A report on Imperial Japanese Army

The ensign of the Imperial Japanese Army
Ukiyo-E, depicting the retreat of shogunate forces in front of the Imperial Army (Kangun). Yodo Castle is shown in the background.
The Koishikawa Arsenal in Tokyo, inaugurated in 1871, soon after the Meiji restoration.
Prince Aritomo Yamagata, a field marshal in the Imperial Japanese Army and twice Prime Minister of Japan. He was one of the main architects of the military foundations of early modern Japan. Yamagata Aritomo can be seen as the father of Japanese militarism.
Barrack of the Imperial Guard, circa 1940
Marquis Nozu Michitsura, a field marshal in the early Imperial Japanese Army. He was appointed as chief of staff of the Imperial Guard (Japan) in 1874.
Marquis Jutoku Saigo, a general in the early Imperial Japanese Army. He is the nephew of Saigō Takamori, the leader of Satsuma Rebellion of 1877. Many of the rebels were incorporated into the Imperial Army after the failure of the armed uprising.
Commander-in-chief Saigō Tsugumichi (sitting at the center) pictured with leaders of the Seqalu tribe.
Count Nogi Maresuke, a general in the Imperial Japanese Army and the third governor of Taiwan
Type 13(Top) & Type 22(bottom) Murata rifle. Murata rifle was the first indigenously produced Japanese service rifle adopted in 1880.
Japanese troops during the Sino-Japanese War
Count Akiyama Yoshifuru, served as a cavalry regimental commander in the First Sino-Japanese War of 1894–1895. In the Russo-Japanese War of 1904–1905, he led his troops against the Cossack cavalry divisions of the Imperial Russian Army.
Prince Katsura Tarō, three times Prime Minister of Japan. Katsura was the Vice-Minister of War during the period. He commanded the IJA 3rd Division under his mentor, Field Marshal Yamagata Aritomo, during the First Sino-Japanese War.
Type 30 rifle was the standard infantry rifle of the Imperial Japanese Army from 1897 to 1905.
Ōshima Ken'ichi, Minister of War during the period
Japanese riflemen during the Russo-Japanese War
The Type 38 rifle was adopted by the Imperial Japanese Army in 1905
Commanding Officers and Chiefs of Staff of the Allied Military Mission to Siberia, Vladivostok during the Allied Intervention
IJA amphibious assault ship Shinshū Maru, the world's first landing craft carrier ship to be designed as such.
Army uniforms between 1941 and 1945 (US Army poster)
Type 38 rifle
Type 97 Chi-Ha, the most widely produced Japanese medium tank of World War II
Type 99 light machine gun
Indonesian child recruits being trained by Japanese officers as human shield, 1945
Many thousands of Indonesian were taken away as forced labourers (romusha) for Japanese military projects, including the Burma-Siam and Saketi-Bayah railways, and suffered or died as a result of ill-treatment and starvation. Pictured is an internment camp in Jakarta, c. 1945
Disposition of the Imperial Japanese Army in Japan at the time of its capitulation, 18 August 1945
IJA Japanese officers, 1930s
IJA Korean Volunteer army, 1943
IJA Taiwanese soldier in Philippines during World War II

The official ground-based armed force of the Empire of Japan from 1868 to 1945.

- Imperial Japanese Army
The ensign of the Imperial Japanese Army

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Battle of Ping Yang: The routing of the Chinese Army, Johann Schönberg

Battle of Pyongyang (1894)

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The second major land battle of the First Sino-Japanese War.

The second major land battle of the First Sino-Japanese War.

Battle of Ping Yang: The routing of the Chinese Army, Johann Schönberg
Battle of Pyongyang by Mizuno Toshikata

Prince Yamagata Aritomo's First Army of the Imperial Japanese Army converged on Pyongyang from several directions on 15 September 1894, and in the morning made a direct attack on the north and southeast corners of the walled city under very little cover.

Red Army

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The army and air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.

The army and air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.

Red Guards unit of the Vulkan factory
Hammer and plough cockade used by the Red Army from 1918 to 1922, when it was replaced by the hammer and sickle.
Leon Trotsky and Demyan Bedny in 1918
Vladimir Lenin, Kliment Voroshilov, Leon Trotsky and soldiers, Petrograd, 1921
Soviet tanks during the Battle of Khalkhin Gol, August 1939
Red Army soldiers display a captured Finnish banner, March 1940
Soviet gun crew in action during the Siege of Odessa, July 1941
Salute to the Red Army at the Royal Albert Hall, London in February 1943
Ivan Konev at the liberation of Prague by the Red Army in May 1945
Marshals Zhukov and Rokossovsky with General Sokolovsky leave the Brandenburg Gate after being decorated by Field Marshal Montgomery
Red Army victory banner, raised above the German Reichstag in May 1945
Monument to the Red Army, Berlin
Roza Shanina was a graduate of the Central Women's Sniper Training School credited with 59 confirmed kills.
The Battle of Stalingrad is considered by many historians as a decisive turning point of World War II.
People in Saint Petersburg at «Immortal regiment», carrying portraits of their ancestors who fought in World War II.
Benjamin Netanyahu and Red Army's Jewish veterans, Victory Day in Jerusalem, 9 May 2017
Kursants (cadets) of the Red Army Artillery School in Chuhuyiv, Ukraine, 1933
Red Army Marshal Mikhail Tukhachevsky, who was executed during the Great Purge in June 1937. Here in 1920 wearing the budenovka
The unofficial Red Army flag, since the Soviet ground forces never had an official flag
Soviet officers, 1938

Thus at the Battle of Lake Khasan in 1938 and in the Battle of Khalkhin Gol in 1939 (major border clashes with the Imperial Japanese Army), the doctrine was not used.

Second Lieutenant Sakae Ōba, a Japanese holdout, photo from 1937.

Japanese holdout

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Second Lieutenant Sakae Ōba, a Japanese holdout, photo from 1937.
Lieutenant Hiroo Onoda in 1944 while in Lubang Island, Philippines before becoming Japanese holdout.
Sergeant Shoichi Yokoi was discovered in Guam on 24 January 1972, almost 28 years after the Allies had regained control of the island in 1944.

Japanese holdouts (残留日本兵) were soldiers of the Imperial Japanese Army and Imperial Japanese Navy during the Pacific Theatre of World War II who continued fighting World War II after the surrender of Japan in August 1945.

Japanese light tanks during the Battles of Khalkhin Gol

Soviet–Japanese border conflicts

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Series of minor and major conflicts fought between the Soviet Union (led by Joseph Stalin), Mongolia (led by Khorloogiin Choibalsan) and Japan (led by Hirohito) in Northeast Asia from 1932 to 1939.

Series of minor and major conflicts fought between the Soviet Union (led by Joseph Stalin), Mongolia (led by Khorloogiin Choibalsan) and Japan (led by Hirohito) in Northeast Asia from 1932 to 1939.

Japanese light tanks during the Battles of Khalkhin Gol
Japanese light tanks during the Battles of Khalkhin Gol
Japanese soldiers pose with captured Soviet equipment during the Battle of Khalkhin Gol.

Following Siberian intervention in the Russian Civil War in the Russian Far East from 1918-1922 the Imperial Japanese Army were helping the White Army against the Red Army and the Czechoslovak Legion in Siberia in 1918-1920 when a Armoured Train from Austria-Hungary from Europe got lost in Siberia in Russia in 1918.

Rising Sun Flag

Imperial Japanese Army Air Service

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Rising Sun Flag
Typical of pre-WWI observation balloons
Farnham III bi-plane
Kiyotake Shigeno (滋野清武)
French Military Mission to Japan 1918-1919.
Siberian intervention
Kawasaki Type 88
Identification chart for Japanese military planes during World War II
Major Teruhiko Kobayashi, the IJAAF's youngest sentai squadron commander.
Captain Okuyama and Giretsu Airborne unit depart on their mission to Okinawa
Escort Carrier Kaiyo Maru

The Imperial Japanese Army Air Service (IJAAS) or Imperial Japanese Army Air Force (IJAAF; 大日本帝國陸軍航空部隊) was the aviation force of the Imperial Japanese Army (IJA).

Comfort women from Korea being questioned by the US army after the Siege of Myitkyina in Burma, on August 14, 1944.

Comfort women

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Comfort women from Korea being questioned by the US army after the Siege of Myitkyina in Burma, on August 14, 1944.
Rangoon, Burma. August 8, 1945. A young ethnic Chinese woman from one of the Imperial Japanese Army's "comfort battalions" is interviewed by an Allied officer.
Chinese and Malayan girls forcibly taken from Penang by the Japanese to work as 'comfort girls' for the troops
Studio portrait of Jan Ruff O'Herne, taken shortly before she, her mother and sisters, and thousands of other Dutch women and children were interned by the Imperial Japanese Army in Ambarawa. Over the following months, O'Herne and six other Dutch women were repeatedly raped and beaten, day and night, by IJA personnel.
The Ama Museum in Taipei dedicated to Taiwanese comfort women
Historical Marker, Plaza Lawton, Liwasang Bonifacio, Manila
Bahay na Pula in San Ildefonso, Bulacan used as barracks by Japanese soldiers in World War II where young Filipino comfort women were imprisoned and used as sex slaves

Comfort women or comfort girls were women and girls forced into sexual slavery by the Imperial Japanese Army in occupied countries and territories before and during World War II.

Japanese freighter Nittsu Maru sinks after being torpedoed by USS Wahoo (SS-238) on 21 March 1943.

Allied submarines in the Pacific War

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Allied submarines were used extensively during the Pacific War and were a key contributor to the defeat of the Empire of Japan.

Allied submarines were used extensively during the Pacific War and were a key contributor to the defeat of the Empire of Japan.

Japanese freighter Nittsu Maru sinks after being torpedoed by USS Wahoo (SS-238) on 21 March 1943.
Torpedoed Japanese destroyer photographed through the periscope of American submarine USS Nautilus (SS-168) on 25 June 1942.
Photograph of Makin Island taken from USS Nautilus during the raid on the island in August 1942.

Allied submarines also sank a large number of Imperial Japanese Army (IJA) troop transports, killing many thousands of Japanese soldiers and hampering the deployment of IJA reinforcements during the battles on the Pacific islands.

Teruo Nakamura

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Teruo Nakamura (中村 輝夫) was a Taiwanese-Japanese soldier of the Imperial Japanese Army who fought for Japan in World War II and did not surrender until 1974.

Kiheitai Militia 1864-1866

Kiheitai

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Volunteer militia raised by Takasugi Shinsaku of the Chōshū domain during the Bakumatsu period of Japan.

Volunteer militia raised by Takasugi Shinsaku of the Chōshū domain during the Bakumatsu period of Japan.

Kiheitai Militia 1864-1866
Illustration of Cavalry, Infantry and Soldiers Retreating (Kiheitai, hoheitai, daichōren no zu)

The success of the socially mixed unit and its Western armaments and tactics was an important influence on the development of the Imperial Japanese Army, and on the later system of universal military conscription in Japan.

Manchukuo

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Puppet state of the Empire of Japan in Manchuria from 1932 until 1945.

Puppet state of the Empire of Japan in Manchuria from 1932 until 1945.

Manchukuo (burgundy) within the Empire of Japan (pink) at its furthest extent
Location of Manchukuo (red) within Imperial Japan's sphere of influence (1939)
Kangde
Manchukuo (burgundy) within the Empire of Japan (pink) at its furthest extent
Members of the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere; territory controlled at maximum height. Japan and its allies in dark red; occupied territories/client states in lighter red. Korea and Taiwan were at that time considered integral parts of Japan and governed directly by the Japanese government, unlike client states such as Manchukuo that functioned under puppet governments.
The Japan–Manchukuo Protocol, 15 September 1932
The throne of the emperor of Manchukuo, c. 1937
Foreign recognition of Manchukuo represented by states in colors other than gray
Puyi as Emperor Kangde of Manchukuo
A map of the Japanese advance from 1937 to 1942
Propaganda poster promoting harmony between Japanese, Chinese, and Manchu. The caption says (Right to left): "With the cooperation of Japan, China, and Manchukuo, the world can be in peace."
Hideki Tōjō (right) and Nobusuke Kishi, the key architect of Manchukuo (1935–39), also known as the "Shōwa (Emperor) era monster/devil"
Map of Japanese Hokushin-ron plans for a potential attack on the Soviet Union. Dates indicate the year that Japan gained control of the territory.
Map of Manchukuo
Administrative divisions of Manchukuo in 1938
A Manchukuo propaganda poster promoting displaying European and East Asian ethnic groups
The Empress of Manchukuo taking part in a procession during a visit by Japanese officials (1934)
Propaganda poster of the Manchukuo Government for the Western audience, featuring a couple of Japanese agrarian immigrants
Showa Steel Works in the early 1940s
Cavalry of the Manchukuo Imperial Army
A Type 41 75 mm mountain gun during an Imperial Army exercise
Manchukuo Imperial Air Force pilots, 1942, with a Nakajima Ki-27 behind
Poppy harvest in Manchukuo

Their main role was to fight Nationalist and Communist insurgents that continued to resist the Japanese occupation of northeastern China, and occasionally the Manchukuo Imperial Army took part in operations against the Chinese National Revolutionary Army and the Soviet Red Army (usually in support of the Imperial Japanese Army).