Imperialism

imperialistimperialisticimperialimperialistsimperial powerWestern Imperialismimperial powersAnti-Imperialistconquestempire
Imperialism is a state government, practice, or advocacy of extending power and dominion, especially by direct territorial acquisition or by gaining political and economic control of other areas.wikipedia
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New Imperialism

neo-imperialismimperialismcolonialists
It is different from new imperialism, as the term imperialism is usually applied to the colonization of the Americas between the 15th and 19th centuries, as opposed to the expansion of Western Powers and Japan during the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
The qualifier "new" is used to differentiate modern imperialism from earlier imperial activity, such as the so-called first wave of European colonization between the 15th and early-19th centuries.

Empire

imperialempiresimperial power
This definition encompasses both nominal empires and neocolonialism.
The word empire is associated with such other words as imperialism, colonialism, and globalization.

Neocolonialism

neo-colonialismneocolonialneo-colonial
This definition encompasses both nominal empires and neocolonialism.
Neocolonialism, neo-colonialism, postmodern imperialism, or neo-imperialism is the practice of using capitalism, globalization and cultural imperialism to influence a developing country in lieu of direct military control (imperialism) or indirect political control (hegemony).

Western world

WesternWestthe West
It is different from new imperialism, as the term imperialism is usually applied to the colonization of the Americas between the 15th and 19th centuries, as opposed to the expansion of Western Powers and Japan during the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Through extensive imperialism and Christianization by Western powers in the 15th to 20th centuries, much of the rest of the world has been influenced by Western culture.

Colonialism

colonialcolonial powerscolonialist
The term "imperialism" is often conflated with "colonialism"; however, many scholars have argued that each have their own distinct definition.
It discusses the distinction between colonialism and imperialism and states that "given the difficulty of consistently distinguishing between the two terms, this entry will use colonialism as a broad concept that refers to the project of European political domination from the sixteenth to the twentieth centuries that ended with the national liberation movements of the 1960s".

Cultural imperialism

assimilateculturalcultural colonialism
Imperial control, territorial and cultural, is justified through discourses about the imperialists' understanding of different spaces.
Cultural imperialism comprises the cultural aspects of imperialism.

Orientalism (book)

OrientalismOrientalistbook of the same name
In Orientalism (1978), Edward Said said that the West developed the concept of The Orient—an imagined geography of the Eastern world—which functions as an essentializing discourse that represents neither the ethnic diversity nor the social reality of the Eastern world.
According to Said, orientalism (the Western scholarship about the Eastern World) is inextricably tied to the imperialist societies who produced it, which makes much Orientalist work inherently political and servile to power.

Scramble for Africa

Partition of AfricaEuropean colonizationin Africa
To better illustrate this idea, Bassett focuses his analysis of the role of nineteenth-century maps during the "scramble for Africa".
The later years of the 19th century saw the transition from "informal imperialism" by military influence and economic dominance, to direct rule, bringing about colonial imperialism.

Oriental studies

orientalistOrientalistsoriental languages
That cultural differentiation was especially noticeable in the books and paintings of early Oriental studies, the European examinations of the Orient, which misrepresented the East as irrational and backward, the opposite of the rational and progressive West.
The modern study was influenced both by imperialist attitudes and interests, and also the sometimes naive fascination of the exotic East for Mediterranean and European writers and thinkers, captured in images by artists, that is embodied in a repeatedly-surfacing theme in the history of ideas in the West, called "Orientalism".

Orientalism

OrientalistorientalistsOriental
Tropicality can be paralleled with Edward Said's Orientalism as the west's construction of the east as the "other".
In the book Orientalism (1978), the cultural critic Edward Said redefined the term Orientalism to describe a pervasive Western tradition — academic and artistic — of prejudiced outsider-interpretations of the Eastern world, which was shaped by the cultural attitudes of European imperialism in the 18th and 19th centuries.

Eurocentrism

EurocentricEuro-centricEurocentrist
Although cartographic processes advanced through imperialism, further analysis of their progress reveals many biases linked to eurocentrism.
When applied to history, it may refer to an apologetic stance towards European colonialism and other forms of imperialism.

Environmental determinism

geographic determinismclimatic determinismenvironmental determinist
Geographical theories such as environmental determinism also suggested that tropical environments created uncivilized people in need of European guidance.
Environmental determinism has been widely criticized as a tool to legitimize colonialism, racism, and imperialism in Africa, North America, South America, and Asia.

Interwar period

interwarinterbelluminterwar years
While these non-Marxist writers were at their most prolific before World War I, they remained active in the interwar years.
The Empires of Britain, France and others faced challenges as imperialism was increasingly viewed negatively in Europe, and independence movements in British India, French Indochina, Ireland and other regions gained momentum.

South Korea

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For example, depictions of opulent American lifestyles in the soap opera Dallas during the Cold War changed the expectations of Romanians; a more recent example is the influence of smuggled South Korean drama series in North Korea.
Furthermore, the Joseon government adopted a strict isolationist policy, earning the nickname "the hermit kingdom", but ultimately failed to protect itself against imperialism and was forced to open its borders.

Cecil Rhodes

RhodesCecil John RhodesCecil
The British spirit of imperialism was expressed by Joseph Chamberlain and Lord Rosebury, and implemented in Africa by Cecil Rhodes.
An ardent believer in British imperialism, Rhodes and his British South Africa Company founded the southern African territory of Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe and Zambia), which the company named after him in 1895.

Theory of imperialism

Imperialism as the closure of the world market and the end of capitalist free-competition
Lenin portrayed Imperialism as the closure of the world market and the end of capitalist free-competition that arose from the need for capitalist economies to constantly expand investment, material resources and manpower in such a way that necessitated colonial expansion.
As such it is often considered distinct and differentiated from the history of imperialism that extends through earlier historic periods and economic formations.

British Empire

BritishEmpireBritain
The principles of imperialism are often generalizable to the policies and practices of the British Empire "during the last generation, and proceeds rather by diagnosis than by historical description".
The ensuing Crimean War (1854–56), which involved new techniques of modern warfare, was the only global war fought between Britain and another imperial power during the Pax Britannica and was a resounding defeat for Russia.

German colonial empire

German colonyGerman coloniesGerman
The establishment of the German colonial empire started with German New Guinea in 1884.
Until their 1871 unification, the German states had not concentrated on the development of a navy, and this essentially had precluded German participation in earlier imperialist scrambles for remote colonial territory – the so-called "place in the sun".

Geopolitics

geopoliticalgeo-politicalGeopolitically
These critical theories of Geo-politics have led to increased discussion of the meaning and impact of imperialism on the modern post-colonial world.
The resultant negative association, particularly in U.S. academic circles, between classical geopolitics and Nazi or imperialist ideology, is based on loose justifications.

Russo-Japanese War

war with JapanRussiaRusso-Japanese
As a result of winning the Russo-Japanese War in 1905, Japan took part of Sakhalin Island from Russia.
The Russo-Japanese War (Русско-японская война; 日露戦争; "Japanese-Russian War") was fought during 1904-1905 between the Russian Empire and the Empire of Japan over rival imperial ambitions in Manchuria and Korea.

Second Sino-Japanese War

Sino-Japanese WarJapanese invasion of ChinaJapanese invasion
During the Second Sino-Japanese War in 1937, Japan's military invaded central China.
The war was the result of a decades-long Japanese imperialist policy to expand its influence politically and militarily in order to secure access to raw material reserves, food, and labor.

Africa

AfricanAfrican continentAfrican countries
It was followed by French East India Company's trading posts in Africa and Asia in the 17th century.
In the late 19th century, the European imperial powers engaged in a major territorial scramble and occupied most of the continent, creating many colonial territories, and leaving only two fully independent states: Ethiopia (known to Europeans as "Abyssinia"), and Liberia.

Rudyard Kipling

KiplingKipling, RudyardKiplingesque
Other influential spokesmen included Lord Cromer, Lord Curzon, General Kitchener, Lord Milner, and the writer Rudyard Kipling.
Regarded by some as anthems for enlightened and duty-bound empire-building (that captured the mood of the Victorian age), the poems equally were regarded by others as propaganda for brazenfaced imperialism and its attendant racial attitudes; still others saw irony in the poems and warnings of the perils of empire.

Orient

orientalthe OrientEast
In Orientalism (1978), Edward Said said that the West developed the concept of The Orient—an imagined geography of the Eastern world—which functions as an essentializing discourse that represents neither the ethnic diversity nor the social reality of the Eastern world.
In 1978, Palestinian-American scholar Edward Said published his influential and controversial book, Orientalism; he used the term to describe a pervasive Western tradition, both academic and artistic, of prejudiced outsider interpretations of the Arab and Muslim worlds, shaped by the attitudes of European imperialism in the 18th and 19th centuries.

Friedrich Ratzel

Ratzel
Friedrich Ratzel believed that in order for a state to survive, imperialism was needed.
His writings served as welcome justification for imperial expansion.