Impeachment process against Richard Nixon

impeachmentimpeachment proceedingsStennis Compromisefaced impeachmentNixon's impeachmentRichard Nixon its impeachment proceedings against him1974articles of impeachmentcompromise
An impeachment process against Richard Nixon began in the United States House of Representatives on October 30, 1973, following the "Saturday Night Massacre" episode of the Watergate scandal.wikipedia
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United States House Committee on the Judiciary

House Judiciary CommitteeClaimsHouse Judiciary
The House Judiciary Committee set up an impeachment inquiry staff and began investigations into possible impeachable offenses by Richard Nixon, the 37th President of the United States.
This committee approved articles of impeachment against Presidents in three instances: the impeachment of Andrew Johnson (1868), the impeachment process against Richard Nixon (1974), and the impeachment of Bill Clinton (1998).

List of presidents of the United States

Presidents of the United StatesU.S. PresidentsPresident of the United States
The House Judiciary Committee set up an impeachment inquiry staff and began investigations into possible impeachable offenses by Richard Nixon, the 37th President of the United States.
Of those who have served as the nation's president, four died in office of natural causes (William Henry Harrison, Zachary Taylor, Warren G. Harding, and Franklin D. Roosevelt), four were assassinated (Abraham Lincoln, James A. Garfield, William McKinley and John F. Kennedy), and one resigned (Richard Nixon, facing impeachment).

Impeachment in the United States

impeachmentimpeachedimpeach
The House Judiciary Committee set up an impeachment inquiry staff and began investigations into possible impeachable offenses by Richard Nixon, the 37th President of the United States.
Additionally, an impeachment process against Richard Nixon was commenced, but not completed, as he resigned from office before the full House voted on the articles of impeachment.

United States v. Nixon

ruled unanimouslyorder himordered
Nixon refused, but on July 24, the U.S. Supreme Court ordered him to comply.
Issued on July 24, 1974, the decision was important to the late stages of the Watergate scandal, when there was an ongoing impeachment process against Richard Nixon.

Impeachment of Bill Clinton

impeachmentimpeachment trialClinton impeachment
The other three are: Andrew Johnson (in 1868) and Bill Clinton (in 1998), who were impeached but later acquitted after trials in the Senate, and Donald Trump (in 2019), who is the subject of an ongoing impeachment inquiry.
Unlike the case of the 1974 impeachment process against Richard Nixon, the committee hearings were perfunctory but the floor debate in the whole House was spirited on both sides.

93rd United States Congress

93rd93rd CongressNinety-third
During the opening months of the 93rd Congress multiple resolutions calling for a presidential impeachment inquiry were introduced in the House; the first one to directly call for President Nixon's impeachment was introduced on July 31, 1973, by Robert Drinan.

Saturday Night Massacre

resignedfiredfired by Nixon the very next day
An impeachment process against Richard Nixon began in the United States House of Representatives on October 30, 1973, following the "Saturday Night Massacre" episode of the Watergate scandal.
The impeachment process against Richard Nixon began ten days later, on October 30.

John C. Stennis

John StennisJohn C. Stennis Center for Public Service Training and DevelopmentStennis
A compromise was offered: the White House would prepare transcripts of the tapes, Senator John C. Stennis, a Democrat, and chairman of the Senate Armed Services Committee, would be asked to listen to the tapes himself and make a comparison between the transcripts and the tapes.
In 1973, President Richard Nixon proposed the Stennis Compromise, whereby the hard-of-hearing Stennis would be allowed to listen to, and summarize, the Watergate tapes, but this idea was rejected by Special Prosecutor Archibald Cox.

United States Senate Watergate Committee

Senate Watergate CommitteeWatergate hearingsWatergate Committee
This investigation was undertaken one year after the United States Senate established a select committee to investigate the 1972 break-in at the Democratic National Committee headquarters at the Watergate office complex in Washington, D.C., and the Nixon Administration's attempted cover-up of its involvement.
Its revelations prompted the impeachment process against Nixon, which featured the introduction of articles of impeachment against Nixon himself in the House of Representatives, which led to his resignation on August 9, 1974.

Obstruction of justice

obstructing justiceobstructionobstruct justice
On July 27, 29, and 30, 1974, the Committee approved three articles of impeachment against Nixon, for obstruction of justice, abuse of power, and contempt of Congress, and reported those articles to the House of Representatives for a vote.

Nixon White House tapes

Watergate tapesWhite House tapesNixon tapes
Following a subpoena from the Judiciary Committee, in April 1974 edited transcripts of many Watergate-related conversations from the Nixon White House tapes were made public by Nixon, but the committee pressed for full tapes and additional conversations.
On October 19, 1973, he offered a compromise; Nixon proposed that U.S. Senator John C. Stennis review and summarize the tapes for accuracy and report his findings to the special prosecutor's office.

Albert E. Jenner Jr.

Albert E. Jenner, Jr.Albert E. JennerAlbert Jenner
Albert E. Jenner Jr., who had previously served as assistant counsel to the Warren Commission investigating the assassination of President Kennedy, was named in January 1974 as senior counsel on the inquiry staff for the Republican minority on the Judiciary Committee, and Sam Garrison, who previously had been staff counsel and legislative liaison to Vice President Agnew, was named deputy counsel.
He served as assistant counsel to the Warren Commission; as a member of the U.S. National Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence; and as special counsel to the House Judiciary Committee during the Watergate Scandal and the impeachment process against Richard Nixon.

President of the United States

PresidentU.S. PresidentUnited States President
The House Judiciary Committee set up an impeachment inquiry staff and began investigations into possible impeachable offenses by Richard Nixon, the 37th President of the United States.
Additionally, the House Judiciary Committee commenced impeachment proceedings against Richard Nixon in 1974; however, he resigned from office before the full House voted on the articles of impeachment.

Bill Weld

William WeldWilliam F. WeldWeld
Among them was William Weld.
Weld began his legal career as a junior counsel on the U.S. House Judiciary Committee's impeachment inquiry staff during the 1974 impeachment process against Richard Nixon.

Joseph A. Woods Jr.

Impeachment staff Senior Associate Special Counsel Joseph A. Woods Jr. supervised the staff's constitutional and legal research.
Woods served as Senior Associate Special Counsel to the U.S. House of Representatives during the inquiry for the proposed impeachment of Richard Nixon.

Evan A. Davis

Evan Davis
She also worked on a task force that investigated the Watergate break-in and cover-up led by Evan Davis.
In 1974, Davis worked on the U.S. House Judiciary Committee impeachment inquiry staff during the impeachment process against Richard Nixon.

Leon Jaworski

COL Leon Jaworski
One week later, Leon Jaworski was appointed to the post by the acting attorney general, Robert Bork.
Nixon offered Cox what became known as the Stennis Compromise: instead of supplying the tapes, he would supply Cox with transcripts of the recordings, subject to Nixon's discretion, and allow one senator to listen to the recordings and verify the transcripts' accuracy.

Impeachment of Andrew Johnson

impeachmentimpeachment trialimpeached
The other three are: Andrew Johnson (in 1868) and Bill Clinton (in 1998), who were impeached but later acquitted after trials in the Senate, and Donald Trump (in 2019), who is the subject of an ongoing impeachment inquiry.

Barbara Jordan

Dr. Barbara C. JordanB. JordanBarbara C. Jordan
On July 25, 1974, Democrat Barbara Jordan delivered a robust speech extolling the U.S. Constitution and its checks and balances.
She was best known for her eloquent opening statement at the House Judiciary Committee hearings during the impeachment process against Richard Nixon, and as the first African-American as well as the first woman to deliver a keynote address at a Democratic National Convention.

Impeachment inquiry against Donald Trump

impeachment inquiryTrump impeachment inquiryimpeachment inquiry against Trump
The other three are: Andrew Johnson (in 1868) and Bill Clinton (in 1998), who were impeached but later acquitted after trials in the Senate, and Donald Trump (in 2019), who is the subject of an ongoing impeachment inquiry.

American Civil Liberties Union

ACLUAmerican Civil Liberties Union (ACLU)ACLU Foundation
Later in November, the ACLU, which two months earlier became first national organization to publicly call for the president's impeachment and removal from office, released a 56‐page handbook detailing "17 things citizens could do to bring about the impeachment of President Nixon."
Six civil liberties violations were cited as grounds: “specific proved violations of the rights of political dissent; usurpation of Congressional war‐making powers; establishment of a personal secret police which committed crimes; attempted interference in the trial of Daniel Ellsberg; distortion of the system of justice and perversion of other Federal agencies.” One month later, after the House of Representatives began an impeachment inquiry against him, the organization released a 56‐page handbook detailing “17 things citizens could do to bring about the impeachment of President Nixon.“ This resolution, when placed beside the earlier resolution opposing the Vietnam war, convinced many ACLU critics, particularly conservatives, that the organization had transformed into a liberal political organization.

John Doar

John Michael Doar
John Doar, formerly a civil rights attorney in the Kennedy and Johnson administrations, was hired in December 1973 to be the lead special counsel for the inquiry staff.
Doar was hired in December 1973 to be the lead special counsel for the House Judiciary Committee's impeachment inquiry staff during the impeachment process against Richard Nixon.

Peter W. Rodino

Peter RodinoPeter W. Rodino, Jr.Peter W. Rodino Jr.
The committee was led by Peter W. Rodino, who, until assuming its chairmanship in January of that year, had kept a low profile in Congress.
Rodino rose to prominence as the chairman of the House Judiciary Committee, where he oversaw the impeachment process against Richard Nixon that eventually led to the president's resignation.

Watergate scandal

WatergateWatergate break-inWatergate burglaries
An impeachment process against Richard Nixon began in the United States House of Representatives on October 30, 1973, following the "Saturday Night Massacre" episode of the Watergate scandal.
Several major revelations and egregious presidential action against the investigation later in 1973 prompted the House to commence an impeachment process against the president in February 1974.

Charles E. Wiggins

Charles Edward Wiggins
Likewise, Charles E. Wiggins, perhaps President Nixon's strongest defender during the house proceedings, consistently argued that no specific piece of evidence directly linked Nixon to any criminal act.
Wiggins fiercely defended Nixon during debate on the House Judiciary Committee over Nixon's impeachment.