A report on Imperial Japanese Army

The ensign of the Imperial Japanese Army
Ukiyo-E, depicting the retreat of shogunate forces in front of the Imperial Army (Kangun). Yodo Castle is shown in the background.
The Koishikawa Arsenal in Tokyo, inaugurated in 1871, soon after the Meiji restoration.
Prince Aritomo Yamagata, a field marshal in the Imperial Japanese Army and twice Prime Minister of Japan. He was one of the main architects of the military foundations of early modern Japan. Yamagata Aritomo can be seen as the father of Japanese militarism.
Barrack of the Imperial Guard, circa 1940
Marquis Nozu Michitsura, a field marshal in the early Imperial Japanese Army. He was appointed as chief of staff of the Imperial Guard (Japan) in 1874.
Marquis Jutoku Saigo, a general in the early Imperial Japanese Army. He is the nephew of Saigō Takamori, the leader of Satsuma Rebellion of 1877. Many of the rebels were incorporated into the Imperial Army after the failure of the armed uprising.
Commander-in-chief Saigō Tsugumichi (sitting at the center) pictured with leaders of the Seqalu tribe.
Count Nogi Maresuke, a general in the Imperial Japanese Army and the third governor of Taiwan
Type 13(Top) & Type 22(bottom) Murata rifle. Murata rifle was the first indigenously produced Japanese service rifle adopted in 1880.
Japanese troops during the Sino-Japanese War
Count Akiyama Yoshifuru, served as a cavalry regimental commander in the First Sino-Japanese War of 1894–1895. In the Russo-Japanese War of 1904–1905, he led his troops against the Cossack cavalry divisions of the Imperial Russian Army.
Prince Katsura Tarō, three times Prime Minister of Japan. Katsura was the Vice-Minister of War during the period. He commanded the IJA 3rd Division under his mentor, Field Marshal Yamagata Aritomo, during the First Sino-Japanese War.
Type 30 rifle was the standard infantry rifle of the Imperial Japanese Army from 1897 to 1905.
Ōshima Ken'ichi, Minister of War during the period
Japanese riflemen during the Russo-Japanese War
The Type 38 rifle was adopted by the Imperial Japanese Army in 1905
Commanding Officers and Chiefs of Staff of the Allied Military Mission to Siberia, Vladivostok during the Allied Intervention
IJA amphibious assault ship Shinshū Maru, the world's first landing craft carrier ship to be designed as such.
Army uniforms between 1941 and 1945 (US Army poster)
Type 38 rifle
Type 97 Chi-Ha, the most widely produced Japanese medium tank of World War II
Type 99 light machine gun
Indonesian child recruits being trained by Japanese officers as human shield, 1945
Many thousands of Indonesian were taken away as forced labourers (romusha) for Japanese military projects, including the Burma-Siam and Saketi-Bayah railways, and suffered or died as a result of ill-treatment and starvation. Pictured is an internment camp in Jakarta, c. 1945
Disposition of the Imperial Japanese Army in Japan at the time of its capitulation, 18 August 1945
IJA Japanese officers, 1930s
IJA Korean Volunteer army, 1943
IJA Taiwanese soldier in Philippines during World War II

The official ground-based armed force of the Empire of Japan from 1868 to 1945.

- Imperial Japanese Army
The ensign of the Imperial Japanese Army

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The Emperor in 1935

Hirohito

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The 124th emperor of Japan, ruling from 25 December 1926 until his death in 1989.

The 124th emperor of Japan, ruling from 25 December 1926 until his death in 1989.

The Emperor in 1935
Hirohito in 1902 as an infant
Emperor Taishō's four sons in 1921: Hirohito, Takahito, Nobuhito and Yasuhito
The Crown Prince watches a boat race at Oxford University in the UK in 1921
In May 1921, he visited Edinburgh, Scotland
Prince Hirohito and British Prime Minister Lloyd George, 1921
Prince Hirohito and his wife, Princess Nagako, in 1924
Imperial Standard as Emperor
Emperor Hirohito after his enthronement ceremony in 1928, dressed in sokutai
The Emperor on his favorite white horse Shirayuki (lit. 'white-snow')
Emperor Hirohito riding Shirayuki during an Army inspection on 8 January 1938
The Emperor as head of the Imperial General Headquarters on 29 April 1943
The Emperor with his wife Empress Kōjun and their children on 7 December 1941
Emperor Hirohito on the battleship Musashi, 24 June 1943.
Gaetano Faillace's photograph of General MacArthur and the Emperor at Allied General Headquarters in Tokyo, 27 September 1945
Emperor Hirohito visiting Hiroshima in 1947. The domed Hiroshima Peace Memorial can be seen in the background.
US President Richard Nixon with Emperor Shōwa and Empress Kōjun in Anchorage (27 September 1971)
Emperor Shōwa and Empress Kōjun arriving in the Netherlands (8 October 1971).
The Empress, First Lady Betty Ford, the Emperor, and President Gerald Ford at the White House before a state dinner held in honor of the Japanese head of state for the first time. 2 October 1975.
Emperor Shōwa in his laboratory (1950)
Hirohito's tomb in the Musashi Imperial Graveyard, Hachiōji, Tokyo
Political map of the Asia-Pacific region in 1939

Hirohito became the heir apparent, and he was formally commissioned as a second lieutenant in the army and an ensign in the navy.

On the far left is Ito Hirobumi of Choshu Domain, and on the far right is Okubo Toshimichi of Satsuma Domain. The two young men in the middle are the sons of the Satsuma clan daimyo. These young samurai contributed to the resignation of the Tokugawa shogunate to restore imperial rule.

Meiji Restoration

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Political event that restored practical imperial rule to Japan in 1868 under Emperor Meiji.

Political event that restored practical imperial rule to Japan in 1868 under Emperor Meiji.

On the far left is Ito Hirobumi of Choshu Domain, and on the far right is Okubo Toshimichi of Satsuma Domain. The two young men in the middle are the sons of the Satsuma clan daimyo. These young samurai contributed to the resignation of the Tokugawa shogunate to restore imperial rule.
A teenage Emperor Meiji with foreign representatives at the end of the Boshin War, 1868–1870.
The Tokyo Koishikawa Arsenal was established in 1871.
Allegory of the New fighting the Old, in early Japan Meiji, around 1870

This rebellion was, however, put down swiftly by the newly formed Imperial Japanese Army, trained in Western tactics and weapons, even though the core of the new army was the Tokyo police force, which was largely composed of former samurai.

Japanese General Kuroki and his Chief of Staff Shigeta Fujii

First Army (Japan)

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Japanese General Kuroki and his Chief of Staff Shigeta Fujii

The Japanese 1st Army (第1軍) was an army of the Imperial Japanese Army.

Battle of the Yellow Sea, Kobayashi Kiyochika

Battle of the Yalu River (1894)

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The largest naval engagement of the First Sino-Japanese War, and took place on 17 September 1894, the day after the Japanese victory at the land Battle of Pyongyang.

The largest naval engagement of the First Sino-Japanese War, and took place on 17 September 1894, the day after the Japanese victory at the land Battle of Pyongyang.

Battle of the Yellow Sea, Kobayashi Kiyochika
Illustration from the French newspaper Le Petit Journal, showing survivors from Kowshing being rescued by sailors from the French ship Le Lion
Japanese print depicting (left) attacking Chinese warships,, 1894
The Japanese warship Saikyōmaru at the Battle of the Yalu River, Hasegawa Chikuyō, 1894
Illustration of Dingyuan and Zhenyuan under fire from the Japanese cruisers.

The Imperial Japanese Army's Fifth Division would land at Chemulpo on the western coast of Korea, both to engage and push Chinese forces northwest up the peninsula and to draw the Beiyang Fleet into the Yellow Sea, where it would be engaged in decisive battle.

Terauchi Masatake

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Japanese military officer, proconsul and politician.

Japanese military officer, proconsul and politician.

Gensui Count Terauchi Masatake(left) with General Kodama Gentarō(right).

He was a Gensui (or Marshal) in the Imperial Japanese Army and the Prime Minister of Japan from 1916 to 1918.

Japanese infantrymen near wrecked USSR armored vehicles, July 1939

Battles of Khalkhin Gol

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The Battles of Khalkhin Gol (Бои на Халхин-Голе; Халхын голын байлдаан) were the decisive engagements of the undeclared Soviet–Japanese border conflicts involving the Soviet Union, Mongolia, Japan and Manchukuo in 1939.

The Battles of Khalkhin Gol (Бои на Халхин-Голе; Халхын голын байлдаан) were the decisive engagements of the undeclared Soviet–Japanese border conflicts involving the Soviet Union, Mongolia, Japan and Manchukuo in 1939.

Japanese infantrymen near wrecked USSR armored vehicles, July 1939
Mongolian cavalry in the Khalkhin Gol (1939)
Mongolian troops fight against a Japanese counterattack on the western beach of the river Khalkhin Gol, 1939
Japanese soldiers cross the Khalkhin Gol
Destroyed Soviet BA-10 armored car
A destroyed Soviet biplane fighter (presumably an I-15 or an I-153)
Japanese soldiers cheering alongside captured Soviet AFVs
Japanese soldiers posing for a photo with captured Soviet equipment
Crew of a BT-5 cavalry tank surrendering to the Japanese
The commander of the 149th Rifle Regiment before the offensive
Japanese pilots pictured on a Toyota KC starter truck
BT-7 Tanks in the Battle of Khalkhin Gol
Captured Japanese soldiers
Captured Japanese Type 95 scout car
Japanese tank Type 95 Ha-Go captured by Soviet troops after battle of Khalkhin Gol
Captured Japanese guns
Nakajima Ki-27b of Kenji Shimada, commander of the 1st Chutai of the 11th Sentai, battle of Khalkhin Gol, June 1939
Grigori Shtern, Khorloogiin Choibalsan and Georgy Zhukov at Khalkhin Gol
North Strike Group plans
Russian President Dmitry Medvedev and Mongolian President Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj standing in front of a statue of Zhukov at a ceremony in Ulaanbaatar in August 2009, commemorating the 70th anniversary of the battle
Troops of the Mongolian Armed Forces during the 80th anniversary parade in 2019

The Japanese won this engagement, but the strike had been ordered by the Kwantung Army without obtaining permission from Imperial Japanese Army (IJA) headquarters in Tokyo.

Government of Meiji Japan

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The government that was formed by politicians of the Satsuma Domain and Chōshū Domain in the 1860s.

The government that was formed by politicians of the Satsuma Domain and Chōshū Domain in the 1860s.

To further strengthen the authority of the state, the Supreme War Council was established under the leadership of Yamagata Aritomo a Chōshū native who has been credited with the founding of the modern Imperial Japanese Army and was to become the first constitutional Prime Minister.

Daily formal reading of the Imperial Rescript to Soldiers and Sailors, at the IJA Engineering College, 1939

Imperial Rescript to Soldiers and Sailors

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The official code of ethics for military personnel, and is often cited along with the Imperial Rescript on Education as the basis for Japan's pre-World War II national ideology.

The official code of ethics for military personnel, and is often cited along with the Imperial Rescript on Education as the basis for Japan's pre-World War II national ideology.

Daily formal reading of the Imperial Rescript to Soldiers and Sailors, at the IJA Engineering College, 1939

It was considered the most important document in the development of the Imperial Japanese Army and Imperial Japanese Navy.

Japanese Troops in the Battle of Shaho

Second Army (Japan)

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Japanese Troops in the Battle of Shaho

The Japanese 2nd Army (第2軍) was an army of the Imperial Japanese Army.

A Japanese soldier pictured with the corpses of Chinese civilians by Qinhuai River

Nanjing Massacre

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A Japanese soldier pictured with the corpses of Chinese civilians by Qinhuai River
An article on the "Contest to kill 100 people using a sword" published in the Tokyo Nichi Nichi Shimbun. The headline reads, Incredible Record' (in the Contest to Cut Down 100 People) – Mukai 106–105 Noda – Both 2nd Lieutenants Go into Extra Innings".
A sword used in the "contest" is on display at the Republic of China Armed Forces Museum in Taipei, Taiwan
Prince Yasuhiko Asaka in 1935.
Iwane Matsui enters Nanjing.
Photo taken in Xuzhou, showing the body of a woman who was profaned in a way similar to the teenager described in case 5 of John Magee's film
Case 5 of John Magee's film: on December 13, 1937, about 30 Japanese soldiers murdered all but two of 11 Chinese in the house at No. 5 Xinlukou. A woman and her two teenaged daughters were raped, and Japanese soldiers rammed a bottle and a cane into her vagina. An eight-year-old girl was stabbed, but she and her younger sister survived. They were found alive two weeks after the killings by the elderly woman shown in the photo. Bodies of the victims can also be seen in the photo.
A boy killed by a Japanese soldier with the butt of a rifle, reportedly because he did not take off his hat
Bodies of Chinese massacred by Japanese troops along a river in Nanjing
A Chinese POW about to be beheaded by a Japanese officer using a shin-guntō
A mass grave from the Nanjing Massacre
Harold John Timperley's telegram of 17 January 1938 describing the atrocities
Photo in the album taken in Nanjing by Itou Kaneo of the Kisarazu Air Unit of the Imperial Japanese Navy
A picture of a dead child. Probably taken by Bernhard Sindberg
Prisoners being buried alive<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.history.ucsb.edu/faculty/marcuse/classes/133p/133p04papers/JChapelNanjing046.htm|first=Joseph|last=Chapel|title=Denial of the Holocaust and the Rape of Nanking|year=2004}}</ref>
Skeletons of the massacre's victims
The International Military Tribunal for the Far East was convened at "Ichigaya Court," formally Imperial Japanese Army HQ building in Ichigaya, Tokyo.
General Iwane Matsui<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.history.gr.jp/~koa_kan_non/16-4.html|title=「松井石根研究会」の必要性について|work=history.gr.jp|url-status=dead|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110721122627/http://www.history.gr.jp/~koa_kan_non/16-4.html|archive-date=July 21, 2011}}</ref>
General Hisao Tani<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.people.com.cn/media/200112/12/NewsMedia_147412.jpg|access-date=March 26, 2009|url-status=dead|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100218182317/http://www.people.com.cn/media/200112/12/NewsMedia_147412.jpg|archive-date=February 18, 2010|title=Hisao Tani}}</ref>
Yanziji Nanjing Massacre Memorial in 2004
A memorial stone at Yanziji in Nanjing, for victims in the Nanjing Massacre
John Rabe's former residence, now the "John Rabe and International Safety Zone Memorial Hall", in Nanjing, July 2008
A monument at the Nanking Massacre Memorial Hall that says there were 300,000 victims, in multiple languages
A statue titled "Family Ruined" in front of the Nanjing Massacre Memorial Hall
John Rabe's former residence, now the "John Rabe and International Safety Zone Memorial Hall", in Nanjing, September 2010

The Nanjing Massacre or the Rape of Nanjing (formerly romanized as Nanking ) was the mass murder of Chinese civilians in Nanjing, the capital of the Republic of China, immediately after the Battle of Nanjing in the Second Sino-Japanese War, by the Imperial Japanese Army.