Identity (social science)

identitysocial identityidentitiespersonal identitysocial identitiespsychological identityself-identificationperceiving oneselfpersonalself-identify
Identity is the qualities, beliefs, personality, looks and/or expressions that make a person (self-identity) or group (particular social category or social group), in psychology.wikipedia
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Gender identity

gender identitiesgendergender spectrum
Gender identity forms an important part of identity in psychology, as it dictates to a significant degree how one views oneself both as a person and in relation to other people, ideas and nature.
All societies have a set of gender categories that can serve as the basis of the formation of a person's social identity in relation to other members of society.

Social group

groupsocial groupsgroups
Identity is the qualities, beliefs, personality, looks and/or expressions that make a person (self-identity) or group (particular social category or social group), in psychology.
The psychological internalization of territorial and dominance experiences in conscious and unconscious memory are established through the formation of social identity, personal identity, body concept, or self concept.

Identity negotiation

The notion of identity negotiation may arise from the learning of social roles through personal experience.
Once these agreements are reached, people are expected to remain faithful to the identities they have agreed to assume.

Cultural identity

identitycultural differencescultural identities
The Eriksonian framework rests upon a distinction among the psychological sense of continuity, known as the ego identity (sometimes identified simply as "the self"); the personal idiosyncrasies that separate one person from the next, known as the personal identity; and the collection of social roles that a person might play, known as either the social identity or the cultural identity.
Cultural identity is the identity or feeling of belonging to a group.

Identity formation

identityidentity developmentidentity construction
Erikson's work, in the psychodynamic tradition, aimed to investigate the process of identity formation across a lifespan.
Identity formation leads to a number of issues of personal identity and an identity where the individual has some sort of comprehension of themselves as a discrete and separate entity.

Erik Erikson

Erik H. EriksonEriksonErik Homburger Erikson
Erik Erikson (1902–1994) became one of the earliest psychologists to take an explicit interest in identity.
The development of identity seems to have been one of Erikson's greatest concerns in his own life as well as being central to his theoretical work.

Community

communitiescommunalsmall community
Many people gain a sense of positive self-esteem from their identity groups, which furthers a sense of community and belonging.
A community is a social unit (a group of living things) with commonality such as norms, religion, values, customs, or identity.

Ethnic group

ethnicityethnicethnic groups
Identity became of more interest to anthropologists with the emergence of modern concerns with ethnicity and social movements in the 1970s.
An ethnic group or ethnicity is a category of people who identify with each other, usually on the basis of a presumed common genealogy or ancestry or on similarities such as common language or dialect, history, society, culture or nation.

Sociology

sociologistsociologicalsociologists
Sociology places some explanatory weight on the concept of role-behavior.
Rather, newborns most likely inherit to some extent social behavior and identity through genetics.

Social psychology (sociology)

social psychologysociological social psychologysocial psychologist
However, some "sociological" social psychology theories go further by attempting to deal with the issue of identity at both the levels of individual cognition and of collective behaviour.
power, sociocultural change, social inequality and prejudice, leadership and intra-group behavior, social exchange, group conflict, impression formation and management, conversation structures, socialization, social constructionism, social norms and deviance, identity and roles, and emotional labor.

Language

languageslinguisticlinguistic diversity
Identity is made evident through the use of markers such as language, dress, behaviour and choice of space, whose effect depends on their recognition by other social beings.
Therefore, in addition to its strictly communicative uses, language also has many social and cultural uses, such as signifying group identity, social stratification, as well as social grooming and entertainment.

Self-reflection

reflectionHuman self-reflectionreflective
In cognitive psychology, the term "identity" refers to the capacity for self-reflection and the awareness of self.

Social psychology

social psychologistsocialsocial psychological
To the extent that these theories place themselves in the tradition of "psychological" social psychology, they focus on explaining an individual's actions within a group in terms of mental events and states.
To a large extent, humans define themselves by the group memberships which form their social identity.

Psychology of self

selfSelf (psychology)sense of self
Ricoeur has introduced the distinction between the ipse identity (selfhood, 'who am I?') and the idem identity (sameness, or a third-person perspective which objectifies identity).
Current views of the self in psychology position the self as playing an integral part in human motivation, cognition, affect, and social identity.

James Marcia

identity achievementidentity foreclosureJames E. Marcia
The "Neo-Eriksonian" identity status paradigm emerged in later years, driven largely by the work of James Marcia.
Marcia developed the Identity Status Interview, a method of semi-structured interview for psychological identity research, that investigates an individual's extent of exploration and commitment across different life areas.

Identity (philosophy)

identitysamenessnumerical identity
Ricoeur has introduced the distinction between the ipse identity (selfhood, 'who am I?') and the idem identity (sameness, or a third-person perspective which objectifies identity).
The sociological notion of identity, by contrast, has to do with a person's self-conception, social presentation, and more generally, the aspects of a person that make them unique, or qualitatively different from others (e.g. cultural identity, gender identity, national identity, online identity and processes of identity formation).

Social constructionism

social constructionsocially constructedsocial constructionist
The second, rooted in social constructionist theory, takes the view that identity is formed by a predominantly political choice of certain characteristics.
The numerous realities so formed comprise, according to this view, the imagined worlds of human social existence and activity, gradually crystallized by habit into institutions propped up by language conventions, given ongoing legitimacy by mythology, religion and philosophy, maintained by therapies and socialization, and subjectively internalized by upbringing and education to become part of the identity of social citizens.

Self-concept

self-identityself-identificationego
Identity is the qualities, beliefs, personality, looks and/or expressions that make a person (self-identity) or group (particular social category or social group), in psychology.

Psychology

psychologicalpsychologistpsychologists
Identity is the qualities, beliefs, personality, looks and/or expressions that make a person (self-identity) or group (particular social category or social group), in psychology.

Self-image

self imageself-representationself
A psychological identity relates to self-image (one's mental model of oneself), self-esteem, and individuality.

Mental model

mental modelsmodelinternal model
A psychological identity relates to self-image (one's mental model of oneself), self-esteem, and individuality.

Self-esteem

self-worthself-respectself esteem
A psychological identity relates to self-image (one's mental model of oneself), self-esteem, and individuality.

Individual

individualityindividualshuman identity
A psychological identity relates to self-image (one's mental model of oneself), self-esteem, and individuality.

Cognitive psychology

cognitive psychologistcognitivecognitive psychologists
In cognitive psychology, the term "identity" refers to the capacity for self-reflection and the awareness of self.

Role

social rolerolessocial roles
Sociology places some explanatory weight on the concept of role-behavior.