I Ching

YijingBook of ChangesYi JingClassic of ChangesThe Book of ChangestrigramsBook of ChangeI-chingClassic of Changes'' (''I Ching'' 易經)I Ching (Yi jing)
The I Ching or Yi Jing (Mandarin pronunciation: ), also known as Classic of Changes or Book of Changes, is an ancient Chinese divination text and the oldest of the Chinese classics.wikipedia
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I Ching's influence

influential text
Possessing a history of more than two and a half millennia of commentary and interpretation, the I Ching is an influential text read throughout the world, providing inspiration to the worlds of religion, psychoanalysis, literature, and art.
The I Ching (Yì Jīng), or Classic of Changes, which dates from over 3,000 years ago, is believed to be one of the world's oldest books.

Chinese classics

classic textConfucian classicsclassics
The I Ching or Yi Jing (Mandarin pronunciation: ), also known as Classic of Changes or Book of Changes, is an ancient Chinese divination text and the oldest of the Chinese classics.
The Jiaoshi Yilin, a work modelled after the I Ching, composed during the Western Han Dynasty and attributed to Jiao Yanshou.

King Wen sequence

early formKing Wen ordertrigram
Six numbers between 6 and 9 are turned into a hexagram, which can then be looked up in the I Ching book, arranged in an order known as the King Wen sequence.
The King Wen sequence is an arrangement of the sixty-four divination figures in 易經 Yì Jīng, the I Ching or Book of Changes.

Ten Wings

Commentaries
Originally a divination manual in the Western Zhou period (1000–750), over the course of the Warring States period and early imperial period (500–200) it was transformed into a cosmological text with a series of philosophical commentaries known as the "Ten Wings".
Ten Wings (十翼 shí yì) is a collection of commentaries (zhuan 傳) to the classical Chinese Book of Changes traditionally ascribed to Confucius.

Yin and yang

yinyin-yangyang
The hexagrams themselves have often acquired cosmological significance and paralleled with many other traditional names for the processes of change such as yin and yang and Wu Xing.
This duality lies at the origins of many branches of classical Chinese science and philosophy, as well as being a primary guideline of traditional Chinese medicine, and a central principle of different forms of Chinese martial arts and exercise, such as baguazhang, taijiquan (t'ai chi), and qigong (Chi Kung), as well as appearing in the pages of the I Ching.

Edward L. Shaughnessy

Edward ShaughnessyShaughnessy, Edward L.Shaughnessy
Based on a comparison of the language of the Zhou yi with dated bronze inscriptions, the American sinologist Edward Shaughnessy dated its compilation in its current form to the early decades of the reign of King Xuan of Zhou, in the last quarter of the 9th century BC. A copy of the text in the Shanghai Museum corpus of bamboo and wooden slips (recovered in 1994) shows that the Zhou yi was used throughout all levels of Chinese society in its current form by 300 BC, but still contained small variations as late as the Warring States period.
Edward Louis Shaughnessy (born July 29, 1952) is an American Sinologist, scholar, and educator, known for his studies of early Chinese history, particularly the Zhou dynasty, and his studies of the Classic of Changes (I Ching 易經).

Confucianism

ConfucianConfucianistConfucian philosophy
The interpretation of the readings found in the I Ching is a matter of centuries of debate, and many commentators have used the book symbolically, often to provide guidance for moral decision making as informed by Taoism and Confucianism.
I Ching or Classic of Change or Book of Changes, generally held to be the earliest of the classics, shows a metaphysical vision which combines divinatory art with numerological technique and ethical insight; philosophy of change sees cosmos as interaction between the two energies yin and yang; universe always shows organismic unity and dynamism.

Hexagram (I Ching)

hexagramhexagrams64 Hexagrams
The basic unit of the Zhou yi is the hexagram (卦 guà), a figure composed of six stacked horizontal lines (爻 yáo). Each line is either broken or unbroken.
The I Ching book consists of 64 hexagrams.

Duke of Zhou

DanChou1 Kung1Duke Zhou
The Zhou yi was traditionally ascribed to the Zhou cultural heroes King Wen of Zhou and the Duke of Zhou, and was also associated with the legendary world ruler Fu Xi.
He is also a Chinese culture hero credited with writing the I Ching and the Book of Poetry, establishing the Rites of Zhou, and creating the yayue of Chinese classical music.

Bagua

trigramseight trigramsba gua
According to the canonical Great Commentary, Fu Xi observed the patterns of the world and created the eight trigrams, "in order to become thoroughly conversant with the numinous and bright and to classify the myriad things."
The ancient Chinese classic, I Ching (Pinyin: Yi Jing), consists of the 64 pairwise permutations of trigrams, referred to as "hexagrams", along with commentary on each one.

I Ching divination

divinationAnother divination methodcasting hexagrams
Another divination method, employing coins, became widely used in the Tang dynasty and is still used today.
Among the many forms of divination is a cleromancy method using the I Ching (易經, yì jīng) or Book of Changes.

Taoism

TaoistDaoistTaoists
The interpretation of the readings found in the I Ching is a matter of centuries of debate, and many commentators have used the book symbolically, often to provide guidance for moral decision making as informed by Taoism and Confucianism.
Early Taoism drew its cosmological notions from the School of Yinyang (Naturalists), and was deeply influenced by one of the oldest texts of Chinese culture, the I Ching, which expounds a philosophical system about how to keep human behavior in accordance with the alternating cycles of nature.

Guicang

It is possible that other divination systems existed at this time; the Rites of Zhou name two other such systems, the Lianshan and the Guicang.
Guicang (歸藏, "Return to the Hidden") is a divination text dating to the Zhou dynasty, which was once used in place of the I Ching.

Tao

DaoWay
The Japanese word for "metaphysics", keijijōgaku (形而上学; pinyin: xíng ér shàng xué) is derived from a statement found in the Great Commentary that "what is above form [xíng ér shàng] is called Dao; what is under form is called a tool".
The original use of the term was as a form of praxis rather than theory – a term used as a convention to refer to something that otherwise cannot be discussed in words – and early writings such as the Tao Te Ching and the I Ching make pains to distinguish between conceptions of the Tao (sometimes referred to as "named Tao") and the Tao itself (the "unnamed Tao"), which cannot be expressed or understood in language.

List of hexagrams of the I Ching

01Hexagram 32Hexagram 63
This is a list of the 64 hexagrams of the I Ching, or Book of Changes, and their Unicode character codes.

Gao Heng (scholar)

Gao Heng
In the modern period, Gao Heng attempted his own reconstruction, which varies from Zhu Xi in places.
Gao Heng (, July 29, 1900 - February 2, 1986) was a Chinese scholar who was known for his work on the modern interpretation of the Book of Changes.

Fuxi

Fu XiFuxi clanBokijae
The Zhou yi was traditionally ascribed to the Zhou cultural heroes King Wen of Zhou and the Duke of Zhou, and was also associated with the legendary world ruler Fu Xi.
Traditionally, Fuxi is considered the originator of the I Ching (also known as the Yi Jing), which work is attributed to his reading of the He Map (or the Yellow River Map).

Zhu Xi

ZhuChu Hsishushigaku
From the Great Commentary's description, the Neo-Confucian Zhu Xi reconstructed a method of yarrow stalk divination that is still used throughout the Far East.
Rather than focusing on the I Ching like other Neo-Confucians, he chose to emphasize the Four Books: the Great Learning, the Doctrine of the Mean, the Analects of Confucius, and the Mencius as the core curriculum for aspiring scholar officials.

Old Chinese

OCancient ChineseOld
The Zhou yi was written in Early Old Chinese, while the Ten Wings were written in a predecessor to Middle Chinese.
The oldest parts of the Book of Documents, the Classic of Poetry and the I Ching also date from the early Zhou period, and closely resemble the bronze inscriptions in vocabulary, syntax, and style.

Binary number

binarybinary numeral systembase 2
The contemporary scholar Shao Yong rearranged the hexagrams in a format that resembles modern binary numbers, although he did not intend his arrangement to be used mathematically.
Leibniz was specifically inspired by the Chinese I Ching.

Xiping Stone Classics

The official edition of the text was literally set in stone, as one of the Xiping Stone Classics.
Around 200,000 characters were inscribed on 46 stelae of the seven classics recognized at the time: the Book of Changes, Book of Documents, Book of Songs, Book of Rites, Spring and Autumn Annals, Classic of Filial Piety and Analects.

King Wen of Zhou

King WenJi ChangWen
The Zhou yi was traditionally ascribed to the Zhou cultural heroes King Wen of Zhou and the Duke of Zhou, and was also associated with the legendary world ruler Fu Xi.
King Wen is also credited with having stacked the eight trigrams in their various permutations to create the sixty-four hexagrams of the I Ching.

Jing Fang

Fang, Jing
Most of this early commentary, such as the image and number work of Jing Fang, Yu Fan and Xun Shuang, is no longer extant.
The historian Ban Gu (32–92 AD) wrote that Jing Fang was an expert at making predictions from the hexagrams of the ancient Yijing.

Cleromancy

casting lotscast lotslot
The I Ching uses a type of divination called cleromancy, which produces apparently random numbers.
Similar to I Ching, this form of divination forms a binary-like series of eight broken or unbroken pairs.

Taixuanjing

Tai Xuan Jing SymbolsGreat MysteryTai Xuan Jing Symbols (Unicode block)
The New Text scholars distributed alternate versions of the text and freely integrated non-canonical commentaries into their work, as well as propagating alternate systems of divination such as the Taixuanjing.
The Taixuanjing is a divinatory text similar to, and inspired by, the I Ching (Yijing).