Imperialism

imperialistimperialisticimperialimperialistsWestern imperialismimperial powerAge of Imperialismimperial powersAnti-ImperialistTheories of New Imperialism
Imperialism is a policy or ideology of extending a country's rule over foreign nations, often by military force or by gaining political and economic control of other areas.wikipedia
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New Imperialism

neo-imperialismimperialismcolonialists
The term can be applied to the colonization of the Americas between the 16th and 19th centuries, as opposed to New Imperialism, which describes the expansion of Western Powers and Japan during the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
The qualifier "new" is used to differentiate modern imperialism from earlier imperial activity, such as the so-called first wave of European colonization between 1402 and 1815.

Self-determination

self determinationright to self-determinationnational self-determination
In recent times, it has been considered morally reprehensible and prohibited by international law.
The employment of imperialism, through the expansion of empires, and the concept of political sovereignty, as developed after the Treaty of Westphalia, also explain the emergence of self-determination during the modern era.

Empire

imperialempiresimperial power
This definition encompasses both nominal empires and neocolonialism.
The word empire is associated with such other words as imperialism, colonialism, and globalization.

Neocolonialism

neo-colonialismneocolonialneo-colonial
This definition encompasses both nominal empires and neocolonialism.
Neocolonialism, neo-colonialism, or neo-imperialism is the practice of using capitalism, globalisation and cultural imperialism to influence a developing country instead of the previous colonial methods of direct military control (imperialism) or indirect political control (hegemony).

Western world

WesternWestthe West
The term can be applied to the colonization of the Americas between the 16th and 19th centuries, as opposed to New Imperialism, which describes the expansion of Western Powers and Japan during the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Through extensive imperialism, colonialism and Christianization by Western powers in the 15th to 20th centuries, and later exportation of mass culture, much of the rest of the world has been extensively influenced by Western culture, in a phenomenon often called Westernization.

Cultural imperialism

assimilatecultural colonialismcultural
Imperial control, territorial and cultural, is justified through discourses about the imperialists' understanding of different spaces.
Cultural imperialism also called cultural colonialism comprises the cultural aspects of imperialism.

World-systems theory

World Systems Theoryworld systemworld-systems analysis
European expansion caused the world to be divided by how developed and developing nation are portrayed through the world systems theory.
World-systems theory has been examined by many political theorists and sociologists to explain the reasons for the rise and fall of nations, income inequality, social unrest, and imperialism.

Social Darwinism

Social DarwinistSocial Darwiniansocial Darwinists
The purportedly scientific nature of "Social Darwinism" and a theory of races formed a supposedly rational justification for imperialism.
Many such views stress competition between individuals in laissez-faire capitalism, while others were used in support of authoritarianism, eugenics, racism, imperialism, fascism, Nazism, and struggle between national or racial groups.

Orientalism (book)

OrientalismOrientalistbook of the same name
In Orientalism (1978), Edward Said said that the West developed the concept of The Orient—an imagined geography of the Eastern world—which functions as an essentializing discourse that represents neither the ethnic diversity nor the social reality of the Eastern world.
According to Said, orientalism (the Western scholarship about the Eastern World) is inextricably tied to the imperialist societies who produced it, which makes much Orientalist work inherently political and servile to power.

Scramble for Africa

Partition of AfricaEuropean colonizationEuropean colonization of Africa
To better illustrate this idea, Bassett focuses his analysis of the role of 19th-century maps during the "scramble for Africa".
The later years of the 19th century saw the transition from "informal imperialism" by military influence and economic dominance, to direct rule, bringing about colonial imperialism.

Oriental studies

orientalistNear Eastern StudiesOrientalists
That cultural differentiation was especially noticeable in the books and paintings of early Oriental studies, the European examinations of the Orient, which misrepresented the East as irrational and backward, the opposite of the rational and progressive West.
The modern study was influenced both by imperialist attitudes and interests, and also the sometimes naive fascination of the exotic East for Mediterranean and European writers and thinkers, captured in images by artists, that is embodied in a repeatedly-surfacing theme in the history of ideas in the West, called "Orientalism".

Orientalism

OrientalistOrientalistsOriental
Tropicality can be paralleled with Edward Said's Orientalism as the west's construction of the east as the "other".
In the book Orientalism (1978), the cultural critic Edward Said redefined the term Orientalism to describe a pervasive Western tradition — academic and artistic — of prejudiced outsider-interpretations of the Eastern world, which was shaped by the cultural attitudes of European imperialism in the 18th and 19th centuries.

Eurocentrism

EurocentricEuro-centricAnglocentric
Although cartographic processes advanced through imperialism, further analysis of their progress reveals many biases linked to eurocentrism.
When the term is applied to history, it may be used in reference to an apologetic stance towards European colonialism and other forms of imperialism.

Environmental determinism

geographic determinismclimatic determinismenvironmental determinist
Geographical theories such as environmental determinism also suggested that tropical environments created uncivilized people in need of European guidance.
Environmental determinism has been widely criticized as a tool to legitimize colonialism, racism, and imperialism in Africa, North America, South America, and Asia.

Colonialism

colonialcolonial powerscolonialist
The term "imperialism" is often conflated with "colonialism"; however, many scholars have argued that each have their own distinct definition.
It discusses the distinction between colonialism, imperialism and conquest and states that "[t]he difficulty of defining colonialism stems from the fact that the term is often used as a synonym for imperialism. Both colonialism and imperialism were forms of conquest that were expected to benefit Europe economically and strategically.", and continues "given the difficulty of consistently distinguishing between the two terms, this entry will use colonialism broadly to refer to the project of European political domination from the sixteenth to the twentieth centuries that ended with the national liberation movements of the 1960s".

Interwar period

interbelluminterwarinterwar years
While these non-Marxist writers were at their most prolific before World War I, they remained active in the interwar years.
The empires of Britain, France and others faced challenges as imperialism was increasingly viewed negatively in Europe, and independence movements in British India, French Indochina, Ireland and other regions gained momentum.

South Korea

Republic of KoreaKoreaKOR
For example, depictions of opulent American lifestyles in the soap opera Dallas during the Cold War changed the expectations of Romanians; a more recent example is the influence of smuggled South Korean drama series in North Korea.
Furthermore, the Joseon government adopted a strict isolationist policy, earning the nickname "the hermit kingdom", but ultimately failed to protect itself against imperialism and was forced to open its borders.

Cecil Rhodes

Cecil John RhodesRhodesCape to Cairo
The British spirit of imperialism was expressed by Joseph Chamberlain and Lord Rosebury, and implemented in Africa by Cecil Rhodes.
An ardent believer in British imperialism, Rhodes and his British South Africa Company founded the southern African territory of Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe and Zambia), which the company named after him in 1895.

Theory of imperialism

Imperialism as the closure of the world market and the end of capitalist free-competition
Lenin portrayed Imperialism as the closure of the world market and the end of capitalist free-competition that arose from the need for capitalist economies to constantly expand investment, material resources and manpower in such a way that necessitated colonial expansion.
As such it is often considered distinct and differentiated from the history of imperialism that extends through earlier historic periods and economic formations.

British Empire

BritishEmpireBritain
The principles of imperialism are often generalizable to the policies and practices of the British Empire "during the last generation, and proceeds rather by diagnosis than by historical description".
The ensuing Crimean War (1854–56), which involved new techniques of modern warfare, was the only global war fought between Britain and another imperial power during the Pax Britannica and was a resounding defeat for Russia.

Geopolitics

geopoliticalgeo-politicalGeopolitically
These critical theories of geo-politics have led to increased discussion of the meaning and impact of imperialism on the modern post-colonial world.
The resultant negative association, particularly in U.S. academic circles, between classical geopolitics and Nazi or imperialist ideology, is based on loose justifications.

Imperial Japanese Army

Japanese ArmyJapanese Imperial ArmyJapanese
. Some exceptions of armies that managed to get nearly on par with the European expeditions and standards include the Ethiopian armies at the Battle of Adwa, the Chinese Ever Victorious Army and the Japanese Imperial Army of Japan, but these still relied heavily on weapon imports from Europe and often on European military advisors and adventurers.
The Russo–Japanese War (1904–1905) was the result of tensions between Russia and Japan, grown largely out of rival imperialist ambitions toward Manchuria and Korea.

German colonial empire

German colonyGermany's colonial empireGerman colonies
The establishment of the German colonial empire started with German New Guinea in 1884.
Until their 1871 unification, the German states had not concentrated on the development of a navy, and this essentially had precluded German participation in earlier imperialist scrambles for remote colonial territory – the so-called "place in the sun".

Russo-Japanese War

Russian-Japanese WarRusso Japanese WarRusso–Japanese War
As a result of winning the Russo-Japanese War in 1905, Japan took part of Sakhalin Island from Russia.
The Russo-Japanese War (Ру́сско-японска́я во́йна; 日露戦争; "Japanese-Russian War") was fought during 1904 and 1905 between the Russian Empire and the Empire of Japan over rival imperial ambitions in Manchuria and Korea.

Walter Rodney

Dr. Walter Rodney
Walter Rodney, in his 1972 classic How Europe Underdeveloped Africa, proposes the idea that imperialism is a phase of capitalism "in which Western European capitalist countries, the US, and Japan established political, economic, military and cultural hegemony over other parts of the world which were initially at a lower level and therefore could not resist domination."
In it he described how Africa had been exploited by European imperialists, leading directly to the modern underdevelopment of most of the continent.