A report on Imperial Japanese Army

The ensign of the Imperial Japanese Army
Ukiyo-E, depicting the retreat of shogunate forces in front of the Imperial Army (Kangun). Yodo Castle is shown in the background.
The Koishikawa Arsenal in Tokyo, inaugurated in 1871, soon after the Meiji restoration.
Prince Aritomo Yamagata, a field marshal in the Imperial Japanese Army and twice Prime Minister of Japan. He was one of the main architects of the military foundations of early modern Japan. Yamagata Aritomo can be seen as the father of Japanese militarism.
Barrack of the Imperial Guard, circa 1940
Marquis Nozu Michitsura, a field marshal in the early Imperial Japanese Army. He was appointed as chief of staff of the Imperial Guard (Japan) in 1874.
Marquis Jutoku Saigo, a general in the early Imperial Japanese Army. He is the nephew of Saigō Takamori, the leader of Satsuma Rebellion of 1877. Many of the rebels were incorporated into the Imperial Army after the failure of the armed uprising.
Commander-in-chief Saigō Tsugumichi (sitting at the center) pictured with leaders of the Seqalu tribe.
Count Nogi Maresuke, a general in the Imperial Japanese Army and the third governor of Taiwan
Type 13(Top) & Type 22(bottom) Murata rifle. Murata rifle was the first indigenously produced Japanese service rifle adopted in 1880.
Japanese troops during the Sino-Japanese War
Count Akiyama Yoshifuru, served as a cavalry regimental commander in the First Sino-Japanese War of 1894–1895. In the Russo-Japanese War of 1904–1905, he led his troops against the Cossack cavalry divisions of the Imperial Russian Army.
Prince Katsura Tarō, three times Prime Minister of Japan. Katsura was the Vice-Minister of War during the period. He commanded the IJA 3rd Division under his mentor, Field Marshal Yamagata Aritomo, during the First Sino-Japanese War.
Type 30 rifle was the standard infantry rifle of the Imperial Japanese Army from 1897 to 1905.
Ōshima Ken'ichi, Minister of War during the period
Japanese riflemen during the Russo-Japanese War
The Type 38 rifle was adopted by the Imperial Japanese Army in 1905
Commanding Officers and Chiefs of Staff of the Allied Military Mission to Siberia, Vladivostok during the Allied Intervention
IJA amphibious assault ship Shinshū Maru, the world's first landing craft carrier ship to be designed as such.
Army uniforms between 1941 and 1945 (US Army poster)
Type 38 rifle
Type 97 Chi-Ha, the most widely produced Japanese medium tank of World War II
Type 99 light machine gun
Indonesian child recruits being trained by Japanese officers as human shield, 1945
Many thousands of Indonesian were taken away as forced labourers (romusha) for Japanese military projects, including the Burma-Siam and Saketi-Bayah railways, and suffered or died as a result of ill-treatment and starvation. Pictured is an internment camp in Jakarta, c. 1945
Disposition of the Imperial Japanese Army in Japan at the time of its capitulation, 18 August 1945
IJA Japanese officers, 1930s
IJA Korean Volunteer army, 1943
IJA Taiwanese soldier in Philippines during World War II

The official ground-based armed force of the Empire of Japan from 1868 to 1945.

- Imperial Japanese Army
The ensign of the Imperial Japanese Army

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Cecil Rhodes and the Cape-Cairo railway project. Rhodes aimed to "paint the map red" (red representing the British Empire).

Imperialism

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State policy, practice, or advocacy of extending power and dominion, especially by direct territorial acquisition or by gaining political and economic control of other areas, often through employing hard power , but also soft power (cultural and diplomatic power).

State policy, practice, or advocacy of extending power and dominion, especially by direct territorial acquisition or by gaining political and economic control of other areas, often through employing hard power , but also soft power (cultural and diplomatic power).

Cecil Rhodes and the Cape-Cairo railway project. Rhodes aimed to "paint the map red" (red representing the British Empire).
Imperial powers in 1800
Imperial powers in 1945
Entrance of the Russian troops in Tiflis, 26 November 1799, by Franz Roubaud, 1886
Africa, divided into colonies under multiple European empires, c. 1913
British assault on Canton during the First Opium War, May 1841
Ottoman wars in Europe
A shocked mandarin in Manchu robe in the back, with Queen Victoria (British Empire), Wilhelm II (German Empire), Nicholas II (Russian Empire), Marianne (French Third Republic), and a samurai (Empire of Japan) stabbing into a king cake with Chine ("China" in French) written on it. A portrayal of New Imperialism and its effects on China.
Tipu, Sultan of Mysore, an ally of Napoleone Bonaparte, confronted British East India Company forces at the Siege of Srirangapatna, where he was killed.
The end result of the Boer Wars was the annexation of the Boer Republics to the British Empire in 1902.
Smoke rises from oil tanks beside the Suez Canal hit during the initial Anglo-French assault on Egypt, 5 November 1956
Map of the British Empire showing territory (red) and areas of influence (pink)
The Qing Empire ca. 1820, marked the time when the Qing began to rule these areas.
Map of the Growth of China under Qin Dynasty
Map of the first (light blue) and second (dark blue) French colonial empires
French poster about the "Madagascar War"
German colonial empire, the third largest colonial empire during the 19th century after the British and the French ones
The Italian Empire in 1940
The Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere in 1942
Japanese Marines preparing to land in Anqing China in June 1938.
Japanese march into Zhengyangmen of Beijing after capturing the city in July 1937.
Ottoman troops marching in Aleppo
The Ottoman Empire in 1683; core possessions in dark green; vassal or autonomous areas in light green.
Areas across the world that were, at one point in their history, part of the Portuguese Empire
The maximum territorial extent of countries in the world under Soviet influence, after the Cuban Revolution of 1959 and before the official Sino-Soviet split of 1961
Ceremonies during the annexation of the Republic of Hawaii, 1898
Cartoon of belligerent Uncle Sam placing Spain on notice, c. 1898
The areas of the world that at one time were territories of the Spanish Monarchy or Empire.
Spanish colonies and territories in the Caribbean basin (c. 1490 – c. 1660)
Provinces of the Roman Empire around 117 AD
Expansion of the Mongol Empire from 1206 to 1294
Austria-Hungary in 1914
Map of the British Empire at its territorial peak in 1921

Some exceptions of armies that managed to get nearly on par with the European expeditions and standards include the Ethiopian armies at the Battle of Adwa, and the Japanese Imperial Army of Japan, but these still relied heavily on weapons imported from Europe and often on European military advisors.

Viscount Fukushima Yasumasa

Fukushima Yasumasa

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Viscount Fukushima Yasumasa

Baron Fukushima Yasumasa (福島 安正) was a general in the Imperial Japanese Army.

Jacob Meckel

Jakob Meckel

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General in the Prussian army and foreign advisor to the government of Meiji period Japan.

General in the Prussian army and foreign advisor to the government of Meiji period Japan.

Jacob Meckel

After the government of Meiji period Japan decided to model the Imperial Japanese Army after the Prussian army, following the German victory over the French in the Franco-Prussian War, Meckel (with the rank of major at the time) was invited to Japan as a professor at the Army Staff College and as an advisor to the Imperial Japanese Army General Staff.

The second French Military Mission to Japan (1872–1880)

French military mission to Japan (1872–1880)

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The second French military mission to that country and the first sent by the Third Republic.

The second French military mission to that country and the first sent by the Third Republic.

The second French Military Mission to Japan (1872–1880)
Reception by the Meiji Emperor of the Second French Military Mission to Japan, 1872
Imperial Japanese Army Academy (市ヶ谷陸軍士官学校) at Ichigaya, Tokyo. It was built by the second French Military Mission to Japan, on the ground of today's Japan Ministry of Defense (1874 photograph)
Colonel Munier, second commander of the Second French Military Mission to Japan. 1874 photograph.

The task of the mission was to help reorganize the Imperial Japanese Army, and establish the first draft law, enacted in January 1873.

Map of Japanese Hokushin-ron plans for a potential attack on the Soviet Union. Dates indicate the year that Japan gained control of the territory.

Hokushin-ron

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Pre-World War II political doctrine of the Empire of Japan which stated that Manchuria and Siberia were Japan's sphere of interest and that the potential value to Japan for economic and territorial expansion in those areas was greater than elsewhere.

Pre-World War II political doctrine of the Empire of Japan which stated that Manchuria and Siberia were Japan's sphere of interest and that the potential value to Japan for economic and territorial expansion in those areas was greater than elsewhere.

Map of Japanese Hokushin-ron plans for a potential attack on the Soviet Union. Dates indicate the year that Japan gained control of the territory.

It enjoyed wide support within the Imperial Japanese Army during the interwar period, but was abandoned in 1939 after military defeat on the Mongolian front at the Battles of Khalkhin Gol (known in Japan as the Nomonhan incident) and the signing of Soviet–Japanese Neutrality Pact in 1941.

FT-17 tanks captured by the Japanese after the September 18th Incident, September 19, 1931.

Mukden Incident

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False flag event staged by Japanese military personnel as a pretext for the 1931 Japanese invasion of Manchuria.

False flag event staged by Japanese military personnel as a pretext for the 1931 Japanese invasion of Manchuria.

FT-17 tanks captured by the Japanese after the September 18th Incident, September 19, 1931.
Japanese soldiers of 29th Regiment on the Mukden West Gate
Japanese experts inspect the "sabotaged" South Manchurian Railway.
A section of the Liǔtiáo Railway. The caption reads "railway fragment".
Chinese delegate addresses the League of Nations after the Mukden Incident in 1932.
The September 18th History Museum in Shenyang

The Imperial Japanese Army accused Chinese dissidents of the act and responded with a full invasion that led to the occupation of Manchuria, in which Japan established its puppet state of Manchukuo six months later.

Yui Mitsue

Yui Mitsue

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Yui Mitsue
Lieut.-General Mitsue Yui and General Kikuzo Otani, the leaders of the Japanese Forces in Siberia

Yui Mitsue (由比 光衛) was a general in the Imperial Japanese Army during the First Sino-Japanese War and Russo-Japanese War.

Captain Étienne de Villaret (front row, center), of the Third French Military Mission to Japan, with his officer students of the Ichigaya Military Academy.

French military mission to Japan (1884–1889)

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The third French military mission to that country and consisted of five men.

The third French military mission to that country and consisted of five men.

Captain Étienne de Villaret (front row, center), of the Third French Military Mission to Japan, with his officer students of the Ichigaya Military Academy.

It followed two earlier missions, the first French Military Mission to Japan (1867-1868), and the second French Military Mission to Japan (1872-1880), which had a considerable role in shaping the new Imperial Japanese Army.

1913 map of Tianjin

Tianjin

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Municipality and a coastal metropolis in Northern China on the shore of the Bohai Sea.

Municipality and a coastal metropolis in Northern China on the shore of the Bohai Sea.

1913 map of Tianjin
Church of Our Lady's Victories, built in 1869, was the site of the Tianjin Church Massacre.
Peiyang University, established 1895
Tung Lai Bank building on Heping Road, built in 1930
Major crossing (Rue Général Foch and Rue de Chaylard) of downtown Tientsin in French concession
Asahi Street (now Heping Road) in 1939 Tianjin flood
P.R.China's 10th anniversary parade in Tianjin in 1959
Tianjin Eye
Monument of TEDA
Population density and low elevation coastal zones in the Tianjin area. Tianjin is particularly vulnerable to sea level rise.
Tianjin (labeled as T'IEN-CHIN (TIENTSIN) 天津) (1955)
Map of the Hai River Basin
2011 satellite image of Tianjin. The city center was on the left, while the smaller urban area to the right was the Binhai New Area.
Hai River in 2011
Airport Industrial Park, Dongli District
Then-Premier Wen Jiabao, himself a Tianjin native, and Klaus Schwab at the Annual Meeting of the New Champions of World Economic Forum in Tianjin, 2010
Tianjin city center
Tianjin Economic and Technological Development Area
US Congresswoman Nancy Pelosi visiting a Tianjin Qingyuan Electric Vehicle factory in 2009
Old Guanyinhao Bank
Crosstalk in Tianjin
Nankai University
Jingwei Tries to Fill the Sea, the dome mural of Tianjin railway station
Tianjin Binhai International Airport Terminal 1 and 2
Port of Tianjin pilot boat berth
The TEDA Modern Guided Rail Tram is one of the two rubber tire tram systems in Asia
The Tianjin Metro near Liuyuan station
Tianjin railway station
Tianjin West railway station
Tianjin Bus Route 606
A Mazu temple in Tianjin
House decorated by more than seven hundred million pieces of ceramic
Tianjin Museum
Tianjin Italian Town
Tianjin Olympic Center Stadium, Nankai District
Tianjin Juilliard School in Binhai,Tianjin

On June 14, 1939, the Imperial Japanese Army surrounded and blockaded the British concession over the refusal of the British authorities to hand over to the Japanese six Chinese who had assassinated a locally prominent Japanese collaborator, and had taken refuge in the British concession.

Long live the Great Japanese Empire! Our army's victorious attack on Seonghwan, Mizuno Toshikata

Battle of Seonghwan

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The first major land battle of the First Sino-Japanese War.

The first major land battle of the First Sino-Japanese War.

Long live the Great Japanese Empire! Our army's victorious attack on Seonghwan, Mizuno Toshikata

On 25 July, charged with implementing the Imperial Japanese Army's commission from new Korean government to expel the Chinese Beiyang Army from Korean territory by force, a detachment of the Japanese First Army consisting of 4,000 men and four artillery pieces under command of Major General Ōshima Yoshimasa marched south from Seoul towards the major port city of Asan.