Ibn al-Nafis

Ibn NafisIbn an-NafisAl-NafisTheologus AutodidactusAli ibn Abi-Hazm al-Qarshi al-DimashqiIbn Al NafisIbn al-NafeesIbn-Al Nafis
Ala-al-Ddin abu al-Hasan Ali ibn Abi-Hazm al-Qarshi al-Dimashqi (Arabic: علاء الدين أبو الحسن عليّ بن أبي حزم القرشي الدمشقي), known as Ibn al-Nafis (Arabic: ابن النفيس), was an Arab physician from Damascus mostly famous for being the first to describe the pulmonary circulation of the blood.wikipedia
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Exercitatio Anatomica de Motu Cordis et Sanguinis in Animalibus

De Motu CordisOn the Motion of the Heart and Blood in Animalsbook on the circulation of blood
The work of Ibn al-Nafis regarding the right sided (pulmonary) circulation pre-dates the later work (1628) of William Harvey's De motu cordis.
Opposed and obliging work heralding Harvey's discovery go back to the thirteenth century, when the pulmonary circulation and gas exchange was proposed by Ibn Al-Nafis.

Physiology

physiologistphysiologicalphysiologically
As an early anatomist, Ibn al-Nafis also performed several human dissections during the course of his work, making several important discoveries in the fields of physiology and anatomy.
Galen, Ibn al-Nafis, Michael Servetus, Realdo Colombo, Amato Lusitano and William Harvey, are credited as making important discoveries in the circulation of the blood.

Dissection

dissecteddissectingdissect
As an early anatomist, Ibn al-Nafis also performed several human dissections during the course of his work, making several important discoveries in the fields of physiology and anatomy.
Islamic physicians such as Ibn Zuhr (Avenzoar) (1091–1161) in Al-Andalus, Saladin's physician Ibn Jumay during the 12th century, Abd el-Latif in Egypt c. 1200, and Ibn al-Nafis in Syria and Egypt in the 13th century may have practiced dissection, but it remains ambiguous whether or not human dissection was practiced.

Shafi‘i

Shafi'iShafiShafi`i
He was an expert on the Shafi'i school of jurisprudence and an expert physician.

Pulmonary circulation

pulmonary vesselspulmonary circuitpulmonary
Ala-al-Ddin abu al-Hasan Ali ibn Abi-Hazm al-Qarshi al-Dimashqi (Arabic: علاء الدين أبو الحسن عليّ بن أبي حزم القرشي الدمشقي), known as Ibn al-Nafis (Arabic: ابن النفيس), was an Arab physician from Damascus mostly famous for being the first to describe the pulmonary circulation of the blood.
1509 - 1553 CE) and Arab physician Ibn al-Nafis (1213 - 1288 CE) with the discovery.

Galen

Galen of PergamonGalenic medicineGalenus
What distinguish the book most is the confident language which Ibn al-Nafis shows throughout the text and his boldness to challenge the most established medical authorities of the time like Galen and Avicenna.
1242, when Ibn al-Nafis published his book Sharh tashrih al-qanun li’ Ibn Sina (Commentary on Anatomy in Avicenna's Canon), in which he reported his discovery of the pulmonary circulation.

Al-Dakhwar

He was contemporary with the famous Damascene physician Ibn Abi Usaibia and they both were taught by the founder of a medical school in Damascus, Al-Dakhwar.
Al-Dakhwar educated or influenced most of the prominent physicians of Egypt and Syria in the century, including writer Ibn Abi Usaibia and Ibn al-Nafis, the discoverer of blood circulation in the human body.

William Harvey

HarveyDe GenerationeHarvey, William
The work of Ibn al-Nafis regarding the right sided (pulmonary) circulation pre-dates the later work (1628) of William Harvey's De motu cordis.
Arabic scholar Ibn al-Nafis had disputed aspects of Galen's views, providing a model that seems to imply a form of pulmonary circulation in his Commentary on Anatomy in Avicenna's Canon (1242).

Theologus Autodidactus

Al-Risalah al-Kamiliyyah fil Siera al-NabawiyyahThe Treatise of Kamil
Ibn al-Nafis' philosophical views are mostly known from his philosophical novel, Theologus Autodidactus.
Theologus Autodidactus ("The Self-taught Theologian"), originally titled The Treatise of Kāmil on the Prophet's Biography, also known as Risālat Fādil ibn Nātiq ("The Book of Fādil ibn Nātiq"), is a theological novel written by Ibn al-Nafis.

Arabs

ArabArab peopleArabian
Ala-al-Ddin abu al-Hasan Ali ibn Abi-Hazm al-Qarshi al-Dimashqi (Arabic: علاء الدين أبو الحسن عليّ بن أبي حزم القرشي الدمشقي), known as Ibn al-Nafis (Arabic: ابن النفيس), was an Arab physician from Damascus mostly famous for being the first to describe the pulmonary circulation of the blood. Ibn al-Nafis was born in 1213 to an Arab family probably at a village near Damascus named Karashia, after which his Nisba might be derived.
Other notable Arab contributions include among other things: establishing the science of chemistry by Jābir ibn Hayyān, establishing the science of cryptology and cryptanalysis by al-Kindi, the development of analytic geometry by Ibn al-Haytham, the discovery of the pulmonary circulation by Ibn al-Nafis, the discovery of the itch mite parasite by Ibn Zuhr, the first use of irrational numbers as an algebraic objects by Abū Kāmil, the first use of the positional decimal fractions by al-Uqlidisi, the development of the Arabic numerals and an early algebraic symbolism in the Maghreb, the Thabit number and Thābit theorem by Thābit ibn Qurra, the discovery of several new trigonometric identities by Ibn Yunus and al-Battani, the mathematical proof for Ceva's theorem by Ibn Hűd, the first accurate lunar model by Ibn al-Shatir, the invention of the torquetum by Jabir ibn Aflah, the invention of the universal astrolabe and the equatorium by al-Zarqali, the first description of the crankshaft by al-Jazari, the anticipation of the inertia concept by Averroes, the discovery of the physical reaction by Avempace, the identification of more than 200 new plants by Ibn al-Baitar the Arab Agricultural Revolution, and the Tabula Rogeriana, which was the most accurate world map in pre-modern times by al-Idrisi.

Youssef Ziedan

Yusuf Zeydan
The Egyptian scholar Youssef Ziedan started a project of collecting and examining the extant manuscripts of this work that are cataloged in many libraries around the world, including the Cambridge University Library, the Bodleian Library, and the Lane Medical Library at Stanford University.
He thinks that the parable of Hayy Ibn Yaqzan, for instance, with its many versions and interpretations by such important figures as Avicenna, Ibn Tufayl, al-Suhrawardi and Ibn al-Nafis, is a source of Islamic philosophical thought for understanding Islamic philosophy on its own terms.

Ophthalmology

ophthalmologistophthalmicoculist
Ibn al-Nafis, an Arabic native of Damascus, wrote a large textbook, The Polished Book on Experimental Ophthalmology, divided into two parts, On the Theory of Ophthalmology and Simple and Compounded Ophthalmic Drugs.

Commentary on Anatomy in Avicenna's Canon

Commentary on Anatomy in'' ''Avicenna's'' ''Canon
In 1924, Egyptian physician, Muhyo Al-Deen Altawi, discovered a manuscript entitled, Sharh tashrih al-qanun li’ Ibn Sina, or "Commentary on Anatomy in Avicenna's Canon" in the Prussian State Library in Berlin while studying the history of Arabic Medicine at the medical faculty of Albert Ludwig's University.
The Commentary on Anatomy in Avicenna's Canon is a manuscript written in the 13th century by the Arab physician Ibn al-Nafis.

Nisba (onomastics)

nisbanisbahnisbat
Ibn al-Nafis was born in 1213 to an Arab family probably at a village near Damascus named Karashia, after which his Nisba might be derived.

Baibars

Baybarsal-Zahir BaybarsBaibars al-Bunduqdari
He even became the personal physician of the sultan Baibars and other prominent political leaders, thus showcasing himself as an authority among practitioners of medicine.
He was a patron of Islamic science, such as his support for the medical research of his Arab physician, Ibn al-Nafis.

Medicine

medicalmedical scienceclinical medicine
Ibn al-Nafis also wrote a number of books and commentaries on different topics including on medicine, law, logic, philosophy, theology, grammar and environment.
Others include Abulcasis, Avenzoar, Ibn al-Nafis, and Averroes.

Empiricism

empiricistempiricalempirically
The novel touches upon a variety of philosophical subjects like cosmology, empiricism, epistemology, experimentation, futurology, eschatology,and natural philosophy.
A similar Islamic theological novel, Theologus Autodidactus, was written by the Arab theologian and physician Ibn al-Nafis in the 13th century.

Heart

cardiachuman heartapex of the heart
Galen taught that the blood reaching the right side of the heart went through invisible pores in the cardiac septum, to the left side of the heart, where it mixed with air to create spirit, and was then distributed to the body.
The earliest descriptions of the coronary and pulmonary circulation systems can be found in the Commentary on Anatomy in Avicenna's Canon, published in 1242 by Ibn al-Nafis.

Ibn Tufail

Ibn TufaylAbubacerAbu Bakr ibn Al-Tufail
The plot of Theologus Autodidactus was intended to be a response to Ibn Tufail (Abubacer), who wrote the first Arabic novel Hayy ibn Yaqdhan (Philosophus Autodidactus) which was itself a response to al-Ghazali's The Incoherence of the Philosophers.
In the 13th century, Ibn al-Nafis later wrote the Al-Risalah al-Kamiliyyah fil Siera al-Nabawiyyah (known as Theologus Autodidactus in the West) as a response to Ibn Tufail's Philosophus Autodidactus.

Vein

veinsvenousvenous system
According to Galen, the venous system was separate from the arterial system except when they came in contact through the unseen pores.
In 1242, the Arabian physician, Ibn al-Nafis, became the first person to accurately describe the process of pulmonary circulation, for which he has been described as the Arab Father of Circulation.

Abu Hayyan al-Gharnati

Abu Hayyan Al GharnatiAbu Hamid al-GharnatiAbu Hayyan
Abu Hayyan was a student of Ibn al-Nafis, viewed as a redeeming quality in favor of Ibn al-Nafis by traditionalists such as Al-Dhahabi, who esteemed Abu Hayyan.

Islamic Golden Age

medieval Islamic worldIslamic civilizationGolden Age of Islam
In epistemology, Ibn Tufail wrote the novel Hayy ibn Yaqdhan and in response Ibn al-Nafis wrote the novel Theologus Autodidactus.

Feral child

feral childrenwild childferal
It deals with these themes and others through the story of a feral child on a desert island, and the development of his mind after contact with the outside world.
Famous examples include Romulus and Remus, Ibn Tufail’s Hayy, Ibn al-Nafis’ Kamil, Rudyard Kipling’s Mowgli, Edgar Rice Burroughs’s Tarzan, George of the Jungle and the legends of Atalanta and Enkidu.

Metabolism

metabolicmetabolizedmetabolic pathways
Ibn al-Nafis is also credited with providing the earliest recorded reference for the concept of metabolism:
Ibn al-Nafis described metabolism in his 1260 AD work titled Al-Risalah al-Kamiliyyah fil Siera al-Nabawiyyah (The Treatise of Kamil on the Prophet's Biography) which included the following phrase "Both the body and its parts are in a continuous state of dissolution and nourishment, so they are inevitably undergoing permanent change."

Soul

soulsspirithuman soul
Unlike Avicenna who supported Aristotle's idea of the soul originating from the heart, Ibn al-Nafis on the other hand rejected this idea and instead argued that the soul "is related to the entirety and not to one or a few organs."
Following Aristotle, Avicenna (Ibn Sina) and Ibn al-Nafis, an Arab physician, further elaborated upon the Aristotelian understanding of the soul and developed their own theories on the soul.