Icelandic language

IcelandicModern IcelandicIcelandlanguageOld Icelandic IcelandicIcel.iceIcelandersIcelandic name
Icelandic (íslenska ) is a North Germanic language spoken in Iceland.wikipedia
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Norwegian language

NorwegianNeutralNorwegian:
It's most closely related to Faroese and Western Norwegian and has around 314,000 speakers.
These Scandinavian languages, together with Faroese and Icelandic as well as some extinct languages, constitute the North Germanic languages.

Faroese language

FaroeseFaeroeseOld Faroese
It's most closely related to Faroese and Western Norwegian and has around 314,000 speakers.
It is one of five languages descended from Old West Norse spoken in the Middle Ages, the others being Norwegian, Icelandic, and the extinct Norn and Greenlandic Norse.

Iceland

IcelandicISLRepublic of Iceland
Icelandic (íslenska ) is a North Germanic language spoken in Iceland.
Icelandic, a North Germanic language, is descended from Old West Norse and is closely related to Faroese.

German language

GermanGerman-languageGerman-speaking
It is not mutually intelligible with the continental Scandinavian languages, and is farther away from the most widely spoken Germanic languages English and German than those three are.
The first of these branches survives in modern Danish, Swedish, Norwegian, Faroese, and Icelandic, all of which are descended from Old Norse.

Árni Magnússon Institute for Icelandic Studies

Stofnun Árna MagnússonarIcelandic Language CommitteeStofnun Arna Magnussonar
The state-funded Árni Magnússon Institute for Icelandic Studies serves as a centre for preserving the medieval Icelandic manuscripts and studying the language and its literature.
The Árni Magnússon Institute for Icelandic Studies (Stofnun Árna Magnússonar í íslenskum fræðum) is an institute of the Ministry of Education, Science and Culture of Iceland which conducts research in Icelandic and related academic studies, in particular the Icelandic language and Icelandic literature, to disseminate knowledge in those areas, and to protect and develop the collections that it possesses or those placed in its care.

Linguistic conservatism

conservativearchaiclinguistically conservative
The language is more conservative than most other Western European languages.
For example, Icelandic is, in some aspects, more similar to Old Norse than other languages that evolved from Old Norse, including Danish, Norwegian, or Swedish, while Sardinian is regarded by many linguists to be the most conservative Romance language.

Icelandic orthography

IcelandicIcelandic alphabetalphabetically
The modern Icelandic alphabet has developed from a standard established in the 19th century, primarily by the Danish linguist Rasmus Rask.
Icelandic orthography is the way in which Icelandic words are spelled and how their spelling corresponds with their pronunciation.

Grammatical case

casecasescase marking
While most of them have greatly reduced levels of inflection (particularly noun declension), Icelandic retains a four-case synthetic grammar (comparable to German, though considerably more conservative and synthetic) and is distinguished by a wide assortment of irregular declensions.
Languages such as Ancient Greek, Armenian, Assamese, most Balto-Slavic languages, Basque, most Caucasian languages, German, Icelandic, Japanese, Korean, Latin, Sanskrit, Tamil, Tibetan (one of a few tonal languages), the Turkic languages and the Uralic languages have extensive case systems, with nouns, pronouns, adjectives, and determiners all inflecting (usually by means of different suffixes) to indicate their case.

English language

EnglishEnglish-languageen
It is not mutually intelligible with the continental Scandinavian languages, and is farther away from the most widely spoken Germanic languages English and German than those three are.
Like Icelandic and Faroese, the development of English in the British Isles isolated it from the continental Germanic languages and influences.

Rasmus Rask

Rasmus Christian RaskRaskRask, Rasmus Christian
The modern Icelandic alphabet has developed from a standard established in the 19th century, primarily by the Danish linguist Rasmus Rask.
Rask traveled extensively to study languages, first to Iceland, where he wrote the first grammar of Icelandic, and later to Russia, Persia, India, and Ceylon (now Sri Lanka).

Germanic languages

GermanicGermanic languageGerman
The later Rasmus Rask standard was a re-creation of the old treatise, with some changes to fit concurrent Germanic conventions, such as the exclusive use of k rather than c.
Other North Germanic languages are Faroese and Icelandic, which are more conservative languages with no significant Low German influence, more complex grammar and limited mutual intelligibility with the others today.

Preaspiration

preaspiratedpre-aspiratedpre-aspiration
Preaspiration occurs before geminate (long or double consonants) p, t and k.
note that, at least in the case of Icelandic, preaspirated stops have a longer duration of aspiration than normally aspirated (post-aspirated) stops, comparable to clusters of +consonant in languages with such clusters.

Nasal consonant

NasalNasalsnasal consonants
Voiceless nasals occur in a few languages such as Burmese, Welsh, Icelandic and Guaraní.

Diphthong

diphthongsfalling diphthonggliding vowel
The language has both monophthongs and diphthongs, and consonants can be voiced or unvoiced.
For example, in Icelandic, both monophthongs and diphthongs are pronounced long before single consonants and short before most consonant clusters.

Gemination

geminategeminatedgeminate consonant
Preaspiration occurs before geminate (long or double consonants) p, t and k.
In some languages, like Italian, Swedish, Faroese, Icelandic, many Finnish dialects and Luganda, consonant length and vowel length depend on each other.

Aspirated consonant

aspiratedaspirationunaspirated
The plosives b, d, and g are voiceless and differ from p, t and k only by their lack of aspiration.
In many languages, such as Armenian, Korean, Lakota, Thai, Indo-Aryan languages, Dravidian languages, Icelandic, Faroese, Ancient Greek, and the varieties of Chinese, tenuis and aspirated consonants are phonemic.

Inflection

inflectedinflectional morphologyinflectional
While most of them have greatly reduced levels of inflection (particularly noun declension), Icelandic retains a four-case synthetic grammar (comparable to German, though considerably more conservative and synthetic) and is distinguished by a wide assortment of irregular declensions. Modern Icelandic is still a heavily inflected language with four cases: nominative, accusative, dative and genitive.
Old English was a moderately inflected language, using an extensive case system similar to that of modern Icelandic or German.

Nordic Council

Nordic Council of MinistersPresident of the Nordic CouncilNC
Iceland is a member of the Nordic Council, a forum for co-operation between the Nordic countries, but the council uses only Danish, Norwegian and Swedish as its working languages (although the council does publish material in Icelandic).
The Nordic Council uses the three Continental Scandinavian languages (Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish) as its official working languages, but also publishes material in Finnish, Icelandic, and English for information purposes.

Saga

Norse sagasagasNorse sagas
Since the written language has not changed much, Icelanders are able to read classic Old Norse literature created in the 10th through 13th centuries (such as the Eddas and sagas) with relative ease.
"Saga" is a word originating from Old Norse or Icelandic language ("Saga" is also the modern Icelandic and Swedish word for "story" or, especially in Swedish, fairytale).

Strong noun

strong
There are two main declension paradigms for each gender: strong and weak nouns, and these are further divided into subclasses of nouns, based primarily on the genitive singular and nominative plural endings of a particular noun.
In the Icelandic language, a strong noun is one that falls into one of four categories, depending on the endings of the characteristic cases, i.e. the nominative and genitive singular and the nominative plural.

North Germanic languages

ScandinavianScandinavian languagesNorth Germanic
Icelandic (íslenska ) is a North Germanic language spoken in Iceland.
The language group is also referred to as the "Nordic languages", a direct translation of the most common term used among Danish, Faroese, Icelandic, Norwegian, and Swedish scholars and laypeople.

Christianization of Iceland

Christianisation of Icelandconversion of Icelandconversion of Iceland to Christianity
The introduction of Christianity to Iceland in the 11th century brought with it a need to describe new religious concepts.
In Icelandic, this event is known as the kristnitaka (literally, "the taking of Christianity").

Nordic Language Convention

Under the Nordic Language Convention, since 1987 Icelandic citizens have had the right to use Icelandic when interacting with official bodies in other Nordic countries, without becoming liable for any interpretation or translation costs.
The languages included are Swedish, Danish, Norwegian, Finnish and Icelandic.

Genitive case

genitivegen.GEN
Modern Icelandic is still a heavily inflected language with four cases: nominative, accusative, dative and genitive.
Many languages have a genitive case, including Albanian, Arabic, Armenian, Basque, Czech, Dutch, Estonian, Finnish, Georgian, German, Greek, Hungarian, Icelandic, Irish, Latin, Latvian, Lithuanian, Romanian, Sanskrit, Scottish Gaelic, Kannada, Tamil, Telugu, Turkish and all Slavic languages except Bulgarian and Macedonian.

Weak noun

weak nouns
There are two main declension paradigms for each gender: strong and weak nouns, and these are further divided into subclasses of nouns, based primarily on the genitive singular and nominative plural endings of a particular noun.
In the Icelandic language, nouns are considered weak if they fulfill the following conditions: