Iberian Peninsula

IberiaIberianPeninsulaIberiansIbericpeninsularSpainHispaniaSouthwestern EuropeIbero
The Iberian Peninsula, also known as Iberia, is located in the southwest corner of Europe.wikipedia
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Portugal

Portuguese🇵🇹POR
The peninsula is principally divided between Spain and Portugal, comprising most of their territory.
Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa ), is a country located mostly on the Iberian Peninsula in southwestern Europe.

Spain

🇪🇸SpanishESP
The peninsula is principally divided between Spain and Portugal, comprising most of their territory.
Spain ({{lang-es|España}} {{IPA-es|esˈpaɲa||Es-España.ogg}}), officially the Kingdom of Spain ({{lang-es|Reino de España|links=no}}),{{efn|name=a}}{{efn|name=b}} is a country mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.

Andorra

🇦🇩Principality of AndorraAND
It also includes Andorra, small areas of France, and the British overseas territory of Gibraltar.
Andorra, officially the Principality of Andorra (Principat d'Andorra), also called the Principality of the Valleys of Andorra (Principat de les Valls d'Andorra), is a sovereign landlocked microstate on the Iberian Peninsula, in the eastern Pyrenees, bordered by France to the north and Spain to the south.

Gibraltar

🇬🇮GIBGibraltarian
It also includes Andorra, small areas of France, and the British overseas territory of Gibraltar.
Gibraltar is a British Overseas Territory located at the southern tip of the Iberian Peninsula.

Pyrenees

PyreneanPyrenees MountainsPyrénées
According to Strabo, prior historians used Iberia to mean the country "this side of the Ἶβηρος ()" as far north as the river Rhône in France, but currently they set the Pyrenees as the limit. Strabo refers to the Carretanians as people "of the Iberian stock" living in the Pyrenees, who are distinct from either Celts or Celtiberians.
Reaching a height of 3404 m altitude at the peak of Aneto, the range separates the Iberian Peninsula from the rest of continental Europe, and extends for about 491 km from the Bay of Biscay (Cap Higuer) to the Mediterranean Sea (Cap de Creus).

Celtiberians

CeltiberianCeltiberiCeltiberia
Strabo refers to the Carretanians as people "of the Iberian stock" living in the Pyrenees, who are distinct from either Celts or Celtiberians. By the Iron Age, starting in the 7th century BC, the Iberian Peninsula consisted of complex agrarian and urban civilizations, either Pre-Celtic or Celtic (such as the Lusitanians, Celtiberians, Gallaeci, Astures, Celtici and others), the cultures of the Iberians in the eastern and southern zones and the cultures of the Aquitanian in the western portion of the Pyrenees.
The Celtiberians were a group of Celts or Celticized peoples inhabiting the central-eastern Iberian Peninsula during the final centuries BC. They were explicitly mentioned as being Celts by several classic authors (e.g. Strabo ).

Hispania

SpainRomanRomans
The Roman geographers and other prose writers from the time of the late Roman Republic called the entire peninsula Hispania.
Hispania was the Roman name for the Iberian Peninsula and its provinces.

Celts

CelticCeltCeltic people
Strabo refers to the Carretanians as people "of the Iberian stock" living in the Pyrenees, who are distinct from either Celts or Celtiberians.
By or during the later La Tène period (c. 450 BC to the Roman conquest), this Celtic culture was supposed to have expanded by trans-cultural diffusion or migration to the British Isles (Insular Celts), France and the Low Countries (Gauls), Bohemia, Poland and much of Central Europe, the Iberian Peninsula (Celtiberians, Celtici, Lusitanians and Gallaeci) and northern Italy (Golasecca culture and Cisalpine Gauls) and, following the Celtic settlement of Eastern Europe beginning in 279 BC, as far east as central Anatolia (Galatians) in modern-day Turkey.

Europe

EuropeanEUEuropean continent
The Iberian Peninsula, also known as Iberia, is located in the southwest corner of Europe.
A cultural definition of Europe as the lands of Latin Christendom coalesced in the 8th century, signifying the new cultural condominium created through the confluence of Germanic traditions and Christian-Latin culture, defined partly in contrast with Byzantium and Islam, and limited to northern Iberia, the British Isles, France, Christianised western Germany, the Alpine regions and northern and central Italy.

Ebro

river EbroEbro basinEbro Valley
The Iberian Peninsula has always been associated with the Ebro, Ibēros in ancient Greek and Ibērus or Hibērus in Latin.
The Ebro ( Spanish and ; Ebre ) is a river on the Iberian Peninsula.

Hispania Baetica

BaeticaRomanBetica
At the time Hispania was made up of three Roman provinces: Hispania Baetica, Hispania Tarraconensis, and Hispania Lusitania.
Hispania Baetica, often abbreviated Baetica, was one of three Roman provinces in Hispania (the Iberian Peninsula).

Iberian language

Iberianancient IberianIberians
The early range of these natives, which geographers and historians place from today's southern Spain to today's southern France along the Mediterranean coast, is marked by instances of a readable script expressing a yet unknown language, dubbed "Iberian." In the Late Bronze Age, the urban civilisation of Tartessos developed in the area of modern western Andalusia, characterized by Phoenician influence and using the Southwest Paleohispanic script for its Tartessian language, not related to the Iberian language.
The Iberian language was the language of an indigenous pre-Migration Period people identified by Greek and Roman sources who lived in the eastern and southeastern regions of the Iberian Peninsula.

Scandinavian Peninsula

ScandinavianScandinavianorthern Scandinavian
With an area of approximately 596740 km2 ), it is the second largest European peninsula, after the Scandinavian.
The Scandinavian Peninsula is the largest of the well-known peninsulas of Europe, with a greater area than the Balkan, Iberian and Italian peninsulas.

Vascones

VasconBasqueVasconic
Whatever language may generally have been spoken on the peninsula soon gave way to Latin, except for that of the Vascones, which was preserved as a language isolate by the barrier of the Pyrenees.
The Vascones (singular Vasco, from Latin gens Vasconum) were a pre-Roman tribe who, on the arrival of the Romans in the 1st century, inhabited a territory that spanned between the upper course of the Ebro river and the southern basin of the western Pyrenees, a region that coincides with present-day Navarre, western Aragon and northeastern La Rioja, in the Iberian Peninsula.

Roman province

provinceprovincesprovincial
At the time Hispania was made up of three Roman provinces: Hispania Baetica, Hispania Tarraconensis, and Hispania Lusitania.
197 BC – Hispania Citerior; along the east coast of the Iberian Peninsula; part of the territories taken over from the Carthaginians

Iberians

Iberianancient IberianIberia
An open seas navigation culture from the east Mediterranean, called the Cardium culture, also extended its influence to the eastern coasts of the peninsula, possibly as early as the 5th millennium BC. These people may have had some relation to the subsequent development of the Iberian civilization.
The Iberians (Hibērī, from Ίβηρες, Iberes) were a set of peoples that Greek and Roman sources (among others, Hecataeus of Miletus, Avienus, Herodotus and Strabo) identified with that name in the eastern and southern coasts of the Iberian peninsula, at least from the 6th century BC. The Roman sources also use the term Hispani to refer to the Iberians.

Portuguese people

PortuguesePortuguese parentsPortuguese descent
Here, this genetically homogeneous population (characterized by the M173 mutation in the Y chromosome), developed the M343 mutation, giving rise to Haplogroup R1b, still the most common in modern Portuguese and Spanish males.
The Roman Republic conquered the Iberian Peninsula during the 2nd and 1st centuries B.C. from the extensive maritime empire of Carthage during the series of Punic Wars.

Tagus

Tagus RiverTejoRiver Tagus
Around 2800 – 2700 BC, the Beaker culture, which produced the Maritime Bell Beaker, probably originated in the vibrant copper-using communities of the Tagus estuary in Portugal and spread from there to many parts of western Europe.
The Tagus (Tajo, ; Tejo, ) is the longest river in the Iberian Peninsula.

Beaker culture

BeakerBeaker peopleBell Beaker
Around 2800 – 2700 BC, the Beaker culture, which produced the Maritime Bell Beaker, probably originated in the vibrant copper-using communities of the Tagus estuary in Portugal and spread from there to many parts of western Europe.
Arising from around 2800 BC, and lasting in continental Europe until 2300 BC, succeeded by the Unetice culture, in Britain until as late as 1800 BC. The culture was widely scattered throughout Western Europe, from various regions in Iberia and spots facing northern Africa to the Danubian plains, the British Isles, and the islands of Sicily and Sardinia.

Tartessos

TartessianTartessiansTartessus
In the Late Bronze Age, the urban civilisation of Tartessos developed in the area of modern western Andalusia, characterized by Phoenician influence and using the Southwest Paleohispanic script for its Tartessian language, not related to the Iberian language.
Tartessos or Tartessus, was a semi-mythical harbor city and the surrounding culture on the south coast of the Iberian Peninsula (in modern Andalusia, Spain), at the mouth of the Guadalquivir River.

Andalusia

AndalusianAndalucíaAutonomous Community of Andalusia
In the Late Bronze Age, the urban civilisation of Tartessos developed in the area of modern western Andalusia, characterized by Phoenician influence and using the Southwest Paleohispanic script for its Tartessian language, not related to the Iberian language.
Andalusia is located in a privileged area in the south of the Iberian peninsula, in south-western Europe, immediately south of the autonomous communities of Extremadura and Castilla-La Mancha; west of the autonomous community of Murcia and the Mediterranean Sea; east of Portugal and the Atlantic Ocean; and north of the Mediterranean Sea and the Strait of Gibraltar.

Spaniards

SpanishSpaniardSpain
Here, this genetically homogeneous population (characterized by the M173 mutation in the Y chromosome), developed the M343 mutation, giving rise to Haplogroup R1b, still the most common in modern Portuguese and Spanish males.
In the 5th century, the Visigoths (a Germanic tribe from central Europe) settled in modern-day Spain, dominating the Iberian Peninsula until 711, when the invading Moors defeated King Roderic.

Castro culture

castrocastrosCastro Village
In Northwestern Iberia (modern Northern Portugal, Asturias and Galicia), a Celtic culture developed, the Castro culture, with a large number of hill forts and some fortified cities.
Castro culture (cultura castrexa, cultura castreja, cultura castriega, cultura castreña) is the archaeological term for the material culture of the north-western regions of the Iberian Peninsula (present-day northern Portugal together with Galicia, Asturias, Castile and León, Cantabria and Basque Country) from the end of the Bronze Age (c. 9th century BC) until it was subsumed by Roman culture (c. 1st century BC).

Lusitanians

LusitanianLusitaniLusitanian people
By the Iron Age, starting in the 7th century BC, the Iberian Peninsula consisted of complex agrarian and urban civilizations, either Pre-Celtic or Celtic (such as the Lusitanians, Celtiberians, Gallaeci, Astures, Celtici and others), the cultures of the Iberians in the eastern and southern zones and the cultures of the Aquitanian in the western portion of the Pyrenees.
The Lusitanians (or Lusitani) were an Indo-European people living in the west of the Iberian Peninsula prior to its conquest by the Roman Republic and the subsequent incorporation of the territory into the Roman province of Lusitania (most of modern Portugal, Extremadura and a small part of the province of Salamanca).

Tartessian language

TartessianTartessian or Southwestern languageTartessians
In the Late Bronze Age, the urban civilisation of Tartessos developed in the area of modern western Andalusia, characterized by Phoenician influence and using the Southwest Paleohispanic script for its Tartessian language, not related to the Iberian language.
The Tartessian language is the extinct Paleohispanic language of inscriptions in the Southwestern script found in the southwest of the Iberian Peninsula: mainly in the south of Portugal (Algarve and southern Alentejo), and the southwest of Spain (south of Extremadura and western Andalusia).