A report on Imperial Japanese Navy and Kamikaze

Ensign of the Imperial Japanese Navy
USS Bunker Hill (CV-17), an aircraft carrier, was hit by two kamikazes on 11 May 1945, resulting in 389 personnel dead or missing and 264 wounded.
The Battle of Dan-no-ura in 1185
The Mongol fleet destroyed in a typhoon, by Kikuchi Yōsai, 1847
A 16th-century Japanese "Atakebune" coastal naval war vessel, bearing the symbol of the Tokugawa Clan.
Lt. Yoshinori Yamaguchi's Yokosuka D4Y3 (Type 33 Suisei) "Judy" in a suicide dive against USS Essex (CV-9) on 25 November 1944. The attack left 15 killed and 44 wounded. The dive brakes are extended and the non-self-sealing port wing tank trails fuel vapor and/or smoke.
No. 6 Odaiba battery, one of the original Edo-era battery islands. These batteries are defensive structures built to withstand naval intrusions.
Model 52c Zeros ready to take part in a kamikaze attack (early 1945)
The Naval Battle of Hakodate, May 1869; in the foreground, wooden paddle steamer warship and ironclad warship of the Imperial Japanese Navy
A kamikaze aircraft explodes after crashing into Essex flight deck amidships 25 November 1944.
The ironclad Fusō, between 1878 and 1891
Rear Admiral Masafumi Arima
The ironclad corvette
26 May 1945. Corporal Yukio Araki, holding a puppy, with four other pilots of the 72nd Shinbu Squadron at Bansei, Kagoshima. Araki died the following day, at the age of 17, in a suicide attack on ships near Okinawa.
Marshal-Admiral Marquis Saigo Tsugumichi commanded Japanese expeditionary forces as a lieutenant-general in the Taiwan expedition.
St Lo attacked by kamikazes, 25 October 1944
The British-built steam ironclad warship was the flagship of the Imperial Japanese Navy until 1881.
Starboard horizontal stabilizer from the tail of a "Judy" on the deck of USS Kitkun Bay (CVE-71). The "Judy" made a run on the ship approaching from dead astern; it was met by effective fire and the aircraft passed over the island and exploded. Parts of the aircraft and the pilot were scattered over the flight deck and the forecastle.
The French-built protected cruiser Matsushima, the flagship of the IJN at the Battle of the Yalu River (1894)
An A6M Zero (A6M2 Model 21) towards the end of its run at the escort carrier USS White Plains (CVE-66) on 25 October 1944. The aircraft exploded in mid-air moments after the picture was taken, scattering debris across the deck.
The protected cruiser Hashidate, built domestically at the arsenal of Yokosuka
An A6M5 "Zero" diving towards American ships in the Philippines in early 1945
The torpedo boat Hayabusa
USS Louisville (CA-28) is struck by a Mitsubishi Ki-51 kamikaze at the Battle of Lingayen Gulf, 6 January 1945.
The Chinese Beiyang Fleet ironclad battleship Zhenyuan captured by IJN in 1895.
USS Missouri (BB-63) shortly before being hit by a Mitsubishi A6M Zero (visible top left), 11 April 1945
The armored cruiser Azuma
Aircraft carrier after being struck by a kamikaze off the Sakishima Islands. The kamikaze made a dent 3 m long and 0.6 m wide and deep in the armored flight deck. Eight crew members were killed, forty-seven were wounded, and 11 aircraft were destroyed.
The pre-dreadnought battleship Mikasa, among the most powerful battleships of her time, in 1905, was one of the six battleships ordered as part of the program.
Ugaki, shortly before taking off in a Yokosuka D4Y3 to participate in one of the final kamikaze strikes, 15 August 1945
Marshal-Admiral Viscount Inoue Yoshika, 1900
A crewman in an AA gun aboard the battleship USS New Jersey (BB-62) watches a kamikaze aircraft dive at USS Intrepid (CV-11) 25 November 1944. Over 75 men were killed or missing and 100 wounded.
The pre-dreadnought battleship Katori
Japanese Yokosuka MXY-7 Ohka ("cherry blossom"), a specially built rocket-powered kamikaze aircraft used towards the end of the war. The U.S. called them Baka Bombs ("idiot bombs").
Port Arthur viewed from the Top of Gold Hill, after capitulation in 1905. From left wrecks of Russian pre-dreadnought battleships Peresvet, Poltava, Retvizan, Pobeda and the protected cruiser Pallada
First recruits for Japanese Kamikaze suicide pilots in 1944
Holland 1-class submarine, the first Japanese navy submarine, purchased during the Russo Japanese War
Chiran high school girls wave farewell with cherry blossom branches to departing kamikaze pilot in a Nakajima Ki-43-IIIa Hayabusa.
The semi-dreadnought battleship Satsuma, the first ship in the world to be designed and laid down as an "all-big-gun" battleship
Kamikaze damage to the destroyer USS Newcomb (DD-586) following action off Okinawa, Newcomb was damaged beyond economical repair and scrapped after the war.
The dreadnought battleship Settsu
The dreadnought battleship Kawachi
The seaplane carrier conducted the world's first sea-launched air raids in September 1914.
Yokosuka Naval Arsenal immediately after the Great Kantō earthquake of 1923
Photograph shows the super-dreadnought battleship Nagato, between ca. 1920 and ca. 1925
The super-dreadnought battleship Mutsu
The planned Tosa-class battleship Tosa being prepared for scuttling at Kure on 31 January 1925.
Captain Sempill showing a Sparrowhawk fighter to Admiral Tōgō Heihachirō, 1921
, the world's first purpose built aircraft carrier, completed in 1922
IJN super-dreadnought battleships Yamashiro, Fusō, and battlecruiser Haruna, Tokyo Bay, 1930s
Type 91 Aerial Torpedo on IJN aircraft carrier Akagi flight deck.
IJN Yamato-class Battleships Yamato and Musashi moored in Truk Lagoon, in 1943
IJN Ha-101 class submarines Ha-105, Ha-106 and Ha-109 designed as transport submarines to resupply isolated island garrisons, 1945.
Aft view of the flight deck of the IJN aircraft carrier from the island, 19 October 1945
IJN Aircraft carrier Ibuki under dismantling operation at Sasebo Naval Arsenal. October 1946
Replica of the Japanese-built 1613 galleon San Juan Bautista, in Ishinomaki
A Chinese illustration of a Red seal ship.
The sailing frigate Shōhei Maru (1854) was built from Dutch technical drawings.
The screw-driven steam corvette {{Ship|Japanese warship|Kanrin Maru||2}}, Japan's first screw-driven steam warship, 1857
The gunboat Chiyoda, was Japan's first domestically built steam warship. It was completed in May 1866.<ref>Jentschura p. 113</ref>
The French-built ironclad warship Kōtetsu (ex-CSS Stonewall), Japan's first modern ironclad, 1869
The warship of Yamada Nagamasa (1590–1630), a merchant and soldier who traveled to Ayutthaya (Thailand)

More specifically, air suicide attack units from the Imperial Japanese Navy were officially called shinpū tokubetsu kōgeki tai (神風特別攻撃隊, "divine wind special attack units").

- Kamikaze

During the last phase of the war, the Imperial Japanese Navy resorted to a series of desperate measures, including a variety of Special Attack Units which were popularly called kamikaze.

- Imperial Japanese Navy
Ensign of the Imperial Japanese Navy

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The light aircraft carrier USS Princeton (CVL-23) on fire, east of Luzon, on 24 October 1944

Battle of Leyte Gulf

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The largest naval battle of World War II and, by some criteria, the largest naval battle in history, with over 200,000 naval personnel involved.

The largest naval battle of World War II and, by some criteria, the largest naval battle in history, with over 200,000 naval personnel involved.

The light aircraft carrier USS Princeton (CVL-23) on fire, east of Luzon, on 24 October 1944
The four main actions in the Battle of Leyte Gulf: 1 Battle of the Sibuyan Sea 2 Battle of Surigao Strait 3 Battle off Cape Engaño 4 Battle off Samar. Leyte Gulf is north of 2 and west of 4. The island of Leyte is west of the gulf.
departing Brunei in October 1944 for the Battle of Leyte Gulf
hit by a bomb near her forward gun turret in the Sibuyan Sea, 24 October 1944
USS Princeton (CVL-23) explodes at 15:23
Musashi under aerial bombardment
The Battle of Surigao Strait
USS West Virginia (BB-48) firing on the Japanese fleet
The Battle off Samar
USS St. Lo (CVE-63) exploding after a kamikaze strike.
The Japanese aircraft carriers, left, and (probably) come under attack by dive bombers early in the Battle off Cape Engaño.
The crew of salute as the flag is lowered on the listing carrier after an airstrike. She was the last carrier participating in the attack on Pearl Harbor to be sunk.
Admiral William F. "Bull" Halsey – Commander U.S. Third Fleet at Leyte Gulf
A 60th-anniversary memorial ceremony in Palo, Leyte, Philippines, on 20 October 2004
The Battle of Surigao Strait Memorial in Surigao City, Philippines.

It was fought in waters near the Philippine islands of Leyte, Samar, and Luzon, from 23 to 26 October 1944, between combined American and Australian forces and the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN), as part of the invasion of Leyte, which aimed to isolate Japan from the countries it had occupied in Southeast Asia which were a vital source of industrial and oil supplies.

This was the first battle in which Japanese aircraft carried out organized kamikaze attacks, and the last naval battle between battleships in history.

Escort carrier

Escort carrier

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Escort carrier
USS Gambier Bay (CVE-73), burning from earlier gunfire damage, is bracketed by a salvo from a Japanese heavy cruiser (faintly visible in the background, center-right) shortly before sinking during the Battle off Samar.
Model of the Casablanca-class Gambier Bay at USS Midway museum

The escort carrier or escort aircraft carrier (U.S. hull classification symbol CVE), also called a "jeep carrier" or "baby flattop" in the United States Navy (USN) or "Woolworth Carrier" by the Royal Navy, was a small and slow type of aircraft carrier used by the Royal Navy, the United States Navy, the Imperial Japanese Navy and Imperial Japanese Army Air Force in World War II.

Among their crews, CVE was sarcastically said to stand for "Combustible, Vulnerable, and Expendable", and the CVEs were called “Kaiser coffins" in honor of Casablanca-class manufacturer Henry J. Kaiser. Magazine protection was minimal in comparison to fleet aircraft carriers. was sunk within minutes by a single torpedo, and exploded from undetermined causes with very heavy loss of life. Three escort carriers—USS St. Lo (CVE-63), USS Ommaney Bay (CVE-79) and USS Bismarck Sea (CVE-95)—were destroyed by kamikazes, the largest ships to meet such a fate.

USS Port Royal (CG-73), a guided missile cruiser, launched in 1992


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Type of warship.

Type of warship.

USS Port Royal (CG-73), a guided missile cruiser, launched in 1992
Russian Varyag in the Pacific Ocean
, the Royal Navy's first armored cruiser.
The Russian protected cruiser
HMS Lion (1910)
, a World War I era light cruiser, served as a headquarters and training vessel in Belfast until 2011.
Romanian coastguard cruiser Grivița
Italian cruiser.
USS Atlanta (CL-51).
Russian Navy battlecruiser of the ,
China's latest Type 055 destroyer has been classified by the United States Department of Defense as a cruiser because of its large size and armament.
One cruiser alternative studied in the late 1980s by the United States was variously entitled a Mission Essential Unit (MEU) or CG V/STOL.
of the French Navy, launched in 1961, decommissioned in 2010

The Imperial Japanese Navy began this new race with the, launched in 1934.

The biggest guns in the American force were 5 in/38 caliber guns, while the Japanese had 14 in, 16 in, and 18.1 in guns. Aircraft from six additional escort carriers also participated for a total of around 330 US aircraft, a mix of F6F Hellcat fighters and TBF Avenger torpedo bombers. The Japanese had four battleships including Yamato, six heavy cruisers, two small light cruisers, and 11 destroyers. The Japanese force had earlier been driven off by air attack, losing Yamatos sister . Admiral Halsey then decided to use his Third Fleet carrier force to attack the Japanese carrier group, located well to the north of Samar, which was actually a decoy group with few aircraft. The Japanese were desperately short of aircraft and pilots at this point in the war, and Leyte Gulf was the first battle in which kamikaze attacks were used.

The carrier (center) and two destroyers under attack by U.S. Navy carrier aircraft, June 20, 1944

Battle of the Philippine Sea

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The carrier (center) and two destroyers under attack by U.S. Navy carrier aircraft, June 20, 1944
F6F-3 landing aboard Lexington, flagship of Task Force 58
Map of the Battle of the Philippine Sea
Fighter aircraft contrails mark the sky over Task Force 58, June 19, 1944
USS Bunker Hill (CV-17) is nearly hit by a Japanese bomb during the air attacks of June 19, 1944.
Lt. Alexander Vraciu downed six Japanese dive bombers in a single mission, June 19, 1944.
Japanese aircraft carrier Taihō
USS Albacore
Japanese aircraft carrier Shōkaku
USS Cavalla
Japanese Carrier Division Three under attack by United States Navy aircraft from Task Force 58, late afternoon, June 20, 1944. The heavy cruiser circling at right, nearest to the camera, is either or . Beyond that is the small aircraft carrier.

The Battle of the Philippine Sea (June 19–20, 1944) was a major naval battle of World War II that eliminated the Imperial Japanese Navy's ability to conduct large-scale carrier actions.

With the effective crippling of her best striking arm, Japan chose to rely increasingly on land-based kamikaze suicide aircraft in a last-ditch effort to make the war so costly that the U.S. would offer peace terms better than unconditional surrender.

Ohka at the Yasukuni Shrine

Japanese Special Attack Units

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Ohka at the Yasukuni Shrine
A Shinyo suicide boat
Kaiten manned torpedoes, stacked on top of a departing submarine
A Kairyu in the Aburatsubo inlet

During World War II, Japanese Special Attack Units (特別攻撃隊), also called shimbu-tai, were specialized units of the Imperial Japanese Navy and Imperial Japanese Army normally used for suicide missions.

They included kamikaze aircraft, fukuryu frogmen, and several types of suicide boats and submarines.

Rising Sun Flag

Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service

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Rising Sun Flag
Seaplane carrier Wakamiya.
Yokosuka Ro-go Ko-gata, the first domestic designed and built seaplane.
Captain Sempill showing a Sparrowhawk to Admiral Tōgō Heihachirō, 1921.
The aircraft carrier Hōshō in 1922.
Mitsubishi B1M torpedo bomber.
A stern view of Akagi off Osaka on 15 October 1934. On deck are Mitsubishi B1M and B2M bombers.
Kaga conducts air operations in 1937. On deck are Nakajima A2N, Aichi D1A, and Mitsubishi B2M aircraft.
1st Air Fleet Aichi D3A dive bombers preparing to bomb American naval base in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii
Mitsubishi A6M Zero fighter aircraft and other aircraft preparing for takeoff on the aircraft carrier Shōkaku on 7 December 1941, for the attack on Pearl Harbor
Early production G4M1s of Kanoya Kōkūtai with the original shape tail cones.
A formation of Japanese bombers taking anti-aircraft fire, seen from the Australian cruiser,.

The Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service (大日本帝國海軍航空隊) was the air arm of the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN).

The remnants of Japanese naval aviation were then limited to land-based operations, increasingly characterized by kamikaze attacks on American invasion fleets.