the Ten Wings were written in a predecessor to Middle Chinese.
The oldest parts of the Book of Documents, the Classic of Poetry and the I Ching also date from the early Zhou period, and closely resemble the bronze inscriptions in vocabulary, syntax, and style.

Jing Fang

Jing FangFang, Jing
Most of this early commentary, such as the image and number work of Jing Fang, Yu Fan and Xun Shuang, is no longer extant.
The historian Ban Gu (32–92 AD) wrote that Jing Fang was an expert at making predictions from the hexagrams of the ancient Yijing.

John Cage

John CageCageCage, John
The book had a notable impact on the 1960s counterculture and on 20th century cultural figures such as Philip K. Dick, John Cage, Jorge Luis Borges, and Hermann Hesse.
The I Ching, an ancient Chinese classic text on changing events, became Cage's standard composition tool for the rest of his life.

Xiping Stone Classics

The official edition of the text was literally set in stone, as one of the Xiping Stone Classics.
Around 200,000 characters were inscribed on 46 stelae of the seven classics recognized at the time: the Book of Changes, Book of Documents, Book of Songs, Book of Rites, Spring and Autumn Annals, Classic of Filial Piety and Analects.

Richard Wilhelm (sinologist)

Richard WilhelmWilhelmWilhelm, Richard
The psychologist Carl Jung took interest in the possible universal nature of the imagery of the I Ching, and he introduced an influential German translation by Richard Wilhelm by discussing his theories of archetypes and synchronicity.
His translation of the I Ching is still regarded as one of the finest, as is his translation of The Secret of the Golden Flower; both were provided with introductions by the Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung, who was a personal friend.

Taixuanjing

Tai Xuan Jing SymbolsTai Xuan Jing Symbols (Unicode block)Great Mystery
The New Text scholars distributed alternate versions of the text and freely integrated non-canonical commentaries into their work, as well as propagating alternate systems of divination such as the Taixuanjing.
The Taixuanjing is a divinatory text similar to, and inspired by, the I Ching (Yijing).