A report on Imperial Japanese Army

The ensign of the Imperial Japanese Army
Ukiyo-E, depicting the retreat of shogunate forces in front of the Imperial Army (Kangun). Yodo Castle is shown in the background.
The Koishikawa Arsenal in Tokyo, inaugurated in 1871, soon after the Meiji restoration.
Prince Aritomo Yamagata, a field marshal in the Imperial Japanese Army and twice Prime Minister of Japan. He was one of the main architects of the military foundations of early modern Japan. Yamagata Aritomo can be seen as the father of Japanese militarism.
Barrack of the Imperial Guard, circa 1940
Marquis Nozu Michitsura, a field marshal in the early Imperial Japanese Army. He was appointed as chief of staff of the Imperial Guard (Japan) in 1874.
Marquis Jutoku Saigo, a general in the early Imperial Japanese Army. He is the nephew of Saigō Takamori, the leader of Satsuma Rebellion of 1877. Many of the rebels were incorporated into the Imperial Army after the failure of the armed uprising.
Commander-in-chief Saigō Tsugumichi (sitting at the center) pictured with leaders of the Seqalu tribe.
Count Nogi Maresuke, a general in the Imperial Japanese Army and the third governor of Taiwan
Type 13(Top) & Type 22(bottom) Murata rifle. Murata rifle was the first indigenously produced Japanese service rifle adopted in 1880.
Japanese troops during the Sino-Japanese War
Count Akiyama Yoshifuru, served as a cavalry regimental commander in the First Sino-Japanese War of 1894–1895. In the Russo-Japanese War of 1904–1905, he led his troops against the Cossack cavalry divisions of the Imperial Russian Army.
Prince Katsura Tarō, three times Prime Minister of Japan. Katsura was the Vice-Minister of War during the period. He commanded the IJA 3rd Division under his mentor, Field Marshal Yamagata Aritomo, during the First Sino-Japanese War.
Type 30 rifle was the standard infantry rifle of the Imperial Japanese Army from 1897 to 1905.
Ōshima Ken'ichi, Minister of War during the period
Japanese riflemen during the Russo-Japanese War
The Type 38 rifle was adopted by the Imperial Japanese Army in 1905
Commanding Officers and Chiefs of Staff of the Allied Military Mission to Siberia, Vladivostok during the Allied Intervention
IJA amphibious assault ship Shinshū Maru, the world's first landing craft carrier ship to be designed as such.
Army uniforms between 1941 and 1945 (US Army poster)
Type 38 rifle
Type 97 Chi-Ha, the most widely produced Japanese medium tank of World War II
Type 99 light machine gun
Indonesian child recruits being trained by Japanese officers as human shield, 1945
Many thousands of Indonesian were taken away as forced labourers (romusha) for Japanese military projects, including the Burma-Siam and Saketi-Bayah railways, and suffered or died as a result of ill-treatment and starvation. Pictured is an internment camp in Jakarta, c. 1945
Disposition of the Imperial Japanese Army in Japan at the time of its capitulation, 18 August 1945
IJA Japanese officers, 1930s
IJA Korean Volunteer army, 1943
IJA Taiwanese soldier in Philippines during World War II

The official ground-based armed force of the Empire of Japan from 1868 to 1945.

- Imperial Japanese Army
The ensign of the Imperial Japanese Army

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Overall

Lieutenant I. N. Moshlyak and two Soviet soldiers on Zaozernaya Hill after the battle

Battle of Lake Khasan

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Attempted military incursion by Manchukuo, a Japanese puppet state, into the territory claimed and controlled by the Soviet Union.

Attempted military incursion by Manchukuo, a Japanese puppet state, into the territory claimed and controlled by the Soviet Union.

Lieutenant I. N. Moshlyak and two Soviet soldiers on Zaozernaya Hill after the battle
Camouflaged Soviet tanks
Schematic map. The defeat of the Japanese troops at Lake Hassan. July 29 - August 11, 1938
Red Army soldiers celebrate after the Battle of Lake Khasan.

One of the Japanese Army Commanders at the battle was Colonel Kotoku Sato, the commander of the 75th Infantry Regiment.

Preamble of the Constitution

Meiji Constitution

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The constitution of the Empire of Japan which was proclaimed on February 11, 1889, and remained in force between November 29, 1890 and May 2, 1947.

The constitution of the Empire of Japan which was proclaimed on February 11, 1889, and remained in force between November 29, 1890 and May 2, 1947.

Preamble of the Constitution
Meiji Constitution promulgation by Toyohara Chikanobu
Itō Hirobumi and Emperor Meiji (Servet-i Fünun 25 October 1894 front page)
Schematic overview of the government structure under the Constitution
Memorial in Yokohama

Article 11 declares that the Emperor commands the army and navy. The heads of these services interpreted this to mean “The army and navy obey only the Emperor, and do not have to obey the cabinet and diet”, which caused political controversy.

Katō Tomosaburō

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Career officer in the Imperial Japanese Navy, cabinet minister, and Prime Minister of Japan from 1922 to 1923.

Career officer in the Imperial Japanese Navy, cabinet minister, and Prime Minister of Japan from 1922 to 1923.

Katō Tomosaburō wears a formal uniform
From left to right, Kijūrō Shidehara, Katō and Iesato Tokugawa on November 3, 1921, to attend the Washington Naval Conference.

His cabinet consisted mainly of bureaucrats and members of the House of Peers, which proved unpopular with the Imperial Japanese Army.

Armenian people are marched to a nearby prison in Mezireh by armed Ottoman soldiers during the Armenian genocide. Kharpert, Ottoman Empire, April 1915.

Death march

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Forced march of prisoners of war or other captives or deportees in which individuals are left to die along the way.

Forced march of prisoners of war or other captives or deportees in which individuals are left to die along the way.

Armenian people are marched to a nearby prison in Mezireh by armed Ottoman soldiers during the Armenian genocide. Kharpert, Ottoman Empire, April 1915.
Arab-Swahili slave traders and their captives on the Ruvuma River
Long Walk of the Navajo
American and Filipino prisoners of war use improvised litters to carry fallen comrades following the Bataan Death March.
May 11, 1945, German civilians are forced to walk past the bodies of 30 Jewish women murdered by German SS troops in a 300 mi death march from Helmbrecht to Volary.
Croatian migrants and ustashe in death march during the Yugoslav death march of Nazi collaborators
French soldiers who were captured at Điện Biên Phủ were force-marched over 600 km (370 mi). Of 10,863 prisoners, only 3,290 of them were repatriated four months later.

In the Pacific Theatre, the Imperial Japanese Army conducted death marches of Allied POWs, including the infamous Bataan Death March (1942) and the Sandakan Death Marches (1945). The former forcibly transferred 60–80,000 POWs to Balanga, resulting in the deaths of 2,500–10,000 Filipinos and 100–650 Americans, the latter causing the deaths of 2,345 Australians and British, of which only 6 survived. Both the Bataan and Sandakan death marches were judged as war crimes.