A report on Imperial Japanese Army

The ensign of the Imperial Japanese Army
Ukiyo-E, depicting the retreat of shogunate forces in front of the Imperial Army (Kangun). Yodo Castle is shown in the background.
The Koishikawa Arsenal in Tokyo, inaugurated in 1871, soon after the Meiji restoration.
Prince Aritomo Yamagata, a field marshal in the Imperial Japanese Army and twice Prime Minister of Japan. He was one of the main architects of the military foundations of early modern Japan. Yamagata Aritomo can be seen as the father of Japanese militarism.
Barrack of the Imperial Guard, circa 1940
Marquis Nozu Michitsura, a field marshal in the early Imperial Japanese Army. He was appointed as chief of staff of the Imperial Guard (Japan) in 1874.
Marquis Jutoku Saigo, a general in the early Imperial Japanese Army. He is the nephew of Saigō Takamori, the leader of Satsuma Rebellion of 1877. Many of the rebels were incorporated into the Imperial Army after the failure of the armed uprising.
Commander-in-chief Saigō Tsugumichi (sitting at the center) pictured with leaders of the Seqalu tribe.
Count Nogi Maresuke, a general in the Imperial Japanese Army and the third governor of Taiwan
Type 13(Top) & Type 22(bottom) Murata rifle. Murata rifle was the first indigenously produced Japanese service rifle adopted in 1880.
Japanese troops during the Sino-Japanese War
Count Akiyama Yoshifuru, served as a cavalry regimental commander in the First Sino-Japanese War of 1894–1895. In the Russo-Japanese War of 1904–1905, he led his troops against the Cossack cavalry divisions of the Imperial Russian Army.
Prince Katsura Tarō, three times Prime Minister of Japan. Katsura was the Vice-Minister of War during the period. He commanded the IJA 3rd Division under his mentor, Field Marshal Yamagata Aritomo, during the First Sino-Japanese War.
Type 30 rifle was the standard infantry rifle of the Imperial Japanese Army from 1897 to 1905.
Ōshima Ken'ichi, Minister of War during the period
Japanese riflemen during the Russo-Japanese War
The Type 38 rifle was adopted by the Imperial Japanese Army in 1905
Commanding Officers and Chiefs of Staff of the Allied Military Mission to Siberia, Vladivostok during the Allied Intervention
IJA amphibious assault ship Shinshū Maru, the world's first landing craft carrier ship to be designed as such.
Army uniforms between 1941 and 1945 (US Army poster)
Type 38 rifle
Type 97 Chi-Ha, the most widely produced Japanese medium tank of World War II
Type 99 light machine gun
Indonesian child recruits being trained by Japanese officers as human shield, 1945
Many thousands of Indonesian were taken away as forced labourers (romusha) for Japanese military projects, including the Burma-Siam and Saketi-Bayah railways, and suffered or died as a result of ill-treatment and starvation. Pictured is an internment camp in Jakarta, c. 1945
Disposition of the Imperial Japanese Army in Japan at the time of its capitulation, 18 August 1945
IJA Japanese officers, 1930s
IJA Korean Volunteer army, 1943
IJA Taiwanese soldier in Philippines during World War II

The official ground-based armed force of the Empire of Japan from 1868 to 1945.

- Imperial Japanese Army
The ensign of the Imperial Japanese Army

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Onoda, c. undefined 1944

Hiroo Onoda

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Onoda, c. undefined 1944
Hiroo Onoda (right) and his younger brother Shigeo Onoda (滋郎 1944)
Hiroo Onoda (right) offers his military sword to Philippine President Ferdinand Marcos (left) on the day of his surrender, 11 March 1974.

Hiroo Onoda was an Imperial Japanese Army intelligence officer who fought in World War II and was a Japanese holdout who did not surrender at the war's end in August 1945.

Russian 500-pound shell bursting near the Japanese siege guns, near Port Arthur

Siege of Port Arthur

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The longest and most violent land battle of the Russo-Japanese War.

The longest and most violent land battle of the Russo-Japanese War.

Russian 500-pound shell bursting near the Japanese siege guns, near Port Arthur
Location within China
Advances of the Japanese 3rd Army Blue line: July 30, Red: August 15, Yellow: August 20, Green: January 2
The siege of Port Arthur – Russian batteries against Togo (Angelo Agostini, O Malho, 1904)
Japanese 11-inch howitzers during the siege of Port Arthur
Map of Port Arthur
203 Meter Hill, December 14, 1904
Port Arthur viewed from the summit of the 203 Meter Hill, November 2004
Japanese 11-inch howitzer firing; shell visible in flight
Pallada under fire as the Oil Depot burns
Pallada and Pobeda
Nogi (Center left), Stoessel (Center right) and their staffs.
Wrecked ships of the Russian Pacific Fleet, which were later salvaged by the Japanese navy
The Surrender of Port Arthur (Angelo Agostini, O Malho, 1905).
2004 Russian stamp "100th anniversary of the heroic defence of Port Arthur" showing the military decoration, the Port Arthur Cross

The Japanese Army complained bitterly to the Navy about the ease with which the Russians were able to obtain naval fire support, and in response the Japanese Navy brought in a battery of 12-pounder guns, with a range sufficient to ensure that there would be no recurrence of a Russian naval sortie.

Convention of retrocession of the Liaodong Peninsula, 8 November 1895.

Triple Intervention

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Diplomatic intervention by Russia, Germany, and France on 23 April 1895 over the harsh terms of the Treaty of Shimonoseki imposed by Japan on the Qing dynasty of China that ended the First Sino-Japanese War.

Diplomatic intervention by Russia, Germany, and France on 23 April 1895 over the harsh terms of the Treaty of Shimonoseki imposed by Japan on the Qing dynasty of China that ended the First Sino-Japanese War.

Convention of retrocession of the Liaodong Peninsula, 8 November 1895.

The French actually had cordial relations with the Japanese: French military advisors had been sent to train the Imperial Japanese Army and a number of Japanese ships had been built in French shipyards.

The League of Nations assembly, held in Geneva, Switzerland, 1930

World War II

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Global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945.

Global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945.

The League of Nations assembly, held in Geneva, Switzerland, 1930
Adolf Hitler at a German Nazi political rally in Nuremberg, August 1933
Benito Mussolini inspecting troops during the Italo-Ethiopian War, 1935
The bombing of Guernica in 1937, during the Spanish Civil War, sparked fears abroad in Europe that the next war would be based on bombing of cities with very high civilian casualties.
Japanese Imperial Army soldiers during the Battle of Shanghai, 1937
Red Army artillery unit during the Battle of Lake Khasan, 1938
Chamberlain, Daladier, Hitler, Mussolini, and Ciano pictured just before signing the Munich Agreement, 29 September 1938
German Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop (right) and the Soviet leader Joseph Stalin, after signing the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, 23 August 1939
Soldiers of the German Wehrmacht tearing down the border crossing into Poland, 1 September 1939
Soldiers of the Polish Army during the defence of Poland, September 1939
Finnish machine gun nest aimed at Soviet Red Army positions during the Winter War, February 1940
German advance into Belgium and Northern France, 10 May-4 June 1940, swept past the Maginot Line (shown in dark red)
London seen from St. Paul's Cathedral after the German Blitz, 29 December 1940
Soldiers of the British Commonwealth forces from the Australian Army's 9th Division during the Siege of Tobruk; North African Campaign, September 1941
German Panzer III of the Afrika Korps advancing across the North African desert, April-May 1941
European theatre of World War II animation map, 1939–1945 – Red: Western Allies and the Soviet Union after 1941; Green: Soviet Union before 1941; Blue: Axis powers
German soldiers during the invasion of the Soviet Union by the Axis powers, 1941
Soviet civilians leaving destroyed houses after a German bombardment during the Battle of Leningrad, 10 December 1942
Japanese soldiers entering Hong Kong, 8 December 1941
The USS Arizona (BB-39) was a total loss in the Japanese surprise air attack on the American Pacific Fleet at Pearl Harbor, Sunday 7 December 1941.
US President Franklin D. Roosevelt and British PM Winston Churchill seated at the Casablanca Conference, January 1943
Map of Japanese military advances through mid-1942
US Marines during the Guadalcanal Campaign, in the Pacific theatre, 1942
Red Army soldiers on the counterattack during the Battle of Stalingrad, February 1943
American 8th Air Force Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress bombing raid on the Focke-Wulf factory in Germany, 9 October 1943
U.S. Navy SBD-5 scout plane flying patrol over USS Washington (BB-56) and USS Lexington (CV-16) during the Gilbert and Marshall Islands campaign, 1943
Red Army troops in a counter-offensive on German positions at the Battle of Kursk, July 1943
Ruins of the Benedictine monastery, during the Battle of Monte Cassino, Italian Campaign, May 1944
American troops approaching Omaha Beach during the invasion of Normandy on D-Day, 6 June 1944
German SS soldiers from the Dirlewanger Brigade, tasked with suppressing the Warsaw Uprising against Nazi occupation, August 1944
General Douglas MacArthur returns to the Philippines during the Battle of Leyte, 20 October 1944
Yalta Conference held in February 1945, with Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin
Ruins of the Reichstag in Berlin, 3 June 1945.
Atomic bombing of Nagasaki on 9 August 1945.
Ruins of Warsaw in 1945, after the deliberate destruction of the city by the occupying German forces
Defendants at the Nuremberg trials, where the Allied forces prosecuted prominent members of the political, military, judicial and economic leadership of Nazi Germany for crimes against humanity
Post-war border changes in Central Europe and creation of the Communist Eastern Bloc
David Ben-Gurion proclaiming the Israeli Declaration of Independence at the Independence Hall, 14 May 1948
World War II deaths
Bodies of Chinese civilians killed by the Imperial Japanese Army during the Nanking Massacre in December 1937
Schutzstaffel (SS) female camp guards removing prisoners' bodies from lorries and carrying them to a mass grave, inside the German Bergen-Belsen concentration camp, 1945
Prisoner identity photograph taken by the German SS of a Polish Catholic girl who died in Auschwitz. Approximately 230,000 children were held prisoner and used in forced labour and Nazi medical experiments.
Polish civilians wearing blindfolds photographed just before their execution by German soldiers in Palmiry forest, 1940
Soviet partisans hanged by the German army. The Russian Academy of Sciences reported in 1995 civilian victims in the Soviet Union at German hands totalled 13.7 million dead, twenty percent of the 68 million persons in the occupied Soviet Union.
B-29 Superfortress strategic bombers on the Boeing assembly line in Wichita, Kansas, 1944
A V-2 rocket launched from a fixed site in Peenemünde, 21 June 1943
Nuclear Gadget being raised to the top of the detonation "shot tower", at Alamogordo Bombing Range; Trinity nuclear test, New Mexico, July 1945

The Imperial Japanese Army used a variety of such weapons during its invasion and occupation of China (see Unit 731) and in early conflicts against the Soviets.

The eight nations with their naval ensigns, from top to bottom, left to right: Regia Marina, 🇺🇸 United States Navy,  French National Navy,, , ,  Imperial Russian Navy and . Japanese print, 1900.

Eight-Nation Alliance

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Multinational military coalition that invaded northern China in 1900 with the stated aim of relieving the foreign legations in Beijing, then besieged by the popular Boxer militia, who were determined to remove foreign imperialism in China.

Multinational military coalition that invaded northern China in 1900 with the stated aim of relieving the foreign legations in Beijing, then besieged by the popular Boxer militia, who were determined to remove foreign imperialism in China.

The eight nations with their naval ensigns, from top to bottom, left to right: Regia Marina, 🇺🇸 United States Navy,  French National Navy,, , ,  Imperial Russian Navy and . Japanese print, 1900.
German and Japanese soldiers witnessing the street execution of a Chinese boxer.
Indian troops during the Boxer Rebellion.
German and Indian troops, Peking Legation Quarter, 1900.
German troops with captured Boxer flags.
French Colonial Infantry Marching through the French Concession, Tientsin
Postcard showing Waldersee inspecting Italian troops.
Japanese marines who served under the British commander Edward Hobart Seymour.
Russian troops during the Boxer Rebellion
American troops during the Boxer Rebellion.

Of the total number, 20,300 were Imperial Japanese Army troops of the 5th Infantry Division under Lieutenant General Yamaguchi Motoomi; the remainder were 540 naval rikusentai (Marines) from the Imperial Japanese Navy.

Hong Kong

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City and special administrative region of China on the eastern Pearl River Delta in South China.

City and special administrative region of China on the eastern Pearl River Delta in South China.

Hong Kong in 1868, photograph by John Thomson
British Hong Kong flag from 1959 to 1997
Since 2012, the legislature has met in the Tamar Legislative Council Complex.
The Court of Final Appeal Building formerly housed the Supreme Court and the Legislative Council.
2019–2020 Hong Kong protests
Areas of urban development and vegetation are visible in this satellite image.
A residential building in Quarry Bay
2016 population pyramid
Wong Tai Sin Temple is dedicated to the Taoist deity Wong Tai Sin
Hong Kong is one of the world's busiest container ports
A proportional representation of Hong Kong exports, 2019
Former trading floor of the Hong Kong Stock Exchange
Entrance to the Cross-Harbour Tunnel in Hung Hom, Kowloon
MTR train on the Tung Chung line
Statue of Bruce Lee on the Avenue of Stars, a tribute to the city's film industry
The Hong Kong Sevens, considered the premier tournament of the World Rugby Sevens Series, is played each spring.
Old campus of St. Paul's College, the first school established in the colonial era
University of Hong Kong main building
TVB City, headquarters of Hong Kong's first over-the-air television station

The Imperial Japanese Army attacked Hong Kong on 8 December 1941, the same morning as its attack on Pearl Harbor.

American soldiers in Vladivostok parading before the building occupied by the staff of the Czechoslovaks.

American Expeditionary Force, Siberia

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Formation of the United States Army involved in the Russian Civil War in Vladivostok, Russia, after the October Revolution, from 1918 to 1920.

Formation of the United States Army involved in the Russian Civil War in Vladivostok, Russia, after the October Revolution, from 1918 to 1920.

American soldiers in Vladivostok parading before the building occupied by the staff of the Czechoslovaks.
American soldiers from the 31st Infantry marching near Vladivostok Russia April 27, 1919
AEF Hospital Car Number 1 at Khabarovsk, Russia

At the time, Bolshevik forces in Siberia controlled only small pockets, and President Wilson wanted to make sure that neither Cossack marauders nor the Japanese military would take advantage of the unstable political environment along the strategic railroad line and in the resource-rich Siberian regions that straddled it.

Morotai

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Island in the Halmahera group of eastern Indonesia's Maluku Islands (Moluccas).

Island in the Halmahera group of eastern Indonesia's Maluku Islands (Moluccas).

Imperial Japanese forces on Morotai held out until 1945 but failed to expel the Allied troops.

Prussian (and later German) Chancellor Otto von Bismarck, right, with General Helmuth von Moltke the Elder, left, and General Albrecht von Roon, centre. Although Bismarck was a civilian politician and not a military officer, he wore a military uniform as part of the Prussian militarist culture of the time. From a painting by Carl Steffeck

Militarism

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Belief or the desire of a government or a people that a state should maintain a strong military capability and to use it aggressively to expand national interests and/or values.

Belief or the desire of a government or a people that a state should maintain a strong military capability and to use it aggressively to expand national interests and/or values.

Prussian (and later German) Chancellor Otto von Bismarck, right, with General Helmuth von Moltke the Elder, left, and General Albrecht von Roon, centre. Although Bismarck was a civilian politician and not a military officer, he wore a military uniform as part of the Prussian militarist culture of the time. From a painting by Carl Steffeck
Otto von Bismarck, a civilian, wearing a cuirassier officer's metal Pickelhaube
Militarism in Nazi Germany
Military parade in India
Japanese march into Zhengyangmen of Beijing after capturing the city in July 1937
North Korean propaganda mural
the Philippine Army in Malolos Bulacan ca.1899
Large nuclear weapons stockpile with global range (dark blue)
Military parade during Republic Day celebrations in Ankara
A pie chart showing global military expenditures by country for 2019, in US$ billions, according to SIPRI.
Members of the Venezuelan armed forces carrying Chávez eyes flags saying, "Chávez lives, the fight continues".

One was the "Military Ministers to be Active-Duty Officers Law", which required the Imperial Japanese Army (IJA) and Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) to agree to the Ministry of Army position in the Cabinet.

Seoul

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Capital and largest metropolis of South Korea.

Capital and largest metropolis of South Korea.

"Seoul" in hangul
The Fortress Wall of Seoul
The Han River at sunrise
According to the Environmental Performance Index 2016, South Korea ranked 173rd out of 180 countries in terms of air quality. More than 50 percent of the populations in South Korea are exposed to dangerous levels of fine dust.
Seoul City Hall
Districts of Seoul
Gangnam Commercial Area
Yeouido, the main financial district of Seoul.
Myeong-dong is one of the most popular destinations in Seoul.
Bukchon Hanok Village, a traditional Seoul village built during the Joseon era
Sungnyemun (commonly known as Namdaemun)
Lotte World Tower
The National Museum of Korea
The War Memorial of Korea
Myeongdong Cathedral
Seoul Botanic Park
Han River Park
KBS headquarters in Yeouido, Seoul
Seoul Olympic Stadium
Fireworks at the closing ceremonies of the 1988 Summer Olympics in Seoul
Seoul buses
Seoul Station
KTX Sancheon
Entrance of Seoul National University
Gyeongbokgung, the main royal palace during Joseon Dynasty.
Changdeok Palace, one of the five royal palaces during Joseon Dynasty.

Gimpo International Airport opened in 1939 as an airfield for the Japanese Imperial Army and opened for civil aircraft in 1957.