Imperial Japanese Army

Japanese ArmyJapanese Imperial ArmyJapaneseArmyJapanese forcesImperial ArmyJapanese militaryIJAJapanese soldiersJapanese Imperial Forces
The Imperial Japanese Army (IJA; 大日本帝國陸軍 Dai-Nippon Teikoku Rikugun; "Army of the Greater Japanese Empire") was the official ground-based armed force of the Empire of Japan from 1868 to 1945.wikipedia
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Imperial Japanese Army General Staff Office

Imperial Japanese Army General StaffChief of the Imperial Japanese Army General Staff OfficeArmy General Staff
It was controlled by the Imperial Japanese Army General Staff Office and the Ministry of the Army, both of which were nominally subordinate to the Emperor of Japan as supreme commander of the army and the navy.
The Imperial Japanese Army General Staff Office, also called the Army General Staff, was one of the two principal agencies charged with overseeing the Imperial Japanese Army.

Imperial General Headquarters

IGHQchief of staff of the armyArmy Intelligence Bureau
During wartime or national emergencies, the nominal command functions of the emperor would be centralized in an Imperial General Headquarters (IGHQ), an ad-hoc body consisting of the chief and vice chief of the Army General Staff, the Minister of the Army, the chief and vice chief of the Naval General Staff, the Inspector General of Aviation, and the Inspector General of Military Training.
The Imperial General Headquarters was part of the Supreme War Council and was established in 1893 to coordinate efforts between the Imperial Japanese Army and Imperial Japanese Navy during wartime.

Inspectorate General of Military Training

Inspector-General of Military TrainingInspector General of Military TrainingDeputy Inspector-General of Military Training
During wartime or national emergencies, the nominal command functions of the emperor would be centralized in an Imperial General Headquarters (IGHQ), an ad-hoc body consisting of the chief and vice chief of the Army General Staff, the Minister of the Army, the chief and vice chief of the Naval General Staff, the Inspector General of Aviation, and the Inspector General of Military Training.
The Inspectorate General of Military Training was responsible for all non-military aviation training of the Imperial Japanese Army.

Prince Komatsu Akihito

Komatsu AkihitoNinnajinomiya YoshiakiPrince Yoshiaki
On the second day, an Imperial banner was given to the defending troops and a relative of the Emperor, Ninnajinomiya Yoshiaki, was named nominal commander in chief, in effect making the pro-imperial forces officially an Imperial army .
Prince Komatsu Akihito was a Japanese career officer in the Imperial Japanese Army, who was a member of the Fushimi-no-miya, one of the shinnōke branches of the Imperial Family of Japan, which were eligible to succeed to the Chrysanthemum Throne in the event that the main line should die out.

Inspectorate General of Aviation

Inspector-General of Army Aviation
Later an Inspectorate General of Aviation became the third agency with oversight of the army.
The Inspectorate-General of Army Aviation or Inspectorate General of Aviation was a section of the Imperial Japanese Army Aeronautical Department charged with planning and supervision of the training of flying and air maintenance personnel of the Imperial Japanese Army Air Service.

Prince Arisugawa Taruhito

Arisugawa TaruhitoArisugawa-no-miyaArisukawanomiya Taruhito
Overseeing these four armies was a new high command, the Eastern Expeditionary High Command (Tōsei daisō tokufu), whose nominal head was prince Arisugawa-no-miya, with two court nobles as senior staff officers.
Prince Arisugawa Taruhito was a Japanese career officer in the Imperial Japanese Army, who became the 9th head of the Arisugawa-no-miya line of shinnōke cadet branches of the Imperial Family of Japan on September 9, 1871.

Ōmura Masujirō

Omura Masujiro
Ōmura Masujirō who had sought a strong central government at the expense of the domains advocated for the creation of a standing national army along European lines
He was the "Father" of the Imperial Japanese Army, launching a modern military force closely patterned after the French system of the day.

Empire of Japan

JapaneseJapanImperial Japan
The Imperial Japanese Army (IJA; 大日本帝國陸軍 Dai-Nippon Teikoku Rikugun; "Army of the Greater Japanese Empire") was the official ground-based armed force of the Empire of Japan from 1868 to 1945.
By November 1918, more than 70,000 Japanese troops under Chief of Staff Yui Mitsue had occupied all ports and major towns in the Russian Maritime Provinces and eastern Siberia.

Yamagata Aritomo

YamagataAritomo Yamagatafirst Yamagata administration
Ōmura's views for modernizing Japan's military led to his assassination in 1869 and his ideas were largely implemented after his death by Yamagata Aritomo.
As the Imperial Japanese Army’s inaugural Chief of Staff, he served as the main architect of Japan’s military after the Meiji Restoration.

Chōshū Domain

ChōshūChoshuChoshu Domain
The domains of Satsuma and Chōshū came to dominate the coalition against the shogunate.
The domains' military forces of 1867 through 1869 also formed the foundation for the Imperial Japanese Army.

Ōshima Yoshimasa

Oshima YoshimasaYoshimasa Ōshima
The reinforced brigade, included auxiliary units, under the command of General Oshima Yoshimasa was fully transported to Korea by June 27.
Viscount Ōshima Yoshimasa was a general in the early Imperial Japanese Army during the First Sino-Japanese War and the Russo-Japanese War.

5th Division (Imperial Japanese Army)

IJA 5th Division5th DivisionFifth Division
The army's 5th Division would land at Chemulpo to prevent a Chinese advance in Korea while the navy would engage the Beiyang fleet in a decisive battle in order to secure control of the seas.
The '5th Division' (第5師団) was an infantry division of the Imperial Japanese Army.

Jakob Meckel

Jacob MeckelK. W. Jacob MeckelKlemens Meckel
From 1886 to April 1890, it hired German military advisors (Major Jakob Meckel, replaced in 1888 by von Wildenbrück and Captain von Blankenbourg) to assist in the training of the Japanese General Staff.
After the government of Meiji period Japan decided to model the Imperial Japanese Army after the Prussian army, following the German victory over the French in the Franco-Prussian War, Meckel (with the rank of major at the time) was invited to Japan as a professor at the Army Staff College and as an advisor to the Imperial Japanese Army General Staff.

First Army (Japan)

Japanese First Army1st armyFirst Army
The First Army with two divisions was activated on September 1.
The Japanese 1st Army (第1軍) was an army of the Imperial Japanese Army.

Second Army (Japan)

Japanese Second Army2nd ArmyIJA 2nd Army
The navy's stunning victory in the Yalu on September 17, was crucial to the Japanese as it allowed the Second Army with three divisions and one brigade to land unopposed on the Liaodong Peninsula about 100 miles north of Port Arthur which controlled the entry to the Bohai Gulf, in mid-October.
The Japanese 2nd Army (第2軍) was an army of the Imperial Japanese Army.

Battle of the Yalu River (1894)

Battle of the Yalu RiverBattle of Yalu RiverBattle of the Yalu
The navy's stunning victory in the Yalu on September 17, was crucial to the Japanese as it allowed the Second Army with three divisions and one brigade to land unopposed on the Liaodong Peninsula about 100 miles north of Port Arthur which controlled the entry to the Bohai Gulf, in mid-October.
The Imperial Japanese Army's Fifth Division would land at Chemulpo on the western coast of Korea, both to engage and push Chinese forces northwest up the peninsula and to draw the Beiyang Fleet into the Yellow Sea, where it would be engaged in decisive battle.

Fukushima Yasumasa

Yasumasa Fukushima
However, three days later, the general staff did dispatch a provisional force of 1,300 troops, commanded by Major General Fukushima Yasumasa, to northern China.
Fukushima Yasumasa was a general in the Imperial Japanese Army.

Satsuma Rebellion

Seinan WarSeinan Civil War1877 rebellion
Public unrest began in 1874, reaching the apex in the Satsuma Rebellion of 1877, which used the slogans, "oppose conscription", "oppose elementary schools", and "fight Korea".
On his return to Kobe on February 12, Hayashi met with General Yamagata Aritomo and Itō Hirobumi, and it was decided that the Imperial Japanese Army would need to be sent to Kagoshima to prevent the revolt from spreading to other areas of the country sympathetic to Saigō.

Satsuma Domain

SatsumaSatsuma hanKagoshima Domain
The domains of Satsuma and Chōshū came to dominate the coalition against the shogunate.

Donghak Peasant Revolution

Donghak RebellionDonghak Peasant RebellionDonghak
In the early months of 1894, the Donghak Rebellion broke out in southern Korea and had soon spread throughout the rest of the country, threatening the Korea capital Seoul, itself.
The same day, 6,000 Japanese forces also landed in Incheon.

Imperial Rescript to Soldiers and Sailors

imperial rescriptImperial Rescript for Seamen and SoldiersImperial Rescript to Soldiers and Sailors of 1882
An Imperial Rescript to Soldiers and Sailors of 1882 called for unquestioning loyalty to the Emperor by the new armed forces and asserted that commands from superior officers were equivalent to commands from the Emperor himself.
It was considered the most important document in the development of the Imperial Japanese Army and Imperial Japanese Navy.

French military mission to Japan (1872–80)

1872–1880French Military Mission to JapanFrench Military Mission to Japan (1872-1880)
The early Imperial Japanese Army was developed with the assistance of advisors from France, through the second French military mission to Japan (1872–80), and the third French military mission to Japan (1884–89).
The task of the mission was to help reorganize the Imperial Japanese Army, and establish the first draft law, enacted in January 1873.

French military mission to Japan (1884–89)

1884–188918841884-1889
The early Imperial Japanese Army was developed with the assistance of advisors from France, through the second French military mission to Japan (1872–80), and the third French military mission to Japan (1884–89).
It followed two earlier missions, the first French Military Mission to Japan (1867-1868), and the second French Military Mission to Japan (1872-1880), which had a considerable role in shaping the new Imperial Japanese Army.

Meiji Restoration

Meiji RevolutionRestorationindustrialization of Japan
The opening of the country after two centuries of seclusion subsequently led to the Meiji Restoration and the Boshin War in 1868.
This rebellion was, however, put down swiftly by the newly formed Imperial Japanese Army, trained in Western tactics and weapons, even though the core of the new army was the Tokyo police force, which was largely composed of former samurai.

Siberian intervention

SiberiaSiberian ExpeditionAllied expeditionary force
During the Siberian Intervention, following the collapse of the Russian Empire after the Bolshevik Revolution, the Imperial Japanese Army initially planned to send more than 70,000 troops to occupy Siberia as far west as Lake Baikal.
The Imperial Japanese Army continued to occupy Siberia even after other Allied forces withdrew in 1920.