Implicature

conversational implicatureimpliedImplicitconventional implicaturesimplicateimplicationsimplying
In pragmatics, a subdiscipline of linguistics, an implicature is something the speaker suggests or implies with an utterance, even though it is not literally expressed.wikipedia
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Pragmatics

pragmaticpragmaticallylinguistic pragmatics
In pragmatics, a subdiscipline of linguistics, an implicature is something the speaker suggests or implies with an utterance, even though it is not literally expressed.
Pragmatics encompasses speech act theory, conversational implicature, talk in interaction and other approaches to language behavior in philosophy, sociology, linguistics and anthropology.

Paul Grice

GriceGriceanHerbert Paul Grice
The philosopher H. P. Grice coined the term in 1975.
He is known for his theory of implicature.

Scalar implicature

A well-known class of quantity implicatures are the scalar implicatures.
In pragmatics, scalar implicature, or quantity implicature, is an implicature that attributes an implicit meaning beyond the explicit or literal meaning of an utterance, and which suggests that the utterer had a reason for not using a more informative or stronger term on the same scale.

Entailment (linguistics)

entailmententailsimplication
Conversational implicatures are classically seen as contrasting with entailments: They are not necessary consequences of what is said, but are defeasible (cancellable).
Entailment differs from implicature in that for the latter the truth of A suggests the truth of B, but does not require it. For example, the sentence "Jack missed the meeting after his car broke down" implies that Jack missed the meeting because his car broke down; but in reality Jack could have missed the meeting four days after his car broke down because he slept in too late.

Cooperative principle

conversational maximconversational maximsmaxim of quantity
According to Grice, conversational implicatures arise because communicating people are expected by their addressees to obey Grice's maxims of conversation and the overarching cooperative principle, which basically states that people are expected to communicate in a cooperative, helpful way.
Such additional meanings, if intended by the speaker, are called conversational implicatures.

Explicature

At least some scalar and other quantity "implicatures" seem not to be implicatures at all but semantic enrichments of the utterance, what is variously described as a kind of explicature or as an impliciture in the literature. In the framework known as relevance theory, implicature is defined as a counterpart to explicature.
They contrast with implicatures, the information that the speaker conveys without actually stating it.

Stephen Levinson

LevinsonLevinson, Stephen C.S. C. Levinson
Stephen Levinson in particular developed a theory of generalized conversational implicature based on Grice's ideas.
He locates his work on pragmatics under what he has called the Gricean umbrella (2000:12ff.), a broad theory of communication that focuses on the role of conversational implicatures.

Relevance theory

relevance theoristsrelevance
In the framework known as relevance theory, implicature is defined as a counterpart to explicature.
Further inferences that cannot be understood as specifications and extensions of the original utterance are implicatures.

Presupposition

presuppositionspresupposeassumptions
Presupposition
In this respect, presupposition is distinguished from entailment and implicature.

Implication

imply
Entailment, or implication, in logic
Implicature, what is suggested in an utterance, even though neither expressed nor strictly implied

Sentence function

Allofunctional implicature
Allofunctional implicature
Implicature

Speech act

speech actsspeech act theoryIndirect speech act
Indirect speech act
Implicature

Linguistics

linguistlinguisticlinguists
In pragmatics, a subdiscipline of linguistics, an implicature is something the speaker suggests or implies with an utterance, even though it is not literally expressed.

Utterance

utterancesexpressionexpressions
In pragmatics, a subdiscipline of linguistics, an implicature is something the speaker suggests or implies with an utterance, even though it is not literally expressed.

Moore's paradox

paradox that bears his name
Moore's paradox, the observation that the sentence "It is raining, but I don't believe that it is raining" sounds contradictory although it isn't from a strictly logical point of view, has been explained as a contradiction to this type of implicature.

Semantics

semanticsemanticallymeaning
Here, the use of "some" semantically entails that more than one cookie was eaten.

Article (grammar)

definite articlearticlearticles
This is a common construction where the indefinite article indicates that the referent is not closely associated with the speaker, because the stronger claim "I slept on my boat yesterday" is not made.

Referent

referentsco-referreference
This is a common construction where the indefinite article indicates that the referent is not closely associated with the speaker, because the stronger claim "I slept on my boat yesterday" is not made.

Figure of speech

figures of speechlocutionfigure
Many figures of speech can be explained by this mechanism.

Irony

ironicironicallydramatic irony
Saying something that is obviously false can produce irony, meiosis, hyperbole and metaphor:

Meiosis (figure of speech)

meiosismeiotic
Saying something that is obviously false can produce irony, meiosis, hyperbole and metaphor:

Hyperbole

hyperbolichyperbolicallyoverstatement
Saying something that is obviously false can produce irony, meiosis, hyperbole and metaphor:

Metaphor

metaphorsmetaphoricalmetaphorically
Saying something that is obviously false can produce irony, meiosis, hyperbole and metaphor:

Tautology (logic)

tautologytautologiestautological
This type includes tautologies, which have no logical content and hence no entailments, but can still be used to convey information:

Cross-examination

cross-examinecross-examinedcross examination
A communicator can choose not to be cooperative; she can opt out of the cooperative principle by giving appropriate clues such as saying "My lips are sealed", or for example during a cross-examination at court.