A report on Improvised explosive device

Ammunition rigged for an IED discovered by Iraqi police in Baghdad in November 2005
This Cougar in Al Anbar, Iraq, was hit by a directed charge IED, approximately 90 –.
X-ray of a suitcase showing a pipe bomb and a laptop.
Improvised explosive device in Iraq. The concave copper shape on top defines an explosively formed penetrator/projectile
Artillery shells and gasoline cans discovered in the back of a pick-up truck in Iraq
A U.S. Marine in Iraq shown with a robot used for disposal of buried devices
Israeli IDF Caterpillar D9 armored bulldozer, which is used by the IDF Combat Engineering Corps for clearing heavy belly charges and booby-trapped buildings.
U.S. Marines with Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) destroy an improvised explosive device cache in southern Afghanistan in June 2010.
A Stryker lies on its side following a buried IED blast in Iraq. (2007)
Oil-drum roadside IED removed from culvert in 1984
Wheelbarrow counter-IED robot on streets of Northern Ireland in 1978
Captured IEDs from a cache left behind by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, Syria, 26 January 2019

Bomb constructed and deployed in ways other than in conventional military action.

- Improvised explosive device
Ammunition rigged for an IED discovered by Iraqi police in Baghdad in November 2005

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Examples of anti-personnel mines. Center: Valmara 69 (a bounding mine); right: VS-50

Land mine

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Explosive device concealed under or on the ground and designed to destroy or disable enemy targets, ranging from combatants to vehicles and tanks, as they pass over or near it.

Explosive device concealed under or on the ground and designed to destroy or disable enemy targets, ranging from combatants to vehicles and tanks, as they pass over or near it.

Examples of anti-personnel mines. Center: Valmara 69 (a bounding mine); right: VS-50
Swedish FFV 028 anti-tank-mines of the German Bundeswehr (inert versions)
Roman caltrop
Illustration of the "self-tripped trespass land mine" from the Huolongjing
'Underground sky soaring thunder', land mines connected to weapons above ground, from the Wubei Zhi
Cutaway diagram of the S-mine
The Schu-mine 42, the most common mine used in the Second World War
Claymore mine with firing device and electric blasting cap assembly
An L9 Bar Mine
Section of an anti-tank mine. Note the yellow main charge wrapped around a red booster charge, and the secondary fuze well on the side of the mine designed for an anti-handling device
Diagram of components
Examples of anti-handling devices
Anti personnel mine in Cambodia
A U.S. Army Explosive Ordnance Disposal technician removing the fuze from a Russian-made mine to clear a minefield outside of Fallujah, Iraq
Argentine minefield at Port William, Falkland Islands created in 1982; clearance inhibited by boggy terrain
Minefield warning on the Golan Heights, still valid more than 40 years after creation of the field by the Syrian army
School posters in Karabakh educating children on mines and UXO
British Royal Engineers practice mine clearance
Party states to the Ottawa Treaty (in blue)
Bomb disposal Advanced Bomb Suit

Overlapping both categories is the improvised explosive device (IED), which is "a device placed or fabricated in an improvised manner incorporating explosive material, destructive, lethal, noxious, incendiary, pyrotechnic materials or chemicals designed to destroy, disfigure, distract or harass. They may incorporate military stores, but are normally devised from non-military components."

The result of a car bombing during the Iraq War

Car bomb

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The result of a car bombing during the Iraq War
Car bomb in Iraq, made up of a number of artillery shells concealed in the back of a pickup truck.
A mock explosion of a pickup truck converted to SVBIED, used by U.S. marines for OPFOR purposes at Camp Pendleton
TSA officers view the post-blast remains of a Dodge Neon after an explosive was detonated inside it during training.
Vietcong car bombing aftermath scene in Saigon, 1965.
A 2005 car bombing in Iraq, in which a second car bomb was detonated while US forces were investigating the scene of an earlier such blast, resulting in 18 casualties.

A car bomb, bus bomb, lorry bomb, or truck bomb, also known as a vehicle-borne improvised explosive device (VBIED), is an improvised explosive device designed to be detonated in an automobile or other vehicles.

Grooved body of a Second World War-era U.S. Mk 2 grenade. The grooves covering the exterior of the grenade are used to aid in the gripping of the grenade when throwing.

Fragmentation (weaponry)

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Grooved body of a Second World War-era U.S. Mk 2 grenade. The grooves covering the exterior of the grenade are used to aid in the gripping of the grenade when throwing.
Diagram of S-mine in the delivery of steel ball fragments
An illustration of a fragmentation bomb from the 14th century Ming Dynasty text Huolongjing. The black dots represent iron pellets.
Early artillery shell, with the fragments it would generate. 1900
Artillery shell fragment from the Gulf War
Grenade fragments in the soft tissue of the lower leg (along with an old fracture of the fibula)

Fragmentation is the process by which the casing, shot, or other components of an anti-personnel weapon, bomb, barrel bomb, land mine, IED, artillery, mortar, tank gun, or autocannon shell, rocket, missile, grenade, etc. are dispersed and/or shattered by the detonation of the explosive filler.

Vietnam War: Republic of Korea Armed Forces soldiers show Vietnamese villagers types of Viet Cong booby traps.

Booby trap

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Device or setup that is intended to kill, harm, or surprise a human or another animal.

Device or setup that is intended to kill, harm, or surprise a human or another animal.

Vietnam War: Republic of Korea Armed Forces soldiers show Vietnamese villagers types of Viet Cong booby traps.
A group of 105mm artillery shells with plastic explosive stuffed into their fuze pockets. Each of the 5 shells has been linked together with red detcord to make them detonate simultaneously. To turn this assembly into a booby trap, the final step would be to connect an M142 firing device to the detcord and hide everything under some form of cover e.g. newspapers or a bed-sheet.
Booby-trap firing devices, c. 1941: press, pull and release switches; mass-produced components intended for the construction of booby traps.
A Yugoslav POMZ anti-personnel mine that has been booby trapped with a hand grenade. A deminer could disable the stake mine, only to set off the hand-grenade when they remove the mine for disposal. (Balkans 1996)
Simple Trou de loup booby trap: concealed pitfall with sharp spike at the bottom
USSR booby trap firing device - pull fuze: normally connected to a tripwire
Alternative design of USSR booby trap firing device - pull fuze: normally connected to tripwire
USSR booby-trap firing device - pressure fuze: victim steps on loose floorboard with fuze concealed underneath

It can also be triggered by vehicles driving along a road, as in the case of improvised explosive devices (IEDs).

A "wind-and-dust" bomb depicted in the Ming Dynasty book Huolongjing. The pot contains a tube of gunpowder, and was thrown at invaders.

Bomb

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Explosive weapon that uses the exothermic reaction of an explosive material to provide an extremely sudden and violent release of energy.

Explosive weapon that uses the exothermic reaction of an explosive material to provide an extremely sudden and violent release of energy.

A "wind-and-dust" bomb depicted in the Ming Dynasty book Huolongjing. The pot contains a tube of gunpowder, and was thrown at invaders.
An illustration depicting bombs thrown at Manchu assault ladders during the siege of Ningyuan, from the book Thai Tsu Shih Lu Thu (Veritable Records of the Great Ancestor) written in 1635. The bombs are known as "thunder-crash bombs."
Thunder crash bombs from the Mongol invasions of Japan (13th century) that were excavated from a shipwreck near Takashim, Japan.
An illustration of a fragmentation bomb from the 14th century Ming Dynasty text Huolongjing. The black dots represent iron pellets.
Diagram of a simple time bomb in the form of a pipe bomb
An American B61 nuclear bomb on its loading carriage
Unexploded unguided aerial bomb with contact fuse used by the Portuguese Air Force, Guinea-Bissau War of Independence, March 1974.
A B-2 Spirit drops forty-seven 500 lb class Mark 82 bombs (little more than half a B-2's maximum total ordnance payload) in a 1994 live fire exercise in California
An F-15E Strike Eagle releasing 1 5000 lb GBU-28 "Bunker Buster" during a test
Soviet's bombing destruction during the Continuation War in Helsinki, Finland, the night of February 6-7, 1944.

For instance, in recent Middle Eastern conflicts, homemade bombs called "improvised explosive devices" (IEDs) have been employed by insurgent fighters to great effectiveness.

"The long walk": A British Army ATO approaches a suspect device in Northern Ireland

Bomb disposal

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Explosives engineering profession using the process by which hazardous explosive devices are rendered safe.

Explosives engineering profession using the process by which hazardous explosive devices are rendered safe.

"The long walk": A British Army ATO approaches a suspect device in Northern Ireland
A British NCO prepares to dispose of an unexploded bomb, during the First World War.
A bomb disposal team in 1940.
Marines conducting a controlled detonation of improvised explosive devices in Afghanistan.
U.S. Navy explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) divers.
Disposal of a British 4,000 pound blockbuster bomb dropped by the RAF during World War II. Found in the Rhine near Koblenz, 4 December 2011. A linear shaped charge has been placed on top of the casing
Bomb suit of Bomb Disposal Squad of the Indian Army
An FBI agent in a bomb suit performing a training mission
Wheelbarrow remotely controlled bomb disposal tool
Placing a disruption charge (a counter-charge ) while wearing a protective suit
EOD training and material testing. A 105 mm shell is radiographied with battery powered portable X-ray generator and flat panel detector.
Boot Banger water charge disrupts simulated bomb
Bottler Lite against a small suspect device
A bomb containment chamber

Royal Navy clearance divers also deploy teams both in the UK and on operations working on both IEDD (Improvised Explosive Device Disposal) teams as well as the disposal of conventional munitions.

An IRA badge, with the phoenix symbolising the origins of the Provisional IRA

Provisional Irish Republican Army

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Irish republican paramilitary organisation that sought to end British rule in Northern Ireland, facilitate Irish reunification and bring about an independent, socialist republic encompassing all of Ireland.

Irish republican paramilitary organisation that sought to end British rule in Northern Ireland, facilitate Irish reunification and bring about an independent, socialist republic encompassing all of Ireland.

An IRA badge, with the phoenix symbolising the origins of the Provisional IRA
The Proclamation of the Irish Republic, issued during the 1916 Easter Rising against British rule in Ireland
Ruairí Ó Brádaigh, who was twice chief-of-staff of the pre-1969 IRA during the Border campaign of 1956–1962, was a member of the first Army Council of the Provisional IRA in 1969.
Martin McGuinness was part of an IRA delegation which took part in peace talks with British politician William Whitelaw, the Secretary of State for Northern Ireland, in July 1972.
Memorial to the victims of the Birmingham pub bombings, which killed twenty-one people in November 1974
IRA political poster from the 1980s, featuring a quote from Bobby Sands written on the first day of the 1981 hunger strike
Aftermath of the Brighton hotel bombing, an assassination attempt on British prime minister Margaret Thatcher in 1984
A "Sniper at Work" sign in Crossmaglen. The IRA's South Armagh Brigade killed seven members of the security forces in single-shot sniper attacks in 1993.
Memorial to the victims of the 1996 Docklands bombing, which killed two people and ended the IRA's seventeen-month ceasefire
An AG-3, Norwegian made variant of the Heckler & Koch G3. Over 50 of these, from a batch of 100 stolen from the Norwegian Army, ended up with the IRA.
The RPG-7, first obtained by the IRA from Libya in 1972
The Armalite AR-18, obtained by the IRA from the United States in the early 1970s, was a symbol of its armed campaign
Memorial to members of the IRA's Derry Brigade
Republican colour party in Dublin, March 2009. The blue flag being carried at the front is that of "Dublin Brigade IRA".
Former IRA volunteer Tommy McKearney, who left the IRA in 1986 and formed the League of Communist Republicans
1,200 AKM assault rifles were donated by Muammar Gaddafi in the 1980s
Over two tonnes of the plastic explosive Semtex were donated by Muammar Gaddafi in the 1980s
An IRA signpost with the word "Provoland" underneath in Omagh, County Tyrone

The next most important department was engineering, which manufactured improvised explosive devices and improvised mortars.

A Russian TM-46 anti-tank blast mine.

Anti-tank mine

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Type of land mine designed to damage or destroy vehicles including tanks and armored fighting vehicles.

Type of land mine designed to damage or destroy vehicles including tanks and armored fighting vehicles.

A Russian TM-46 anti-tank blast mine.
Soviet TM-35 mine at the Museum of Heroic Defense and Liberation of Sevastopol on Sapun Mountain, Sevastopol
German Riegel mine 43
Anti Tank Mine used by Indian Army
Polish MPB mine.
How to use an American M-24 antitank mine
Casspir Personnel Carrier
RG-31 Mine Protected Armored Personnel Carrier (MP APC) in service with the US Army in Iraq in 2006

This self forging projectile principle has been used for some French and Soviet off route mines and has earned infamy as an improvised explosive devices (IED) technique in Israel and especially Iraq.

The Al-Askari Mosque, one of the holiest sites in Shia Islam, after the first attack by Islamic State of Iraq in 2006

Islamic State

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Militant Islamist group and former unrecognized quasi-state that follows the Salafi jihadist branch of Sunni Islam.<ref name=Wahhabism>

Militant Islamist group and former unrecognized quasi-state that follows the Salafi jihadist branch of Sunni Islam.<ref name=Wahhabism>

The Al-Askari Mosque, one of the holiest sites in Shia Islam, after the first attack by Islamic State of Iraq in 2006
Mugshot of Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi by US armed forces while in detention at Camp Bucca in 2004
Maximum extent of IS's territorial control in Syria and Iraq, on 21 May 2015.
IS territory, in grey, at the time of its greatest territorial extent (May 2015 )
The UN headquarters building in Baghdad after the Canal Hotel bombing, on 22 August 2003
Military situation in Libya in early 2016:
Location dot grey.svg Ansar al-Sharia Location dot black.svg ISIL
ISIL's capital Raqqa suffered extensive damage during the battle of Raqqa in June–October 2017
Pro-YPG demonstration against ISIL in Vienna, Austria, 10 October 2014
People lay flowers outside the French embassy in Moscow in memory of the victims of the November 2015 Paris attacks.
Supporters of the Turkish Labour Party protesting in London following the 2015 Ankara bombings
Airstrikes in Syria by 24 September 2014
Liberation of Palmyra by the Russia–Syria–Iran–Iraq coalition in March 2016
Russian Sukhoi Su-34 in Syria
Military situation in Syria in March 2020
Military Situation in Iraq in May 2020

The group uses truck and car bombs, suicide bombers and IEDs, and has used chemical weapons in Iraq and Syria.

The AT Badge.

Ammunition technician

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British Army soldier, formerly of the Royal Army Ordnance Corps but since 1993 of the Royal Logistic Corps, trained to inspect, repair, test, store, and modify all ammunition, guided missiles, and explosives used by the British Army.

British Army soldier, formerly of the Royal Army Ordnance Corps but since 1993 of the Royal Logistic Corps, trained to inspect, repair, test, store, and modify all ammunition, guided missiles, and explosives used by the British Army.

The AT Badge.
RAOC and RLC EOD Memorial

After gaining sufficient experience, those who show the appropriate qualities are given extra training to render safe improvised explosive devices (IEDs) by a process called improvised explosive device disposal.