Image sensor

image sensorssensorsensorscamera sensordigital image sensorimageroptical sensingOVTCMOS sensordigital image sensors
An image sensor or imager is a sensor that detects and conveys information used to make an image.wikipedia
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Camera phone

cameracamera phonescameras
Image sensors are used in electronic imaging devices of both analog and digital types, which include digital cameras, camera modules, camera phones, optical mouse devices, medical imaging equipment, night vision equipment such as thermal imaging devices, radar, sonar, and others.
Some of the more expensive camera phones have only a few of these technical disadvantages, but with bigger image sensors (a few are up to 1"), their capabilities approach those of low-end point-and-shoot cameras. In the smartphone era, the steady sales increase of camera phones caused point-and-shoot camera sales to peak about 2010 and decline thereafter. Most model lines improve their cameras every year or two.

Charge-coupled device

CCDCCD cameraCCDs
The two main types of electronic image sensors are the charge-coupled device (CCD) and the active-pixel sensor (CMOS sensor). The two main types of digital image sensors are the charge-coupled device (CCD) and the active-pixel sensor (CMOS sensor), fabricated in complementary MOS (CMOS) or N-type MOS (NMOS or Live MOS) technologies.
In a CCD image sensor, pixels are represented by p-doped metal–oxide–semiconductor (MOS) capacitors.

Camera module

camera lens modules
Image sensors are used in electronic imaging devices of both analog and digital types, which include digital cameras, camera modules, camera phones, optical mouse devices, medical imaging equipment, night vision equipment such as thermal imaging devices, radar, sonar, and others.
A camera module is an image sensor integrated with a lens, control electronics, and an interface like CSI, Ethernet or plain raw low-voltage differential signaling.

Medical imaging

imagingdiagnostic imagingdiagnostic radiology
Image sensors are used in electronic imaging devices of both analog and digital types, which include digital cameras, camera modules, camera phones, optical mouse devices, medical imaging equipment, night vision equipment such as thermal imaging devices, radar, sonar, and others.
Medical imaging equipment are manufactured using technology from the semiconductor industry, including CMOS integrated circuit chips, power semiconductor devices, sensors such as image sensors (particularly CMOS sensors) and biosensors, and processors such as microcontrollers, microprocessors, digital signal processors, media processors and system-on-chip devices.

Digital imaging

imagingdigitalelectronic imaging
As technology changes, electronic and digital imaging tends to replace chemical and analog imaging.
In all classes of digital imaging, the information is converted by image sensors into digital signals that are processed by a computer and made output as a visible-light image.

CMOS

RF CMOScomplementary metal–oxide–semiconductorcomplementary MOS
The two main types of electronic image sensors are the charge-coupled device (CCD) and the active-pixel sensor (CMOS sensor). The two main types of digital image sensors are the charge-coupled device (CCD) and the active-pixel sensor (CMOS sensor), fabricated in complementary MOS (CMOS) or N-type MOS (NMOS or Live MOS) technologies.
CMOS technology is also used for analog circuits such as image sensors (CMOS sensors), data converters, RF circuits (RF CMOS), and highly integrated transceivers for many types of communication.

Optical mouse

modern optical computer mouseoptical micecomputer mouse pointing devices
Image sensors are used in electronic imaging devices of both analog and digital types, which include digital cameras, camera modules, camera phones, optical mouse devices, medical imaging equipment, night vision equipment such as thermal imaging devices, radar, sonar, and others.
The other type, invented by Richard F. Lyon of Xerox, used a 16-pixel visible-light image sensor with integrated motion detection on the same ntype (5µm) MOS integrated circuit chip, and tracked the motion of light dots in a dark field of a printed paper or similar mouse pad.

Back-illuminated sensor

BSIback-side illuminated sensorBackside illumination
Some CMOS imaging sensors also use Back-side illumination to increase the number of photons that hit the photodiode.
A back-illuminated sensor, also known as backside illumination (BSI or BI) sensor, is a type of digital image sensor that uses a novel arrangement of the imaging elements to increase the amount of light captured and thereby improve low-light performance.

Image sensor format

FOV crop1/2.331/1.7
For sensors of comparable types, the signal-to-noise ratio and dynamic range improve as the size increases.
For a simplified discussion of image sensors see image sensor.''

Flat-panel detector

flat panel detectorflat panel detectorsflat panel x-ray detectors
Digital sensors include flat-panel detectors.
Flat-panel detectors are a class of solid-state x-ray digital radiography devices similar in principle to the image sensors used in digital photography and video.

Live MOS

MOS
The two main types of digital image sensors are the charge-coupled device (CCD) and the active-pixel sensor (CMOS sensor), fabricated in complementary MOS (CMOS) or N-type MOS (NMOS or Live MOS) technologies.
The Live MOS sensor is a brand name of an NMOS Image sensor used by Panasonic, Olympus and Leica in their Four Thirds System DSLR manufactured since 2006.

Color filter array

color filter array (CFA)CFAchroma
In photography, a color filter array (CFA), or color filter mosaic (CFM), is a mosaic of tiny color filters placed over the pixel sensors of an image sensor to capture color information.

Shutter (photography)

shutterleaf shuttershutters
Exposure time of image sensors is generally controlled by either a conventional mechanical shutter, as in film cameras, or by an electronic shutter.
In photography, a shutter is a device that allows light to pass for a determined period, exposing photographic film or a photosensitive digital sensor to light in order to capture a permanent image of a scene.

Shutter speed

exposure timeexposure timesshutter speeds
Exposure time of image sensors is generally controlled by either a conventional mechanical shutter, as in film cameras, or by an electronic shutter.
The amount of light that reaches the film or image sensor is proportional to the exposure time.

Bayer filter

Bayer patternBayer sensorBayer
Its particular arrangement of color filters is used in most single-chip digital image sensors used in digital cameras, camcorders, and scanners to create a color image.

Foveon X3 sensor

Foveon X3FoveonSigma Foveon X3
The Foveon X3 sensor is an image sensor for digital cameras, designed by Foveon, Inc. (now part of Sigma Corporation) and manufactured by Dongbu Electronics.

Demosaicing

demosaicDebayeringdemosaiced
A demosaicing (also de-mosaicing, demosaicking or debayering) algorithm is a digital image process used to reconstruct a full color image from the incomplete color samples output from an image sensor overlaid with a color filter array (CFA).

Three-CCD camera

3CCDthree-CCDcolour-separated signals
A three-CCD (3CCD) camera is a camera whose imaging system uses three separate charge-coupled devices (CCDs), each one receiving filtered red, green, or blue color ranges.

Sensor

sensorsdetectorsensing
An image sensor or imager is a sensor that detects and conveys information used to make an image.
MOS technology is the basis for modern image sensors, including the charge-coupled device (CCD) and the CMOS active-pixel sensor (CMOS sensor), used in digital imaging and digital cameras.

Video camera tube

vidiconorthiconcamera tube
Early analog sensors for visible light were video camera tubes.
Video camera tubes were devices based on the cathode ray tube that were used to capture television images prior to the introduction of charge-coupled device (CCD) image sensors in the 1980s.

Active-pixel sensor

CMOS sensorCMOSactive pixel sensor
The two main types of electronic image sensors are the charge-coupled device (CCD) and the active-pixel sensor (CMOS sensor). The two main types of digital image sensors are the charge-coupled device (CCD) and the active-pixel sensor (CMOS sensor), fabricated in complementary MOS (CMOS) or N-type MOS (NMOS or Live MOS) technologies.
An active-pixel sensor (APS) is an image sensor where each pixel sensor unit cell has a photodetector (typically a pinned photodiode) and one or more active transistors.

SCMOS

Another design, a hybrid CCD/CMOS architecture (sold under the name "sCMOS") consists of CMOS readout integrated circuits (ROICs) that are bump bonded to a CCD imaging substrate – a technology that was developed for infrared staring arrays and has been adapted to silicon-based detector technology.
The companies Andor Technology, Fairchild Imaging and PCO Imaging developed the technology for image sensors as a joint venture.

Digital image

digital imagesimagesimage
The two main types of digital image sensors are the charge-coupled device (CCD) and the active-pixel sensor (CMOS sensor), fabricated in complementary MOS (CMOS) or N-type MOS (NMOS or Live MOS) technologies.
The basis for digital image sensors is metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) technology, which originates from the invention of the MOSFET (MOS field-effect transistor) by Mohamed M. Atalla and Dawon Kahng at Bell Labs in 1959.

Digital camera

digital camerasdigitalcompact digital camera
Image sensors are used in electronic imaging devices of both analog and digital types, which include digital cameras, camera modules, camera phones, optical mouse devices, medical imaging equipment, night vision equipment such as thermal imaging devices, radar, sonar, and others.
The basis for digital camera image sensors is metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) technology, which originates from the invention of the MOSFET (MOS field-effect transistor) by Mohamed M. Atalla and Dawon Kahng at Bell Labs in 1959.

Capacitor

capacitorscapacitivecondenser
It is a type of photodiode array, with pixels containing a p-n junction, integrated capacitor, and MOSFETs as selection transistors.
The MOS capacitor was later widely adopted as a storage capacitor in memory chips, and as the basic building block of the charge-coupled device (CCD) in image sensor technology.