Impact crater

cratercratersimpact basinimpact cratersimpactmeteorite cratermeteor cratercrateredbowl-shaped craterimpacts
An impact crater is an approximately circular depression in the surface of a planet, moon, or other solid body in the Solar System or elsewhere, formed by the hypervelocity impact of a smaller body.wikipedia
2,925 Related Articles

Depression (geology)

depressionbasindepressions
An impact crater is an approximately circular depression in the surface of a planet, moon, or other solid body in the Solar System or elsewhere, formed by the hypervelocity impact of a smaller body.
* Impact crater: a depression created by an impact such as a meteorite crater.

Meteor Crater

Barringer CraterBarringer Meteor CraterBarringer Crater Company
Meteor Crater is a well-known example of a small impact crater on Earth.
Meteor Crater is a meteorite impact crater approximately 37 mi east of Flagstaff and 18 mi west of Winslow in the northern Arizona desert of the United States.

Multi-ringed basin

multi-ring basinsmulti-ringedMulti-ring impact basin
Impact craters range from small, simple, bowl-shaped depressions to large, complex, multi-ringed impact basins.
A multi-ringed basin (also a multi-ring impact basin) is not a simple bowl-shaped crater, or a peak ring crater, but one containing multiple concentric topographic rings; a multi-ringed basin could be described as a massive impact crater, surrounded by circular chains of mountains.

Moon

lunarthe MoonLuna
Impact craters are the dominant geographic features on many solid Solar System objects including the Moon, Mercury, Callisto, Ganymede and most small moons and asteroids.
The near side is marked by dark volcanic maria that fill the spaces between the bright ancient crustal highlands and the prominent impact craters.

Mars

MartianCoordinatesplanet Mars
On other planets and moons that experience more active surface geological processes, such as Earth, Venus, Mars, Europa, Io and Titan, visible impact craters are less common because they become eroded, buried or transformed by tectonics over time.
Mars is a terrestrial planet with a thin atmosphere, having surface features reminiscent both of the impact craters of the Moon and the valleys, deserts, and polar ice caps of Earth.

Ganymede (moon)

GanymedeNicholson RegioAtmosphere of Ganymede
Impact craters are the dominant geographic features on many solid Solar System objects including the Moon, Mercury, Callisto, Ganymede and most small moons and asteroids.
Dark regions, saturated with impact craters and dated to four billion years ago, cover about a third of the satellite.

Hypervelocity

hypervelocity impacthypervelocitiesvelocity
An impact crater is an approximately circular depression in the surface of a planet, moon, or other solid body in the Solar System or elsewhere, formed by the hypervelocity impact of a smaller body.
Meteorite craters are also examples of hypervelocity impacts.

Impact structure

astroblemeimpactimpacts
Where such processes have destroyed most of the original crater topography, the terms impact structure or astrobleme are more commonly used.
In contrast an impact crater is the surface expression of an impact structure.

Titan (moon)

TitanSaturn's moon Titanatmosphere
On other planets and moons that experience more active surface geological processes, such as Earth, Venus, Mars, Europa, Io and Titan, visible impact craters are less common because they become eroded, buried or transformed by tectonics over time.
The geologically young surface is generally smooth, with few impact craters, although mountains and several possible cryovolcanoes have been found.

Callisto (moon)

CallistoAtmosphere of Callistofourth Galilean moon of Jupiter
Impact craters are the dominant geographic features on many solid Solar System objects including the Moon, Mercury, Callisto, Ganymede and most small moons and asteroids.
The surface of Callisto is the oldest and most heavily cratered in the Solar System.

Venus

Morning Starevening starplanet Venus
On other planets and moons that experience more active surface geological processes, such as Earth, Venus, Mars, Europa, Io and Titan, visible impact craters are less common because they become eroded, buried or transformed by tectonics over time.
The planet has few impact craters, demonstrating that the surface is relatively young, approximately 300–600 million years old.

Mercury (planet)

MercuryMercurioplanet Mercury
Impact craters are the dominant geographic features on many solid Solar System objects including the Moon, Mercury, Callisto, Ganymede and most small moons and asteroids.
The impact that created the Caloris Basin was so powerful that it caused lava eruptions and left a concentric ring over 2 km tall surrounding the impact crater.

Ray system

ray materialrayrays
A ray system comprises radial streaks of fine ejecta thrown out during the formation of an impact crater, looking somewhat like many thin spokes coming from the hub of a wheel.

Tycho (lunar crater)

TychoTycho craterCrater Tycho
Complex-crater morphology on rocky planets appears to follow a regular sequence with increasing size: small complex craters with a central topographic peak are called central peak craters, for example Tycho; intermediate-sized craters, in which the central peak is replaced by a ring of peaks, are called peak-ring craters, for example Schrödinger; and the largest craters contain multiple concentric topographic rings, and are called multi-ringed basins, for example Orientale.
Tycho is a prominent lunar impact crater located in the southern lunar highlands, named after the Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe (1546–1601).

Europa (moon)

EuropaEuropanLife on Europa
On other planets and moons that experience more active surface geological processes, such as Earth, Venus, Mars, Europa, Io and Titan, visible impact craters are less common because they become eroded, buried or transformed by tectonics over time.
There are few craters on Europa, because its surface is tectonically too active and therefore young.

Nördlinger Ries

RiesRies CraterRies impact crater
They followed this discovery with the identification of coesite within suevite at Nördlinger Ries, proving its impact origin.
The Nördlinger Ries is an impact crater, large circular depression in western Bavaria, Germany, located north of the Danube in the district of Donau-Ries.

Cryptoexplosion

cryptoexplosivecryptovolcanic
In early literature, before the significance of impact cratering was widely recognised, the terms cryptoexplosion or cryptovolcanic structure were often used to describe what are now recognised as impact-related features on Earth.
Most structures described as cryptoexplosions turned out to be eroded impact craters, caused by the impact of meteorites.

Sikhote-Alin meteorite

Sikhote-Alinlargest observed iron meteoriteSikhote-Alin (meteorite)
These range in diameter from a few tens of meters up to about, and they range in age from recent times (e.g. the Sikhote-Alin craters in Russia whose creation was witnessed in 1947) to more than two billion years, though most are less than 500 million years old because geological processes tend to obliterate older craters.
Some of the fragments made impact craters, the largest of which was about 26 m across and 6 m deep.

Iapetus (moon)

Iapetus IapetusEquatorial ridge
Iapetus is heavily cratered, and Cassini images have revealed large impact basins, at least five of which are over wide.

Suevite

impact meltsuevitic
They followed this discovery with the identification of coesite within suevite at Nördlinger Ries, proving its impact origin.
Suevite is a rock consisting partly of melted material, typically forming a breccia containing glass and crystal or lithic fragments, formed during an impact event.

Complex crater

central peakcomplexcentral peaks
Above a certain threshold size, which varies with planetary gravity, the collapse and modification of the transient cavity is much more extensive, and the resulting structure is called a complex crater.
Complex craters are a type of large impact crater morphology.

Edward C. T. Chao

Edward Ching-Te Chao
In 1960, Edward C. T. Chao and Shoemaker identified (coesite) at Meteor Crater, proving the crater was formed from an impact generating extremely high temperatures and pressures.
However, he was best known for his work on impact geology and tektites.

Eugene Merle Shoemaker

Eugene ShoemakerE. M. ShoemakerGene Shoemaker
Around 1960, Gene Shoemaker revived the idea.
Previously, astroblemes were thought to be remnants of extinct volcanoes — even on the Moon.

Io (moon)

IoAtmosphere of IoIo torus
On other planets and moons that experience more active surface geological processes, such as Earth, Venus, Mars, Europa, Io and Titan, visible impact craters are less common because they become eroded, buried or transformed by tectonics over time.
Based on their experience with the ancient surfaces of the Moon, Mars, and Mercury, scientists expected to see numerous impact craters in Voyager 1 first images of Io.

Schrödinger (crater)

SchrödingerSchrödinger basinSchrödinger crater
Complex-crater morphology on rocky planets appears to follow a regular sequence with increasing size: small complex craters with a central topographic peak are called central peak craters, for example Tycho; intermediate-sized craters, in which the central peak is replaced by a ring of peaks, are called peak-ring craters, for example Schrödinger; and the largest craters contain multiple concentric topographic rings, and are called multi-ringed basins, for example Orientale.
Schrödinger is a large lunar impact crater of the form traditionally called a walled plain and is named after Erwin Schrödinger.