Illtumish Tomb in Qutub Minar Complex
Coinage of Shams al-Dīn Iltutmish (AH 607-633 AD 1210-1235). AR Tanka (25mm, 11.07 g, 6h). Sind type.
Extent of Delhi Sultanate under Iltutmish; The Sultanate clearly expanded under Shams ud-din into Bengal, the outskirts of Tibet and south to the Gangentic plains.
Coin of Ghiyath al-Din 'Iwad, Governor of Bengal (AH 614-616/ AD 1217-1220). Struck in the name of Shams al-Din Iltutmish, Sultan of Dehli.
Obv: Crude figure of Rider bearing lance on caparisoned horse facing right. Devanagari legends: Sri / hamirah. Star above horse. Rev: Arabic legends: Shams al-dunya wa'l din Iltutmish al-sultan.
Obv:Rider bearing lance on caparisoned horse facing right. Devanagari legends: Sri / hamirah. Rev:Arabic legends: Shams al-dunya wa'l din Abu'l Muzaffar Iltutmish al-Sultan.
Qutb Minar was completed by Iltutmish
Hauz-i-Shamsi pavilion
Gandhak ki Baoli
Sultan Ghari

Shams ud-Din Iltutmish, (died 30 April 1236, (r.

- Iltutmish

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Commonly pronounced Badayun is a city and a seat of Budaun district, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Mission House of the Methodist Episcopal Church at Budaun (1895)

Budaun was the capital of Delhi Sultanate for four years from 1210 CE to 1214 CE during Sultan Iltutmish rule.

Qutb ud-Din Aibak

General of the Ghurid king Muhammad Ghori.

Grave of Sultan Qutb ud-Din Aybak, in Anarkali Bazaar in Lahore
The Adhai Din Ka Jhonpra mosque in Ajmer was started in 1192 and completed in 1199 by Qutb al-Din Aibak.
The Qutb Minar in Delhi was started by Qutb al-Din Aibak in 1199 and completed by his son-in-law Iltutmish in 1220. It is an example of the Mamluk dynasty's works
A modern artist's impression of the accident that caused Aibak's death
Tomb of Qutb al-Din Aibak (renovated in 1970) in Anarkali Bazaar in Lahore.

Aibak was succeeded by Aram Shah, and then by his son-in-law Iltutmish, who transformed the loosely-held Ghurid territories of India into the powerful Delhi Sultanate.


Islamic practice of tax farming that became common in Muslim Asia during the Buyid dynasty.

Bill of sale of a male slave and a building in Shuruppak, Sumerian tablet, circa 2600 BC

During the rule of Mamluk dynasty in India, Shamsa ud-din Iltutmish established the "Iqta' system" based on Mohammad Gori's ideas.

Mamluk dynasty (Delhi)

Founded in Northern India by Qutb ud-Din Aibak, a Turkic Mamluk slave-general of the Ghurid Empire from Central Asia.

Territory of the Delhi Mamluk Dynasty.
Coin of Ghiyath al-Din 'Iwad, Governor of Bengal, AH 614-616 AD 1217-1220. Struck in the name of Shams al-Din Iltutmish, Sultan of Dehli.
Tomb of Iltutmish (r. 1211–1236) in the Qutub Minar complex.
The Quwwat-ul-Islam ("Might of Islam") mosque, at the Qutb complex in Delhi, started in 1193 CE by Qutb-ud-din-Aibak to mark his victory over the Rajputs
Intricate stone carvings on the cloister columns at Quwwat ul-Islam Mosque, Qutb complex, Delhi. These are recuperated Hindu pillars sporting Hindu iconography.
The Adhai Din Ka Jhonpra mosque in Ajmer was started in 1192 and completed in 1199 by Qutb al-Din Aibak.
thumb|Decoration inside the Marble Mehrab at Sultan Ghari

However, his reign as the Sultan of Delhi was short-lived as he died in 1210 and his son Aram Shah rose to the throne, only to be assassinated by Iltutmish in 1211.


Major city in the central Indian state of Madhya Pradesh; it lies in northern part of the state and is one of the Counter-magnet cities.

Coin of the Alchon Huns king Mihirakula, who ruled in Gwalior circa 520 CE.
The Maharaja of Gwalior Before His Palace c. 1887 CE.
Jain statues at Siddhachal Caves inside Gwalior Fort.
The Maan Mandir Palace at Gwalior Fort.
Map of the city, ca 1914
A King George VI stamp of 1949, inscribed 'GWALIOR'
Sambhar at Gandhi Zoological Park (Gwalior zoo)
The town hall situated at Maharaj Bada
Gwalior Junction
Tomb of Tansen
Captain Roop Singh Stadium
Girls Hostel, IIITM Gwalior
Front view of Madhav Institute of Technology & Science, Gwalior
Statue of Madhav Rao Scindia at MITS, Gwalior
ITM GOI Gwalior
Gwalior Fair
traffic outside Deen Dayal City mall
Jiwaji Chowk at Gwalior
view of Gwalior Fort from the Old city
Gwalior fort front side view
Rock cut images of the Tirthankaras.
The view of scindia palace from the fort
view of Gujri Mahal and nearby areas from Gwalior Fort
Jai Vilas Palace
Gaus Mohammad tomb
Sun Temple
Tighra Dam
Statue Guarding Entrance to Gujari Mahal
One of the Seven Gates of the Gwalior Fort
Gujari Mahal, now a museum, inside Gwalior Fort
Sas-Bahu Ka Mandir at Gwalior Fort
Former central press at Gwalior
Beautiful Chinese hand craft work on the walls of Gwalior Fort
Former Vidhan Sabha when Gwalior was capital of Madhya Bharat
Tomb of Mohammad Ghauz

In 1231 Iltutmish captured Gwalior after an 11-month-long effort and from then till the 13th century it remained under Muslim rule.


Khokhar are a Punjabi Muslim community currently residing in adjoining areas of India and Pakistan.

Map showing the sites and extent of the Indus Valley Civilisation. Harappa was the center of one of the core regions of the Indus Valley Civilization, located in central Punjab. The Harappan architecture and Harrapan Civilization was one of the most developed in the old Bronze Age.

In 1240 CE, Razia, daughter of Shams-ud-din Iltutmish, and her husband, Altunia, attempted to recapture the throne from her brother, Muizuddin Bahram Shah.

Delhi Sultanate

Islamic empire based in Delhi that stretched over large parts of South Asia for 320 years .

Map of the Delhi Sultanate at its zenith under the Turko–Indian Tughlaq dynasty.
Delhi Sultanate from 1206 to 1290 AD under the Mamluk dynasty.
Alai Gate and Qutub Minar were built during the Mamluk and Khalji dynasties of the Delhi Sultanate.
Delhi Sultanate from 1321 to 1330 AD under the Tughlaq dynasty. After 1330, various regions rebelled against the Sultanate and the kingdom shrank.
Daulatabad Fort in the 1700s
A base metal coin of Muhammad bin Tughlaq that led to an economic collapse.
The Mahmud Gawan Madrasah built by the resultant Bahmanid kingdom
Delhi Sultanate during Babur's invasion.
The Qutb Minar (left, begun c. 1200) next to the Alai Darwaza gatehouse (1311); Qutb Complex in Delhi
Tomb of Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq (d. 1325), Delhi
Screen of the Adhai Din Ka Jhonpra mosque, Ajmer, {{circa|1229}}; Corbel arches, some cusped.
Mausoleum of Iltutmish, Delhi, by 1236, with corbel arches
Possibly the first "true" arches in India; Tomb of Balban (d. 1287) in Delhi
Pavilions in the Hauz Khas Complex, Delhi
The Sheesh Gumbad in the Lodi Gardens, Delhi
Tomb of Sikander Lodi in the Lodi Gardens, Delhi
The Somnath Temple in Gujarat was repeatedly destroyed by Muslim armies and rebuilt by Hindus. It was destroyed by Delhi Sultanate's army in 1299 CE.<ref name=eaton200080>Eaton (2000), Temple desecration in pre-modern India Frontline, p. 73, item 16 of the Table, Archived by Columbia University</ref>
The Kashi Vishwanath Temple was destroyed by the army of Qutb-ud-din Aibak.<ref name="SPUday2005">{{cite book |author=S. P. Udayakumar |title=Presenting the Past: Anxious History and Ancient Future in Hindutva India |url= |date=1 January 2005 |publisher=Greenwood Publishing Group |isbn=978-0-275-97209-7 |pages=99 }}</ref>
Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khilji, the military general of Delhi Sultan Qutb al-Din Aibak, was responsible for the destruction of Nalanda university.<ref>History of Ancient India: Earliest Times to 1000 A. D.; Radhey Shyam Chaurasia, Atlantic, 2009 [p191]</ref>
The armies of Delhi Sultanate led by Muslim Commander Malik Kafur plundered the Meenakshi Temple and looted it of its valuables.<ref name="Ernst2004p109">{{cite book|author=Carl W. Ernst| title=Eternal Garden: Mysticism, History, and Politics at a South Asian Sufi Center| url=|year=2004|publisher=Oxford University Press|isbn=978-0-19-566869-8|page=109}}</ref><ref>{{cite book|author=Sarojini Chaturvedi|title=A short history of South India|url=| year=2006|publisher= Saṁskṛiti|isbn=978-81-87374-37-4|page=209}}</ref><ref name="Eraly2015chid">{{cite book|author=Abraham Eraly|title=The Age of Wrath: A History of the Delhi Sultanate|url=| year=2015|publisher= Penguin Books|isbn=978-93-5118-658-8|pages=155–156}}</ref>
Kakatiya Kala Thoranam (Warangal Gate) built by the Kakatiya dynasty in ruins; one of the many temple complexes destroyed by the Delhi Sultanate.
Rani ki vav is a stepwell, built by the Chaulukya dynasty, located in Patan; the city was sacked by Sultan of Delhi Qutb-ud-din Aybak between 1200 and 1210, and again by the Allauddin Khilji in 1298.{{sfn|Lal|1950|p=84}}
Artistic rendition of the Kirtistambh at Rudra Mahalaya Temple. The temple was destroyed by Alauddin Khalji.<ref name="Burgess1874">{{cite book|last1=Burgess|last2=Murray|title=Photographs of Architecture and Scenery in Gujarat and Rajputana|chapter-url=|access-date=23 July 2016|year=1874|publisher=Bourne and Shepherd|page=19|chapter=The Rudra Mala at Siddhpur}}</ref>
Exterior wall reliefs at Hoysaleswara Temple. The temple was twice sacked and plundered by the Delhi Sultanate.<ref name="Bradnock2000p959">{{cite book|author1=Robert Bradnock|author2=Roma Bradnock|title=India Handbook|url=|year=2000|publisher=McGraw-Hill |isbn=978-0-658-01151-1|page=959}}</ref>

After Aibak died, Aram Shah assumed power in 1210, but he was assassinated in 1211 by Aibak's son-in-law, Shams ud-Din Iltutmish.


City in Ujjain district of the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh.

The Mahavira Tapo Bhumi.
The famed historical Mahakaleshwar Jyotirlinga temple is in Ujjain
The Jantar Mantar at Ujjain was commissioned by Jai Singh II (1688-1743) of Jaipur.
Harsiddhi Marg in Ujjain
Ujjain Station
Ujjain-Indore Highway

In 1235 CE, Iltutmish of Delhi Sultanate plundered the city.


Capital of the Pakistani province of Punjab, is Pakistan's 2nd largest city after Karachi, and is the 26th largest city in the world.

The Lava Temple at the Lahore Fort dates from the Sikh period, and is dedicated to the Hindu deity Lava
The Data Darbar shrine, one of Pakistan's most important, was built to commemorate the patron saint of Lahore, Ali Hujwiri, who lived in the city during the Ghaznavid era in the 11th century.
The Neevin Mosque is one of Lahore's few remaining medieval era buildings.
Grave of Nur Jahan
Lahore's Wazir Khan Mosque is considered to be the most ornately decorated Mughal-era mosque.
The Begum Shahi Mosque was completed in 1614 in honour of Jahangir's mother, Mariam-uz-Zamani.
The iconic Alamgiri Gate of the Lahore Fort was built in 1674, and faces Aurangzeb's Badshahi Mosque.
Wazir Khan Mosque painting by William Carpenter, 1866.
The Sunehri Mosque was built in the Walled City of Lahore in the early 18th century, when the Mughal Empire was in decline.
The Tomb of Asif Khan was one of several monuments plundered for its precious building materials during the Sikh period.
Lahore's Hazuri Bagh is at the centre of an ensemble of Mughal and Sikh era monuments, including the Badshahi Mosque, Lahore Fort, Roshnai Gate, and the Samadhi of Ranjit Singh.
The marble Hazuri Bagh Baradari was built in 1818 to celebrate Ranjit Singh's acquisition of the Koh-i-Noor diamond.
Map of the Old City and environs.
The Shah Alami area of Lahore's Walled City in 1890
Having been constructed in the immediate aftermath of the 1857 Sepoy Mutiny, the design of the Lahore Railway Station was highly militarised in order to defend the structure from any further potential uprisings against British rule.
The Mall, Lahore's pre-independence commercial core, features many examples of colonial architecture.
Sections of the Walled City of Lahore have been under restoration since 2012 in conjunction with the Agha Khan Trust for Culture.
Cityscape of Lahore
The area around the Wazir Khan Mosque exemplifies the Walled City's urban form
Built in 2012, Grand Jamia Mosque in Southern Lahore is a blend of Mughal and modern architecture.
A syncretic architectural style that blends Islamic, Hindu, and Western motifs took root during the colonial era, as shown at Aitchison College.
Much of old Lahore features colonial-era buildings, such as the Tollinton Market.
Lahore's Lawrence Garden was laid in 1862.
Kalma Underpass
Lahore Metrobus
The Orange Line is Pakistan's first metro rail line.
Allama Iqbal International Airport
The Azadi Chowk is located near the Badshahi Mosque.
Lahore Ring Road
Lahore Canal during the spring Basant festival
Government College University
University of the Punjab
University of Engineering and Technology, Main Block.
Badshahi Mosque
Lahore Fort
Tomb of Jahangir
Shahi Hammam
Samadhi of Ranjit Singh
Gurdwara Dera Sahib
Haveli of Nau Nihal Singh
Hazuri Bagh
Gurdwara Janam Asthan Guru Ram Das
Lahore Museum
Lahore High Court
King Edward Medical University
Islamic Summit Minar
Grand Jamia Mosque
Provincial Assembly of the Punjab
Arfa Karim tower in Lahore
Expo Centre Lahore
PIA Head Office
Emporium Mall
Wazir Khan Mosque
Badshahi Mosque
Lahore Fort (Shahi Qila)
Minar-e-Pakistan at night
Shalimar Gardens
Pakistan playing against Argentina in 2005.
Gaddafi Stadium is one of the largest stadiums of Pakistan with a capacity of 27,000 spectators.
Gymkhana Club

The city first came under the control of the Governor of Multan, Nasir ad-Din Qabacha, before being briefly captured by the sultan of the Mamluks in Delhi, Iltutmish, in 1217.


Ancient built environment.

The walls of the 16th-century Purana Qila built on a mound whose topography is thought to match the literary description of the citadel Indraprastha in the Sanskrit-epic Mahabharata, though excavations in the vicinity have yielded no evidence of construction.
At 72.5 m, the Qutb Minar, a UNESCO World Heritage Site in Delhi, was completed during the reign of Sultan Illtutmish in the 13th century; although its style has some similarities with the Jarkurgan minaret, it is more closely related to the Ghaznavid and Ghurid minarets of Central Asia
Red Fort, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, was the main residence of the Mughal emperors for nearly 200 years.
Six stamps issued by the Government of British India to mark the inauguration of New Delhi in February 1931
Khan Market in New Delhi, now a high-end shopping district, was established in 1951 to help refugees of the Partition of India, especially those from the North West Frontier Province (NWFP). It honours Khan Abdul Jabbar Khan, Chief Minister of NWFP during the Partition.
Aerial view of Delhi in April 2016 with river Yamuna in top-right.
A dense toxic smog in New Delhi blocks out the sun. In November 2017, Delhi's chief minister described the city as a "gas chamber".
Urban sustainability analysis of the greater urban area of the city using the 'Circles of Sustainability method of the UN Global Compact Cities Programme.
Districts of Delhi
Municipalities of Delhi
Connaught Place in New Delhi is an important economic hub of the National Capital Region.
The Khari Baoli market in Old Delhi is one of the oldest and busiest in the city.
Indira Gandhi International Airport's new terminal in Delhi. It is the busiest airport in South Asia. Shown here is the immigration counter in Terminal 3.
The Delhi Transport Corporation operates three types of compressed natural gas buses, the world's largest fleet. The red- and green-roofed buses seen in the picture have low floors whereas the orange buses have standard height. The elevated Delhi metro is seen above in Azadpur.
The cycle rickshaw and the auto rickshaw are commonly used in Delhi for travelling short distances.
A platform of the New Delhi railway station shows a passenger train and freight which awaits pick up or transportation to other destinations. The pedestrian bridge overhead connects the platforms.
Delhi Metro is widely used Delhi- NCR.
Traditional pottery on display in Dilli Haat
The Pragati Maidan in Delhi hosts the World Book Fair biennially
More than a quarter of the immigrants in Delhi are from Bihar and neighboring states. Chhath, a festival of rural Bihar is now popular in Delhi.
On Basant Panchmi eve, qawwali singers wearing yellow headbands gather at the dargah of Sufi saint Nizamuddin Auliya to sing verses from Amir Khusrau.
The kitchen of Karim's, Old Delhi, a historic restaurant located near Jama Masjid. 
 Established in 1913, the restaurant has been described as "arguably the city's most famous culinary destination".
Pitampura TV Tower broadcasts programming to Delhi
Indian athletes marching into the National Stadium during the opening ceremony of the 1951 Asian Games.
The 2010 Commonwealth Games opening ceremony in Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium.
Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium.
alt=The Birla temple in Delhi with its towers.|Birla Mandir, Delhi, a Hindu temple, was inaugurated by Mahatma Gandhi in 1933
The Jama Masjid was built by the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan between 1650 and 1656
The prayer hall of Sikh Gurudwara Sis Ganj Sahib in Chandni Chowk, Old Delhi which dates to 1783

It was his successor, Iltutmish (1211–1236), who consolidated the Turkic conquest of northern India.