Approximate areas of various Mississippian and related cultures
Steamboat Morning Star, a Louisville and Evansville mail packet, in 1858.
A priest with a ceremonial flint mace and severed sacrificial head, based on a repoussé copper plate
Mississippian copper plate found at the Saddle Site in Union County, Illinois
Built between 1847 and 1849, the Wheeling Suspension Bridge was the first bridge across the river and a crucial part of the National Road.
Mississippian copper plates
Illinois in 1718, approximate modern state area highlighted, from Carte de la Louisiane et du cours du Mississipi by Guillaume de L'Isle
Cave-in-rock, view on the Ohio (circa 1832, Cave-In-Rock, Illinois): aquatint by Karl Bodmer from the book Maximilian, Prince of Wied's Travels in the Interior of North America, during the years 1832–1834
Reconstruction of the Birdman burial at Cahokia.
The bell donated by King Louis XV in 1741 to the mission at Kaskaskia. It was later called the "Liberty Bell of the West", after it was rung to celebrate U.S. victory in the Revolution
Silver Bridge in Point Pleasant, West Virginia which collapsed into the Ohio River on December 15, 1967, killing 46 people.
Mass grave burial at Cahokia of fifty-three sacrificed Native American women
In 1818, Illinois became the 21st U.S. state. The southern portion of Illinois Territory was admitted as the state of Illinois, and the rest was joined to Michigan Territory.
A barge heads east on the Ohio River in Louisville, Kentucky.
Shell tempered ceramic effigy jug with swirls painted in clay slip, Rose Mound, Cross County, Arkansas, U.S., 1400-1600 CE, 8" (20 cm) high
[[Old State Capitol State Historic Site|
Old State Capitol]]: Abraham Lincoln and other area legislators were instrumental in moving the state capitol to centrally located Springfield in 1839.
The confluence of the Mississippi and Ohio rivers is at Cairo, Illinois.
Replica of a Mississippian house from over 1000 years ago excavated at the Aztalan site of the Oneota region in an exhibit at the Wisconsin Historical Museum
Embarkation of Union troops from Cairo on January 10, 1862
The Ohio River as seen from Fredonia, Indiana.
A mound diagram of the Mississippian cultural period showing the multiple layers of mound construction, mound structures such as temples or mortuaries, ramps with log stairs, and prior structures under later layers, multiple terraces, and intrusive burials.
Charles Mound, the highest natural point in Illinois at 1,235 feet above sea level, is located in the Driftless Area in the northwestern part of the state.
Natural-color satellite image of the Wabash-Ohio confluence.
Cahokia, the largest Mississippian culture site
At 279 feet above sea level, the lowest elevation point in the state is located near Cairo and the confluence of the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers.
Lawrenceburg, Indiana, is one of many towns that use the Ohio as a shipping avenue.
Kincaid, showing its platform mounds and encircling palisade
Köppen climate types of Illinois
Glacial Lake Ohio
Stone effigies found at the Etowah Site
Density map displaying the population of Illinois
The Allegheny River, left, and Monongahela River join to form the Ohio River at Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, the largest metropolitan area on the river.
Map of the Caddoan Mississippian culture
The Baháʼí House of Worship in Wilmette, Illinois
Louisville, Kentucky, The deepest point of the Ohio River is a scour hole just below Cannelton locks and dam (river mile 720.7).
Spiro, in eastern Oklahoma
The Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago at the heart of Chicago's financial center
A barge hauls coal in the Louisville and Portland Canal, the only artificial portion of the Ohio River.
Map showing the geographical extent of the Plaquemine culture and some of its major sites
Byron Nuclear Generating Station in Ogle County
Cincinnati skyline showing the John A. Roebling Suspension Bridge to Covington, Kentucky.
A map showing the de Soto route through the Southeast
Average annual wind power distribution for Illinois, 50 m height above ground (2009)
Carl Perkins Bridge in Portsmouth, Ohio with Ohio River and Scioto River tributary on right.
Soldier Field, Chicago
The Ohio River seen at Sciotoville, from the "Geography of Ohio," 1923
The Illinois State Capitol in Springfield
Illinois House of Representatives
Governor J. B. Pritzker (D)
University of Illinois
University of Chicago
University of Illinois Willard Airport
Inside O'Hare International Airport
Vandalia State House State Historic Site in Vandalia
The Museum of Science and Industry in Chicago
Magnolia Manor is a Victorian period historic house museum in Cairo.
Lincoln Home National Historic Site in Springfield
The Polish Museum of America in Chicago
A Railway Post Office preserved at the Illinois Railway Museum in Union
Standard license plate introduced in 2017
Standard license plate 2001 to 2016
Illinois license plate design used throughout the 1980s and 1990s, displaying the Land of Lincoln slogan that has been featured on the state's plates since 1954
Illinois 2020 Population Density Map

It is located at the boundary of the Midwestern and Southern United States, flowing southwesterly from western Pennsylvania to its mouth on the Mississippi River at the southern tip of Illinois.

- Ohio River

The largest city was Cahokia, believed to be a major religious center located in what is present-day southern Illinois.

- Mississippian culture

Additionally, the Mississippi, Ohio, and Wabash rivers form parts of the state's boundaries.

- Illinois

In the five centuries before European conquest, the Mississippian culture built numerous regional chiefdoms and major earthwork mounds in the Ohio Valley like the Angel Mounds near Evansville, Indiana as well as in the Mississippi Valley and the Southeast.

- Ohio River

Kincaid site: A major Mississippian mound center in southern Illinois across the Ohio River from Paducah, Kentucky.

- Mississippian culture

Cahokia, the largest regional chiefdom and Urban Center of the Pre-Columbian Mississippian culture, was located near present-day Collinsville, Illinois.

- Illinois

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Indiana

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U.S. state in the Midwestern United States.

U.S. state in the Midwestern United States.

Angel Mounds State Historic Site was one of the northernmost Mississippian culture settlements, occupied from 1100 to 1450.
Native Americans guide French explorers through Indiana, as depicted by Maurice Thompson in Stories of Indiana.
Indiana's Capitol Building in Corydon served as the state's seat of government from 1816 until 1825.
Rolling hills in the Charles C. Deam Wilderness Area of Hoosier National Forest, in the Indiana Uplands
The Wabash River converges with the Ohio River at Posey County.
Köppen climate types of Indiana, using 1991-2020 climate normals.
Indiana is home to the third largest population of Amish in the U.S.
Mike Pence at the Indiana State Fair, 2014
Members of the Indiana National Guard at the Muscatatuck Urban Training Center near Butlerville
Indianapolis is home to the annual Indianapolis 500 race.
The Indianapolis Colts of the National Football League have been based in the state since 1984.
Simon Skjodt Assembly Hall, home to Indiana Hoosiers men's basketball
Notre Dame Stadium, home to the Fighting Irish
Lake Michigan's beaches, popular with tourists, are juxtaposed with heavy industry.
Indiana is the fifth largest corn-producing state in the U.S., with over a billion bushels harvested in 2013.
Coal-fired electric plants, like Clifty Creek Power Plant in Madison, produced about 85 percent of Indiana's energy supply in 2014.
The Interstate 69 extension project in Monroe County
A South Shore commuter train in Michigan City
Barges are a common sight along the Ohio River. Ports of Indiana manages three maritime ports in the state, two located on the Ohio.

It is bordered by Lake Michigan to the northwest, Michigan to the north, Ohio to the east, the Ohio River and Kentucky to the south and southeast, and the Wabash River and Illinois to the west.

The Mississippian culture emerged, lasting from 1000 AD until the 15th century, shortly before the arrival of Europeans.

Midwestern United States

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One of four census regions of the United States Census Bureau .

One of four census regions of the United States Census Bureau .

Divisions of the Midwest by the U.S. Census Bureau into East North Central and West North Central, separated largely by the Mississippi River.
Scotts Bluff National Monument in western Nebraska
The Driftless Area as viewed from Wildcat Mountain State Park in Vernon County, Wisconsin
Flint Hills grasslands of Kansas
Theodore Roosevelt National Park, North Dakota
Prairie in Effigy Mounds National Monument, Iowa
Monks Mound, located at the Cahokia Mounds near Collinsville, Illinois, is the largest Pre-Columbian earthwork in America north of Mesoamerica and a World Heritage Site
Winnebago family (1852)
Young Oglala Lakota girl in front of tipi with puppy beside her, probably on or near Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, South Dakota
Cumulus clouds hover above a yellowish prairie at Badlands National Park, South Dakota, native lands to the Sioux.
c. 1681 map of Marquette and Jolliet's 1673 expedition
Beaver hunting grounds, the basis of the fur trade
The state cessions that eventually allowed for the creation of the territories north and southwest of the River Ohio
Northwest Territory 1787
Louisiana Purchase 1803
Ohio River near Rome, Ohio
Lake Michigan is shared by four Midwestern states: Michigan, Indiana, Illinois, and Wisconsin.
The Upper Mississippi River near Harpers Ferry, Iowa
An animation depicting when United States territories and states forbade or allowed slavery, 1789–1861
1855 Free-State poster
A map of various Underground Railroad routes
Minneapolis, Minnesota is on the Mississippi River
Omaha, Nebraska, is on the Missouri River
Cincinnati, Ohio is on the Ohio River
Distribution of Americans claiming German Ancestry by county in 2018
German population density in the United States, 1870 census
A pastoral farm scene near Traverse City, Michigan, with a classic American red barn
Central Iowa cornfield in June
Standing wheat in Kansas, part of America's Breadbasket
Soybean fields at Applethorpe Farm, north of Hallsville in Ross County, Ohio
The Chicago Board of Trade Building a National Historic Landmark
The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in Cleveland
Mount Rushmore is located in the Black Hills of South Dakota.
The Milwaukee Art Museum is located on Lake Michigan.
The first local meeting of the new Republican Party took place here in Ripon, Wisconsin on March 20, 1854.
Midwestern Governors by party
Midwestern U.S. Senators by party for the 117th Congress
Midwestern U.S. Representatives by party for the 117th Congress
Beaver hunting grounds, the basis of the fur trade

The Census Bureau's definition consists of 12 states in the north central United States: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin.

Major rivers in the region include, from east to west, the Ohio River, the Upper Mississippi River, and the Missouri River.

Archaeological evidence indicates that Mississippian culture traits probably began in the St. Louis, Missouri area and spread northwest along the Mississippi and Illinois rivers and entered the state along the Kankakee River system.

Evansville, Indiana

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City in and the county seat of Vanderburgh County, Indiana, United States.

City in and the county seat of Vanderburgh County, Indiana, United States.

Robert Morgan Evans
Final stage of truck assembly at Graham Brothers Truck Plant in Evansville, 1920
Evansville Owensboro Metropolitan Areas. The Evansville Metropolitan Area includes Vanderburgh, Warrick, Henderson, Posey, and Webster counties.
The downtown riverfront area features tiered seating
Bosse Field
Victory Theatre
West Side Nut Club Fall Festival
Central Library
Evansville Mayor Lloyd Winnecke
Front oval, University of Evansville
Rice Library, University of Southern Indiana
Reitz Memorial High School
Chicago & Eastern Illinois Depot, active from 1907 to the 1930s
Barge on the Ohio River at Evansville
Bayard Park
Culver
Haynie's Corner
Lincolnshire
Riverside
Washington Avenue
West Franklin Street

Situated on an oxbow in the Ohio River, the city is often referred to as the "Crescent Valley" or "River City".

Angel Mounds was a permanent settlement of the Mississippian culture from 1000 AD to around 1400 AD. The European-American city was founded in 1812.

Evansville is the regional center for a large trade area in Indiana, Kentucky, and Illinois.

Mississippi River

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Second-longest river and chief river of the second-largest drainage system on the North American continent, second only to the Hudson Bay drainage system.

Second-longest river and chief river of the second-largest drainage system on the North American continent, second only to the Hudson Bay drainage system.

The beginning of the Mississippi River at Lake Itasca (2004)
Former head of navigation, St. Anthony Falls, Minneapolis, Minnesota
Confluence of the Wisconsin and Mississippi Rivers, viewed from Wyalusing State Park in Wisconsin
The Upper Mississippi River at its confluence with the Missouri River north of St. Louis
The confluence of the Mississippi (left) and Ohio (right) rivers at Cairo, Illinois, the demarcation between the Middle and the Lower Mississippi River
Lower Mississippi River near New Orleans
Map of the Mississippi River watershed
Sequence of NASA MODIS images showing the outflow of fresh water from the Mississippi (arrows) into the Gulf of Mexico (2004)
View along the former riverbed at the Tennessee/Arkansas state line near Reverie, Tennessee (2007)
In Minnesota, the Mississippi River runs through the Twin Cities (2007)
Community of boathouses on the Mississippi River in Winona, MN (2006)
The Mississippi River at the Chain of Rocks just north of St. Louis (2005)
A low-water dam deepens the pool above the Chain of Rocks Lock near St. Louis (2006)
The Stone Arch Bridge, the Third Avenue Bridge and the Hennepin Avenue Bridge in Minneapolis (2004)
The Dubuque-Wisconsin Bridge (2004)
The Chain of Rocks Bridge at St. Louis, Missouri
The Hernando de Soto Bridge in Memphis, Tennessee (2009)
Vicksburg Bridge
Towboat and barges at Memphis, Tennessee
Ships on the lower part of the Mississippi
Oil tanker on the Lower Mississippi near the Port of New Orleans
Barge on the Lower Mississippi River
Lock and Dam No. 11, north of Dubuque, Iowa (2007)
Lock and Dam No. 2, near Hastings, Minnesota (2007)
Lock and Dam No. 15, is the largest roller dam in the world Davenport, Iowa; Rock Island, Illinois. (1990)
Formation of the Atchafalaya River and construction of the Old River Control Structure.
Project design flood flow capacity for the Mississippi river in thousands of cubic feet per second.
Soldiers of the Missouri Army National Guard sandbag the River in Clarksville, Missouri, June 2008, following flooding.
Discovery of the Mississippi by De Soto A.D. 1541 by William Henry Powell depicts Hernando de Soto and Spanish Conquistadores seeing the Mississippi River for the first time.
Map of the French settlements (blue) in North America in 1750, before the French and Indian War (1754 to 1763).
Ca. 1681 map of Marquette and Jolliet's 1673 expedition.
Route of the Marquette-Jolliete Expedition of 1673
A Home on the Mississippi (1871)
Shifting sand bars made early navigation difficult.
Battle of Vicksburg (ca. 1888)
Mississippi River from Eunice, Arkansas, a settlement destroyed by gunboats during the Civil War.
Campsite at the river in Arkansas
The Old River Control Structure complex. View is to the east-southeast, looking downriver on the Mississippi, with the three dams across channels of the Atchafalaya River to the right of the Mississippi. Concordia Parish, Louisiana is in the foreground, on the right, and Wilkinson County, Mississippi, is in the background, across the Mississippi on the left.
Great River Road in Wisconsin near Lake Pepin (2005)
The American paddlefish is an ancient relict from the Mississippi
The source of the Mississippi River at Lake Itasca

The river either borders or passes through the states of Minnesota, Wisconsin, Iowa, Illinois, Missouri, Kentucky, Tennessee, Arkansas, Mississippi, and Louisiana.

The Mississippi River is known as the Middle Mississippi from the Upper Mississippi River's confluence with the Missouri River at St. Louis, Missouri, for 190 mi to its confluence with the Ohio River at Cairo, Illinois.

After around 800 AD there arose an advanced agricultural society today referred to as the Mississippian culture, with evidence of highly stratified complex chiefdoms and large population centers.