Immunoglobulin E

IgEIgE antibodiesImmunoglobulin E (IgE)immunoglobulin epsilon-chains immunoglobulin E (IgE)anti-IgEAntibody IgEEIgE antibodyimmunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies
Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is a type of antibody (or immunoglobulin (Ig) "isotype") that has only been found in mammals.wikipedia
280 Related Articles

Antibody

antibodiesimmunoglobulinimmunoglobulins
Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is a type of antibody (or immunoglobulin (Ig) "isotype") that has only been found in mammals.
For example, IgE is responsible for an allergic response consisting of mast cell degranulation and histamine release.

Allergic rhinitis

hay feverhayfeverhay-fever
IgE also has an essential role in type I hypersensitivity, which manifests in various allergic diseases, such as allergic asthma, most types of sinusitis, allergic rhinitis, food allergies, and specific types of chronic urticaria and atopic dermatitis.
The underlying mechanism involves IgE antibodies attaching to the allergen and causing the release of inflammatory chemicals such as histamine from mast cells.

Atopy

atopicatopic disordersallergic diseases
Although IgE is typically the least abundant isotype—blood serum IgE levels in a normal ("non-atopic") individual are only 0.05% of the Ig concentration, compared to 75% for the IgGs at 10 mg/ml, which are the isotypes responsible for most of the classical adaptive immune response—it is capable of triggering the most powerful inflammatory reactions. Atopic individuals can have up to ten times the normal level of IgE in their blood (as do sufferers of hyper-IgE syndrome).
Many physicians and scientists use the term "atopy" for any IgE-mediated reaction (even those that are appropriate and proportional to the antigen), but many pediatricians reserve the word "atopy" for a genetically mediated predisposition to an excessive IgE reaction.

Kimishige Ishizaka

Ishizaka
IgE was simultaneously discovered in 1966 and 1967 by two independent groups: Kimishige Ishizaka and his wife Teruko Ishizaka at the Children's Asthma Research Institute and Hospital in Denver, Colorado, and by S.G.O Johansson and Hans Bennich in Uppsala, Sweden.
Kimishige "Kimi" Ishizaka was a Japanese immunologist who, with his wife Terako Ishizaka, discovered the antibody class Immunoglobulin E (IgE) in 1966–1967.

Teruko Ishizaka

Terako Ishizaka
IgE was simultaneously discovered in 1966 and 1967 by two independent groups: Kimishige Ishizaka and his wife Teruko Ishizaka at the Children's Asthma Research Institute and Hospital in Denver, Colorado, and by S.G.O Johansson and Hans Bennich in Uppsala, Sweden.
Teruko "Terry" Ishizaka was a Japanese scientist and immunologist who along with her husband Kimishige Ishizaka discovered the antibody class Immunoglobulin E (IgE) in 1966.

Isotype (immunology)

isotypeisotypesimmunoglobulin isotypes
Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is a type of antibody (or immunoglobulin (Ig) "isotype") that has only been found in mammals.
IgE antibodies are present at lowest concentrations in peripheral blood but constitute the main antibody class in allergic responses through the engagement of mast cells, eosinophils and Langerhans cells.

Immune system

immuneimmune responseimmune function
IgE's main function is immunity to parasites such as helminths like Schistosoma mansoni, Trichinella spiralis, and Fasciola hepatica.
Type I hypersensitivity is mediated by IgE, which triggers degranulation of mast cells and basophils when cross-linked by antigen.

Fc receptor

Fc receptorsFcγ receptorsFc
IgE primes the IgE-mediated allergic response by binding to Fc receptors found on the surface of mast cells and basophils.
For example, those that bind the most common class of antibody, IgG, are called Fc-gamma receptors (FcγR), those that bind IgA are called Fc-alpha receptors (FcαR) and those that bind IgE are called Fc-epsilon receptors (FcεR).

FCER1

FcεRIhigh affinity IgE receptora receptor
The high-affinity IgE receptor, also known as FcεRI, or Fc epsilon RI, is the high-affinity receptor for the Fc region of immunoglobulin E (IgE), an antibody isotype involved in the allergy disorder and parasites immunity.

Allergen

allergensallergenicantiallergic
IgE that can specifically recognise an allergen (typically this is a protein, such as dust mite Der p 1, cat Fel d 1, grass or ragweed pollen, etc.) has a unique long-lived interaction with its high-affinity receptor FcεRI so that basophils and mast cells, capable of mediating inflammatory reactions, become "primed", ready to release chemicals like histamine, leukotrienes, and certain interleukins.
In technical terms, an allergen is an antigen that is capable of stimulating a type-I hypersensitivity reaction in atopic individuals through Immunoglobulin E (IgE) responses.

Adaptive immune system

adaptive immunityadaptive immune responseadaptive
Although IgE is typically the least abundant isotype—blood serum IgE levels in a normal ("non-atopic") individual are only 0.05% of the Ig concentration, compared to 75% for the IgGs at 10 mg/ml, which are the isotypes responsible for most of the classical adaptive immune response—it is capable of triggering the most powerful inflammatory reactions.
In mammals, there are five types of antibody: IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM, differing in biological properties; each has evolved to handle different kinds of antigens.

Interleukin 4

IL-4interleukin-4IL4
Basophils, which share a common haemopoietic progenitor with mast cells, upon the cross-linking of their surface bound IgE by antigens, also release type 2 cytokines like interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interleukin-13 (IL-13) and other inflammatory mediators.
IL-4 induces B-cell class switching to IgE, and up-regulates MHC class II production.

Hyperimmunoglobulin E syndrome

Job's syndromeHyper-IgE syndromeJob syndrome
Atopic individuals can have up to ten times the normal level of IgE in their blood (as do sufferers of hyper-IgE syndrome).
It is characterized by recurrent "cold" staphylococcal infections (due to impaired recruitment of neutrophils), unusual eczema-like skin rashes, severe lung infections that result in pneumatoceles (balloon-like lesions that may be filled with air or pus or scar tissue) and very high concentrations of the serum antibody IgE.

Degranulation

degranulatedegranulatingmast cell degranulation
Binding of antigens to IgE already bound by the FcεRI on mast cells causes cross-linking of the bound IgE and the aggregation of the underlying FcεRI, leading to degranulation (the release of mediators from the cells) and the secretion of several types of type 2 cytokines like IL-3 and Stem Cell Factor (SCF) which both help the mast cells survive and accumulate in tissue, IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 as well as IL-33 which in turn activate group 2-innate lymphoid cells (ILC2, or natural helper cells).
Antigens interact with IgE molecules already bound to high affinity Fc receptors on the surface of mast cells to induce degranulation, via the activation of tyrosine kinases within the cell.

Mast cell

mast cellsanaphylactic degranulationMast cell disease
IgE primes the IgE-mediated allergic response by binding to Fc receptors found on the surface of mast cells and basophils. IgE that can specifically recognise an allergen (typically this is a protein, such as dust mite Der p 1, cat Fel d 1, grass or ragweed pollen, etc.) has a unique long-lived interaction with its high-affinity receptor FcεRI so that basophils and mast cells, capable of mediating inflammatory reactions, become "primed", ready to release chemicals like histamine, leukotrienes, and certain interleukins.
The Fc region of immunoglobulin E (IgE) becomes bound to mast cells and basophils and when IgE's paratopes bind to an antigen, it causes the cells to release histamine and other inflammatory mediators.

Interleukin 13

IL-13interleukin-13IL13
Basophils, which share a common haemopoietic progenitor with mast cells, upon the cross-linking of their surface bound IgE by antigens, also release type 2 cytokines like interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interleukin-13 (IL-13) and other inflammatory mediators.
Furthermore, IL-13 can induce immunoglobulin E (IgE) secretion from activated human B cells.

Fel d 1

Fel d1cat allergen
IgE that can specifically recognise an allergen (typically this is a protein, such as dust mite Der p 1, cat Fel d 1, grass or ragweed pollen, etc.) has a unique long-lived interaction with its high-affinity receptor FcεRI so that basophils and mast cells, capable of mediating inflammatory reactions, become "primed", ready to release chemicals like histamine, leukotrienes, and certain interleukins.
The protein is of an unknown function to the animal but causes an IgG or IgE reaction in sensitive humans (either as an allergic or asthmatic response).

CD23

FcεRIIFCER223
Regulation of IgE levels through control of B cell differentiation to antibody-secreting plasma cells is thought to involve the "low-affinity" receptor FcεRII, or CD23.
CD23, also known as Fc epsilon RII, or FcεRII, is the "low-affinity" receptor for IgE, an antibody isotype involved in allergy and resistance to parasites, and is important in regulation of IgE levels.

Histamine

histaminesHistaminantihistaminic
IgE that can specifically recognise an allergen (typically this is a protein, such as dust mite Der p 1, cat Fel d 1, grass or ragweed pollen, etc.) has a unique long-lived interaction with its high-affinity receptor FcεRI so that basophils and mast cells, capable of mediating inflammatory reactions, become "primed", ready to release chemicals like histamine, leukotrienes, and certain interleukins.
These cells, if sensitized by IgE antibodies attached to their membranes, degranulate when exposed to the appropriate antigen.

Omalizumab

Xolairanti-IgEmonoclonal anti-IgE antibodies
If this were the case, anti-IgE treatments such as omalizumab (for allergies) might have some undesirable side effects.
Omalizumab is a recombinant DNA-derived humanized IgG1k monoclonal antibody that specifically binds to free human immunoglobulin E (IgE) in the blood and interstitial fluid and to membrane-bound form of IgE (mIgE) on the surface of mIgE-expressing B lymphocytes.

Basophil

basophilsbasophil granulocytebasophilic
IgE primes the IgE-mediated allergic response by binding to Fc receptors found on the surface of mast cells and basophils. IgE that can specifically recognise an allergen (typically this is a protein, such as dust mite Der p 1, cat Fel d 1, grass or ragweed pollen, etc.) has a unique long-lived interaction with its high-affinity receptor FcεRI so that basophils and mast cells, capable of mediating inflammatory reactions, become "primed", ready to release chemicals like histamine, leukotrienes, and certain interleukins.
Interleukin-4 is considered one of the critical cytokines in the development of allergies and the production of IgE antibody by the immune system.

Tanox

Tanox, a biotech company based in Houston, Texas, proposed in 1987 that by targeting membrane-bound IgE (mIgE) on B lymphoblast and memory B cells, those cells can be lysed or down-regulated, thus achieving the inhibition of the production of antigen-specific IgE and hence a shift of immune balance toward non-IgE mechanisms.
Tanox's major technology was based on a series of inventions and a family of dominant patents, most notably those relating to the "anti-IgE therapy", the "migis concept", and the "anti-CεmX approach", that pertained to the use of humanized antibodies for targeting immunoglobulin E (IgE) and IgE-expressing B lymphocytes for the treatment of allergic diseases.

Anaphylaxis

anaphylactic shockanaphylacticanaphylactic reaction
IgE also plays a pivotal role in responses to allergens, such as: anaphylactic drugs, bee stings, and antigen preparations used in desensitization immunotherapy.
In the immunologic mechanism, immunoglobulin E (IgE) binds to the antigen (the foreign material that provokes the allergic reaction).

Peptidase 1 (mite)

Der p 1Peptidase 1
IgE that can specifically recognise an allergen (typically this is a protein, such as dust mite Der p 1, cat Fel d 1, grass or ragweed pollen, etc.) has a unique long-lived interaction with its high-affinity receptor FcεRI so that basophils and mast cells, capable of mediating inflammatory reactions, become "primed", ready to release chemicals like histamine, leukotrienes, and certain interleukins.
Der p 1 is a major source of HDM allergies, triggering immunoglobulin E binding levels of 80-90% and, combined with the group 2 allergen Der p 2, accounting for over 50% of all HDM-related IgE binding.

Hives

urticariaurticarialpapular urticaria
IgE also has an essential role in type I hypersensitivity, which manifests in various allergic diseases, such as allergic asthma, most types of sinusitis, allergic rhinitis, food allergies, and specific types of chronic urticaria and atopic dermatitis.
Histamine and other proinflammatory substances are released from mast cells in the skin and tissues in response to the binding of allergen-bound IgE antibodies to high-affinity cell surface receptors.