Immanuel Kant

KantKantianKant, ImmanuelEmanuel KantEmmanuel KantChinaman of Koenigsbergclose relationship between God and ethicsdogmatic slumberEmmanuel Kant.Imanuel Kant
Immanuel Kant (, ; ; 22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was an influential Prussian German philosopher in the Age of Enlightenment.wikipedia
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Transcendental idealism

transcendentaltranscendentTranscendental idealist
In his doctrine of transcendental idealism, he argued that space, time, and causation are mere sensibilities; "things-in-themselves" exist, but their nature is unknowable.
Transcendental idealism is a doctrine founded by German philosopher Immanuel Kant in the 18th century.

Causality

causalcause and effectcausation
In his doctrine of transcendental idealism, he argued that space, time, and causation are mere sensibilities; "things-in-themselves" exist, but their nature is unknowable.
Kant thought that time and space were notions prior to human understanding of the progress or evolution of the world, and he also recognized the priority of causality.

Age of Enlightenment

Enlightenmentthe EnlightenmentFrench Enlightenment
Immanuel Kant (, ; ; 22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was an influential Prussian German philosopher in the Age of Enlightenment.
The major figures of the Enlightenment included Beccaria, Baruch Spinoza, Diderot, Kant, Hume, Rousseau and Adam Smith.

Metaphysics

metaphysicalmetaphysicianmetaphysic
In one of Kant's major works, the Critique of Pure Reason (1781), he attempted to explain the relationship between reason and human experience and to move beyond the failures of traditional philosophy and metaphysics.
Some philosophers, notably Kant, discuss both of these "worlds" and what can be inferred about each one.

Morality

moralmoralsmoral code
Kant believed that reason is the source of morality, and that aesthetics arise from a faculty of disinterested judgment.
Likewise, certain types of ethical theories, especially deontological ethics, sometimes distinguish between ethics and morals: "Although the morality of people and their ethics amounts to the same thing, there is a usage that restricts morality to systems such as that of Immanuel Kant, based on notions such as duty, obligation, and principles of conduct, reserving ethics for the more Aristotelian approach to practical reasoning, based on the notion of a virtue, and generally avoiding the separation of 'moral' considerations from other practical considerations."

Perpetual peace

lasting peaceKantian Peace Trianglepermanent peace
Kant was an exponent of the idea that perpetual peace could be secured through universal democracy and international cooperation.
The term perpetual peace became acknowledged when German philosopher Immanuel Kant published his 1795 essay Perpetual Peace: A Philosophical Sketch.

Space

spatialphysical spacereal space
In his doctrine of transcendental idealism, he argued that space, time, and causation are mere sensibilities; "things-in-themselves" exist, but their nature is unknowable.
Later, the metaphysician Immanuel Kant said that the concepts of space and time are not empirical ones derived from experiences of the outside world—they are elements of an already given systematic framework that humans possess and use to structure all experiences.

Critique of Practical Reason

Kritik der praktischen Vernunft
These include the Universal Natural History (1755), the Critique of Practical Reason (1788), the Metaphysics of Morals (1797), and the Critique of Judgment (1790), which looks at aesthetics and teleology.
The Critique of Practical Reason (Kritik der praktischen Vernunft) is the second of Immanuel Kant's three critiques, published in 1788.

Universal Natural History and Theory of the Heavens

Universal Natural History and Theory of HeavenAllgemeine Naturgeschichte und Theorie des HimmelsGeneral Natural History and Theory of the Heavens
These include the Universal Natural History (1755), the Critique of Practical Reason (1788), the Metaphysics of Morals (1797), and the Critique of Judgment (1790), which looks at aesthetics and teleology. The next year, he expanded this reasoning to the formation and evolution of the Solar System in his Universal Natural History and Theory of the Heavens.
Universal Natural History and Theory of the Heavens (Allgemeine Naturgeschichte und Theorie des Himmels), subtitled or an Attempt to Account for the Constitutional and Mechanical Origin of the Universe upon Newtonian Principles, is a work written and published anonymously by Immanuel Kant in 1755.

Teleology

teleologicalteleologicallypurpose
These include the Universal Natural History (1755), the Critique of Practical Reason (1788), the Metaphysics of Morals (1797), and the Critique of Judgment (1790), which looks at aesthetics and teleology.
In the late 18th century, Immanuel Kant used the concept of telos as a regulative principle in his Critique of Judgment.

David Hume

HumeHumeanHume, David
Kant wanted to put an end to an era of futile and speculative theories of human experience, while resisting the skepticism of thinkers such as David Hume.
Hume influenced utilitarianism, logical positivism, Immanuel Kant, the philosophy of science, early analytic philosophy, cognitive science, theology, and other movements and thinkers.

Königsberg

Königsberg in PrussiaKönigsberg, PrussiaKöningsberg
Kant's mother, Anna Regina Reuter (1697–1737), was born in Königsberg (since 1946 the city of Kaliningrad, Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia) to a father from Nuremberg.
A university city, home of the Albertina University (founded in 1544), Königsberg developed into an important German intellectual and cultural centre, being the residence of Simon Dach, Immanuel Kant, Käthe Kollwitz, E. T. A. Hoffmann, David Hilbert, Agnes Miegel, Hannah Arendt, Michael Wieck and others.

Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals

Groundwork of the Metaphysics of MoralsFundamental Principles of the Metaphysic of MoralsGrundlegung zur Metaphysik der Sitten
In his Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals, he reveals a belief in immortality as the necessary condition of humanity's approach to the highest morality possible.
Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals (Grundlegung zur Metaphysik der Sitten; 1785; also known as the Foundations of the Metaphysics of Morals, Grounding of the Metaphysics of Morals and the Grounding for the Metaphysics of Morals) is the first of Immanuel Kant's mature works on moral philosophy and remains one of the most influential in the field.

Observations on the Feeling of the Beautiful and Sublime

assumptions about the sublime
Common myths about Kant's personal mannerisms are listed, explained, and refuted in Goldthwait's introduction to his translation of Observations on the Feeling of the Beautiful and Sublime.
Observations on the Feeling of the Beautiful and Sublime (Beobachtungen über das Gefühl des Schönen und Erhabenen) is a 1764 book by Immanuel Kant.

Friedrich Nietzsche

NietzscheNietzscheanFriedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche
The nature of Kant's religious ideas continues to be the subject of philosophical dispute, with viewpoints ranging from the impression that he was an initial advocate of atheism who at some point developed an ontological argument for God, to more critical treatments epitomized by Nietzsche, who claimed that Kant had "theologian blood" and was merely a sophisticated apologist for traditional Christian faith.
Lange's descriptions of Kant's anti-materialistic philosophy, the rise of European Materialism, Europe's increased concern with science, Charles Darwin's theory of evolution, and the general rebellion against tradition and authority intrigued Nietzsche greatly.

Kaliningrad

KönigsbergKaliningrad, RussiaKrólewiec
Kant's mother, Anna Regina Reuter (1697–1737), was born in Königsberg (since 1946 the city of Kaliningrad, Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia) to a father from Nuremberg.
Immanuel Kant and E. T. A. Hoffmann, the notable sons of the city, were born during this time.

Atheism

atheistatheistsatheistic
The nature of Kant's religious ideas continues to be the subject of philosophical dispute, with viewpoints ranging from the impression that he was an initial advocate of atheism who at some point developed an ontological argument for God, to more critical treatments epitomized by Nietzsche, who claimed that Kant had "theologian blood" and was merely a sophisticated apologist for traditional Christian faith.
The rationalistic agnosticism of Kant and the Enlightenment only accepts knowledge deduced with human rationality; this form of atheism holds that gods are not discernible as a matter of principle, and therefore cannot be known to exist.

Christian Wolff (philosopher)

Christian WolffWolffChristian von Wolff
He studied the philosophy of Gottfried Leibniz and Christian Wolff under Martin Knutzen (Associate Professor of Logic and Metaphysics from 1734 until his death in 1751), a rationalist who was also familiar with developments in British philosophy and science and introduced Kant to the new mathematical physics of Isaac Newton.
Wolff was the most eminent German philosopher between Leibniz and Kant.

Joseph Green (merchant)

Joseph Green
He had a circle of friends with whom he frequently met, among them Joseph Green, an English merchant in Königsberg.
Joseph Green (1727 – 27 June 1786) was an English merchant who became the "best friend" of Immanuel Kant.

Martin Knutzen

Knutzen
He studied the philosophy of Gottfried Leibniz and Christian Wolff under Martin Knutzen (Associate Professor of Logic and Metaphysics from 1734 until his death in 1751), a rationalist who was also familiar with developments in British philosophy and science and introduced Kant to the new mathematical physics of Isaac Newton.
Martin Knutzen (14 December 1713 – 29 January 1751) was a German philosopher, a follower of Christian Wolff and teacher of Immanuel Kant, to whom he introduced the physics of Isaac Newton.

Nebular hypothesis

planet formationplanetary formationformation
In the Universal Natural History, Kant laid out the Nebular hypothesis, in which he deduced that the Solar System had formed from a large cloud of gas, a nebula.
The theory was developed by Immanuel Kant and published in his Allgemeine Naturgeschichte und Theorie des Himmels ("Universal Natural History and Theory of the Heavens"), published in 1755 and then modified in 1796 by Pierre Laplace.

Reason

reasoningratiocinationhuman reason
Kant believed that reason is the source of morality, and that aesthetics arise from a faculty of disinterested judgment.
In the 18th century, Immanuel Kant attempted to show that Hume was wrong by demonstrating that a "transcendental" self, or "I", was a necessary condition of all experience.

Formation and evolution of the Solar System

solar nebulaformation of the Solar Systemoutward
The next year, he expanded this reasoning to the formation and evolution of the Solar System in his Universal Natural History and Theory of the Heavens.
This model, known as the nebular hypothesis was first developed in the 18th century by Emanuel Swedenborg, Immanuel Kant, and Pierre-Simon Laplace.

Idealism

idealistidealisticidealists
He also dissuaded Kant from idealism, the idea that reality is purely mental, which most philosophers in the 18th century regarded in a negative light.
Beginning with Immanuel Kant, German idealists such as Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling, and Arthur Schopenhauer dominated 19th-century philosophy.

The Metaphysics of Morals

Metaphysics of Morals
These include the Universal Natural History (1755), the Critique of Practical Reason (1788), the Metaphysics of Morals (1797), and the Critique of Judgment (1790), which looks at aesthetics and teleology.
The Metaphysics of Morals (Die Metaphysik der Sitten) is a 1797 work of political and moral philosophy by Immanuel Kant.