Icebreaker

icebreakingice breakerice breakingice-breakinglight icebreakerice-breakerice operationsbreaking iceGreat Lakes icebreakerHeavy Arctic Icebreaker
An icebreaker is a special-purpose ship or boat designed to move and navigate through ice-covered waters, and provide safe waterways for other boats and ships.wikipedia
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Hull (watercraft)

hullhulledhulls
For a ship to be considered an icebreaker, it requires three traits most normal ships lack: a strengthened hull, an ice-clearing shape, and the power to push through sea ice.
The shape is chosen to strike a balance between cost, hydrostatic considerations (accommodation, load carrying and stability), hydrodynamics (speed, power requirements, and motion and behavior in a seaway) and special considerations for the ship's role, such as the rounded bow of an icebreaker or the flat bottom of a landing craft.

Ice navigation

navigatenavigating in ice
An icebreaker is a special-purpose ship or boat designed to move and navigate through ice-covered waters, and provide safe waterways for other boats and ships.
The presence of sea ice requires a ship to exercise caution, for example by avoiding icebergs, slowly sailing through a lead, or by working with an icebreaker to follow a course through the ice to a destination.

Drift ice

pack iceice floeice floes
Icebreakers clear paths by pushing straight into frozen-over water or pack ice.
These represent a challenge for icebreakers and offshore structures operating in cold oceans and seas.

Ice

water iceicyglacier ice
An icebreaker is a special-purpose ship or boat designed to move and navigate through ice-covered waters, and provide safe waterways for other boats and ships.
Navigation through areas of sea ice occurs in openings called "polynyas" or "leads" or requires the use of a special ship called an "icebreaker".

Ship

shipsvesselsvessel
An icebreaker is a special-purpose ship or boat designed to move and navigate through ice-covered waters, and provide safe waterways for other boats and ships.
Nuclear reactors producing steam are used to propel warships and icebreakers, and there have been attempts to utilize them to power commercial vessels (see NS Savannah).

Arctic Ocean

ArcticArctic SeaArctic coast
The mixed ethnic group of the Karelians and the Russians in the North-Russia that lived on the shores of the Arctic Ocean became known as Pomors ("seaside settlers").
The first nautical transit of the north pole was made in 1958 by the submarine USS Nautilus, and the first surface nautical transit occurred in 1977 by the icebreaker NS Arktika.

CCGS Labrador

HMCS ''LabradorCCGS ''LabradorHMCS Labrador
In Canada, diesel-electric icebreakers started to be built in 1952, first with HMCS Labrador (was transferred later to the Canadian Coast Guard), using the USCG Wind-class design but without the bow propeller.
CCGS Labrador was a icebreaker.

Koch (boat)

kochkocheskochi
These earliest icebreakers were called kochi.
In the 19th century the anti-ice floe protective features of koch were adopted to the first modern icebreakers, and in fact koch may be regarded as the most ancient form of icebreaker, though wooden and relatively small.

Armstrong Whitworth

ArmstrongArmstrong-WhitworthElswick Ordnance Company
Icebreaker, was built in 1897 at the Armstrong Whitworth naval yard in England under contract from the Imperial Russian Navy.
Armstrong Mitchell and later Armstrong Whitworth built many merchant ships, freighters, tank-ships, and dredgers; notable among them was the ice-breaking train ferries in 1897 and in 1900, built to connect the Trans-Siberian Railway across Lake Baikal.

Diesel–electric transmission

diesel-electricdiesel electricElectric
The world's first diesel-electric icebreaker was the 4,330-ton Swedish icebreaker in 1933.
Later, the technology was used in diesel powered icebreakers.

United States Coast Guard

U.S. Coast GuardCoast GuardUS Coast Guard
The United States Coast Guard uses icebreakers to help conduct search and rescue missions in the icy, polar oceans.

Nuclear marine propulsion

nuclear-poweredpropulsionnuclear
The first one, NS, was launched in 1957 and entered operation in 1959, before being officially decommissioned in 1989.
The design has two 35 MWe units based on the KLT-40 reactor used in icebreakers (with refueling every four years).

Sea ice

ice floesicepack ice
For a ship to be considered an icebreaker, it requires three traits most normal ships lack: a strengthened hull, an ice-clearing shape, and the power to push through sea ice.

Operation Deep Freeze

U.S. Navy Operation DeepfreezeU.S. Naval Support ForceOperation Deepfreeze
Every year, a heavy icebreaker must perform Operation Deep Freeze, clearing a safe path for resupply ships to the National Science Foundation’s facility McMurdo in Antarctica.
Then in 1954–55, the icebreaker USS Atka (AGB-3) made a scouting expedition for future landing sites and bays.

Great Lakes

North American Great LakesGreat Lakethe Great Lakes
For this reason, in the Baltic Sea, the Great Lakes and the Saint Lawrence Seaway, and along the Northern Sea Route, the main function of icebreakers is to escort convoys of one or more ships safely through ice-filled waters.
Some icebreakers ply the lakes, keeping the shipping lanes open through other periods of ice on the lakes.

Ice tank

ice model test basinice model testingmodel-scale tests
An alternative means to determine the icebreaking capability of a vessel in different ice conditions such as pressure ridges is to perform model tests in an ice tank.
For example, most icebreakers break ice by riding upward unto the ice and breaking downward by the weight of the vessel.

Mikhail Britnev

The ship was built on the orders of merchant and shipbuilder Mikhail Britnev.
Mikhail Osipovich Britnev (1822–1889) was a Russian shipowner and shipbuilder, who created the first metal-hull icebreaker called Pilot in 1864.

White Sea

WhiteBelomorskyBeloe More
In the 11th century, in North-Russia the coasts of the White Sea, named so for being ice-covered for over half of a year, started being settled.
Despite being frozen in winter, the sea remains navigable all year around because of deployment of icebreakers.

Baltic Sea

BalticBaltic coastthe Baltic
For this reason, in the Baltic Sea, the Great Lakes and the Saint Lawrence Seaway, and along the Northern Sea Route, the main function of icebreakers is to escort convoys of one or more ships safely through ice-filled waters.
During winter, fast ice, which is attached to the shoreline, develops first, rendering ports unusable without the services of icebreakers.

CCGS John G. Diefenbaker

CCGS ''John G. Diefenbakeran icebreaking vesselCCG Polar Class icebreaker
In the 2020s, they will be surpassed by the new Canadian polar icebreaker, CCGS John G. Diefenbaker, which will have a combined propulsion power of 36000 kW.
CCGS John G. Diefenbaker is the name for a Canadian Coast Guard icebreaker that had been expected to join the fleet in 2021–2022 but now is significantly delayed.

Admiral Makarov (icebreaker)

Admiral MakarovIcebreaker Admiral MakarovIcebreaker ''Admiral Makarov
Since the mid-1970s, the most powerful diesel-electric icebreakers have been the formerly Soviet and later Russian icebreakers Ermak, Admiral Makarov and Krasin which have nine twelve-cylinder diesel generators producing electricity for three propulsion motors with a combined output of 26500 kW.
Admiral Makarov is a Russian icebreaker operated by the Far East Shipping Company (FESCO).

North Pole

NorthGeographic North Pole90
In service since 1975, she was the first surface ship to reach the North Pole, on August 17, 1977.
On 7 September 1991 the German research vessel Polarstern and the Swedish icebreaker Oden reached the North Pole as the first conventional powered vessels.

Nuclear-powered icebreaker

nuclear icebreakerNuclear icebreakersicebreakers
The steam-powered icebreakers were resurrected in the late 1950s when the Soviet Union commissioned the first nuclear-powered icebreaker, Lenin, in 1959.
The only country constructing nuclear-powered icebreakers is Russia.

Krasin (1976 icebreaker)

KrasinIcebreaker Krasin1976
Since the mid-1970s, the most powerful diesel-electric icebreakers have been the formerly Soviet and later Russian icebreakers Ermak, Admiral Makarov and Krasin which have nine twelve-cylinder diesel generators producing electricity for three propulsion motors with a combined output of 26500 kW.
The Krasin is a Russian (formerly Soviet) icebreaker.

Northern Sea Route

Northeast PassageNorth-East PassageNorth East passage
For this reason, in the Baltic Sea, the Great Lakes and the Saint Lawrence Seaway, and along the Northern Sea Route, the main function of icebreakers is to escort convoys of one or more ships safely through ice-filled waters.
In August 2017, the first ship traversed the Northern Sea Route without the use of icebreakers.