Iceland

IcelandicISLRepublic of IcelandISIcelandic Singles ChartÍslandcoastal IcelandRepublic Iceland’sAmbassador to the Republic of Iceland
Iceland (Ísland; ) is a Nordic island country in the North Atlantic, with a population of 360,390 and an area of 103000 km2, making it the most sparsely populated country in Europe.wikipedia
15,657 Related Articles

Reykjavík

ReykjavikReykjavík, IcelandReykjavik, Iceland
The capital and largest city is Reykjavík, with Reykjavík and the surrounding areas in the southwest of the country being home to over two-thirds of the population.
Reykjavík is the capital and largest city of Iceland.

Althing

AlþingiIcelandic parliamentparliament
The island was governed as an independent commonwealth under the Althing, one of the world's oldest functioning legislative assemblies.
The Alþingi (parliament (Icelandic) and anglicised as Althingi or Althing) is the national parliament of Iceland.

Scandinavia

Scandinavian countriesScandinavianNordic
In the following centuries, Norwegians, and to a lesser extent other Scandinavians, emigrated to Iceland, bringing with them thralls (i.e., slaves or serfs) of Gaelic origin.
In English usage, Scandinavia also sometimes refers to the Scandinavian Peninsula, or to the broader region including Finland and Iceland, which is always known locally as the Nordic countries.

Europe

EuropeanEUEuropean continent
Iceland (Ísland; ) is a Nordic island country in the North Atlantic, with a population of 360,390 and an area of 103000 km2, making it the most sparsely populated country in Europe.
Islands are generally grouped with the nearest continental landmass, hence Iceland is generally considered to be part of Europe, while the nearby island of Greenland is usually assigned to North America.

Nordic model

Swedish modelNordic welfare modelNordic social welfare system
It maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides universal health care and tertiary education for its citizens.
The Nordic model comprises the economic and social policies, as well as typical cultural practices, common to the Nordic countries (Denmark, Iceland, Finland, Norway, and Sweden).

Icelandic language

IcelandicModern IcelandicIceland
Icelandic, a North Germanic language, is descended from Old West Norse and is closely related to Faroese.
Icelandic (íslenska ) is a North Germanic language spoken in Iceland.

Danish–Icelandic Act of Union

Act of UnionDanish-Icelandic Act of UnionIndependence
In the wake of the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars, Iceland's struggle for independence took form and culminated in independence in 1918 and the founding of a republic in 1944.
The Danish–Icelandic Act of Union, a December 1, 1918 agreement signed by Iceland and Denmark, recognized Iceland as a fully independent and sovereign state – the Kingdom of Iceland – freely associated to Denmark in a personal union with the Danish king.

Icelandic cuisine

IcelandIcelandic foodIcelandic
The country's cultural heritage includes traditional Icelandic cuisine, Icelandic literature, and medieval sagas.
Icelandic cuisine, the cuisine of Iceland, has a long history.

Icelandic Coast Guard

Coast GuardCoast GuardsmenIceland
Iceland has the smallest population of any NATO member and is the only one with no standing army, with a lightly armed coast guard.
The Icelandic Coast Guard (Landhelgisgæsla Íslands, Landhelgisgæslan or simply Gæslan) is the service responsible for Iceland's coastal defence and maritime and aeronautical search and rescue.

Settlement of Iceland

Icelandsettlementsea
According to the ancient manuscript Landnámabók, the settlement of Iceland began in 874 AD when the Norwegian chieftain Ingólfr Arnarson became the first permanent settler on the island.
Unlike Britain and Ireland, Iceland was unsettled land and could be claimed without conflict with existing inhabitants.

European Economic Area

EEAEuropean marketEuropean Economic Area (EEA)
In 1994, it became a part of the European Economic Area, which further diversified the economy into sectors such as finance, biotechnology, and manufacturing.
Membership has grown to 31 states as of 2016: 28 EU member states, as well as three of the four member states of the EFTA (Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway).

Global Peace Index

peacefulnesspeacestate of peace
In 2018, it was ranked as the sixth most developed country in the world by the United Nations' Human Development Index, and it ranks first on the Global Peace Index.
The 2019 GPI indicates Iceland, New Zealand, Portugal, Austria, and Denmark to be the most peaceful countries and Somalia, Afghanistan, Syria, South Sudan, Yemen, and Iraq to be the least peaceful.

Kalmar Union

Union of Kalmarunion kingDanish
The establishment of the Kalmar Union in 1397 united the kingdoms of Norway, Denmark, and Sweden.
The Kalmar Union (Danish, Norwegian, and Kalmarunionen; Unio Calmariensis) was a personal union in Scandinavia that from 1397 to 1523 joined under a single monarch of the three kingdoms of Denmark, Sweden (then including most of Finland), and Norway, together with Norway's overseas dependencies (then including Iceland, Greenland, the Faroe Islands, and the Northern Isles).

Norway

NorwegianKingdom of NorwayNOR
According to the ancient manuscript Landnámabók, the settlement of Iceland began in 874 AD when the Norwegian chieftain Ingólfr Arnarson became the first permanent settler on the island.
Norwegian Viking explorers first discovered Iceland by accident in the 9th century when heading for the Faroe Islands, and eventually came across Vinland, known today as Newfoundland, in Canada.

Stöðvarfjörður

In 2016, archeologists uncovered a longhouse in Stöðvarfjörður that has been dated to as early as 800.
Stöðvarfjörður (formerly Kirkjuból) is a village in east Iceland.

Age of the Sturlungs

Icelandic civil warperiod of civil strifeSturlungs
Following a period of civil strife, Iceland acceded to Norwegian rule in the 13th century. The internal struggles and civil strife of the Age of the Sturlungs led to the signing of the Old Covenant in 1262, which ended the Commonwealth and brought Iceland under the Norwegian crown.
The Age of the Sturlungs or the Sturlung Era (Sturlungaöld) was a 42–44 year period of violent internal strife in mid-13th century Iceland.

Húsavík

HusavikHúsavikHúsavík, Iceland
He stayed over winter and built a house in Húsavík.
Húsavík is a town in Norðurþing municipality on the north coast of Iceland on the shores of Skjálfandi bay with 2,307 inhabitants.

List of countries without armed forces

Has no militaryList of countries without an armyNo regular military force
Iceland has the smallest population of any NATO member and is the only one with no standing army, with a lightly armed coast guard.
Some of the countries listed, such as Iceland and Monaco, have no standing armies but still have a non-police military force.

Hrafna-Flóki Vilgerðarson

Flóki VilgerðarsonFloki
Then came a Viking named Flóki Vilgerðarson; his daughter drowned en route, then his livestock starved to death.
9th century) was the first Norseman to intentionally sail to Iceland.

Hafnir

Recent archaeological excavations have revealed the ruins of a cabin in Hafnir on the Reykjanes peninsula.
Hafnir is a village in southwestern Iceland.

Member states of NATO

Member state of the North Atlantic Treaty OrganizationNATO member statesNATO members
Iceland has the smallest population of any NATO member and is the only one with no standing army, with a lightly armed coast guard.
All members have militaries, except for Iceland which does not have a typical army (but does, however, have a coast guard and a small unit of civilian specialists for NATO operations).

Laki

LakagígarMóðuharðindinMist Hardships
In 1783 the Laki volcano erupted, with devastating effects.
Laki or Lakagígar (Craters of Laki) is a volcanic fissure in the south of Iceland, not far from the volcanic fissure of Eldgjá and the small village of Kirkjubæjarklaustur.

Old Covenant (Iceland)

Old CovenantGamli sáttmáliCeded to Norway
The internal struggles and civil strife of the Age of the Sturlungs led to the signing of the Old Covenant in 1262, which ended the Commonwealth and brought Iceland under the Norwegian crown.
The Old Covenant (Gamli sáttmáli) was the name of the agreement which effected the union of Iceland and Norway.

Norse colonization of North America

Norse colonization of the AmericasNorseNorse exploration of the Americas
Lack of arable land also served as an impetus to the settlement of Greenland starting in 986.
According to the Sagas of Icelanders, Norsemen from Iceland first settled Greenland in the 980s.

Papar

Irish monksHiberno-Scottish monks
According to both Landnámabók and Íslendingabók, monks known as the Papar lived in Iceland before Scandinavian settlers arrived, possibly members of a Hiberno-Scottish mission.
The Papar (from Latin papa, via Old Irish, meaning "father" or "pope") were, according to early Icelandic sagas, Irish monks who took eremitic residence in parts of what is now Iceland before that island's habitation by the Norsemen of Scandinavia, as evidenced by the sagas and recent archaeological findings.