Improvised explosive device

Ammunition rigged for an IED discovered by Iraqi police in Baghdad in November 2005
This Cougar in Al Anbar, Iraq, was hit by a directed charge IED, approximately 90 –.
X-ray of a suitcase showing a pipe bomb and a laptop.
Improvised explosive device in Iraq. The concave copper shape on top defines an explosively formed penetrator/projectile
Artillery shells and gasoline cans discovered in the back of a pick-up truck in Iraq
A U.S. Marine in Iraq shown with a robot used for disposal of buried devices
Israeli IDF Caterpillar D9 armored bulldozer, which is used by the IDF Combat Engineering Corps for clearing heavy belly charges and booby-trapped buildings.
U.S. Marines with Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) destroy an improvised explosive device cache in southern Afghanistan in June 2010.
A Stryker lies on its side following a buried IED blast in Iraq. (2007)
Oil-drum roadside IED removed from culvert in 1984
Wheelbarrow counter-IED robot on streets of Northern Ireland in 1978
Captured IEDs from a cache left behind by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, Syria, 26 January 2019

Bomb constructed and deployed in ways other than in conventional military action.

- Improvised explosive device
Ammunition rigged for an IED discovered by Iraqi police in Baghdad in November 2005

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Alpha

"The long walk": A British Army ATO approaches a suspect device in Northern Ireland

Render safe procedure

"The long walk": A British Army ATO approaches a suspect device in Northern Ireland

The render safe procedure (RSP) is the portion of the explosive ordnance disposal procedures involving the application of special explosive ordnance disposal procedures, methods and tools to provide the interruption of functions or separation of essential components of unexploded ordnance (including improvised explosive devices) to prevent an unintended detonation.

South Korean soldiers searching for land mines in Iraq

Demining

Process of removing land mines from an area.

Process of removing land mines from an area.

South Korean soldiers searching for land mines in Iraq
A US soldier clears a mine using a grappling hook during training
PROM-1 bounding landmine. Normally it is buried so only the prongs are visible.
British Army sappers clearing a beach front in Normandy (1944)
Naval minesweeper as a monument in Kotka, Finland
Foerster Minex 2FD 4.500 metal detector used by the French army
Mine detection dog in training (Bagram Airfield, Afghanistan)
Ukrainian sapper with a landmine finder dog Patron after battle during the 2022 Russian invasion
APOPO HeroRAT getting food reward
Genetically modified thale cress turns brown in the presence of nitrous oxide.
PNNL engineer testing a timed neutron detector
Protective equipment including helmet, visor and body armor with throat protection
U.S. Army M1 Abrams tank with mine plow
An amphibious assault vehicle fires a line charge to clear beachhead during an exercise at the Camp Lejeune Marine Corps Base.
World War II M4 Sherman tank fitted with a flail
Hydrema mine clearing vehicles use flails.<ref>{{cite web|last1=Pike|first1=John|title=Hydrema 910 Mine Clearing Vehicle|url=https://www.globalsecurity.org/military/systems/ground/hydrema.htm|website=GlobalSecurity.org|access-date=28 March 2019}}</ref>
The Casspir, a steel, armor-bodied V-hulled vehicle de-mining Bagram Air Base
IDF Caterpillar D9 uses a standard blade or a special mineplow.

Land mines overlap with other categories of explosive devices, including unexploded ordnance (UXOs), booby traps and improvised explosive devices (IEDs).

Formation of an EFP warhead. USAF Research Laboratory.

Explosively formed penetrator

Explosively formed projectile, a self-forging warhead, or a self-forging fragment, is a special type of shaped charge designed to penetrate armor effectively.

Explosively formed projectile, a self-forging warhead, or a self-forging fragment, is a special type of shaped charge designed to penetrate armor effectively.

Formation of an EFP warhead. USAF Research Laboratory.
Formation of an EFP
MPB mine showing the face of its explosively formed penetrator
Improvised Explosive Device in Iraq. When activated, the concave copper shape on top becomes an explosively formed penetrator.

EFPs have been used in improvised explosive devices against armoured cars, for example in the 1989 assassination of the German banker Alfred Herrhausen (attributed to the Red Army Faction), and by Hezbollah in the 1990s.

A British Army lorry destroyed in the ambush. The hills of the Cooley Peninsula in County Louth can be seen in the background, behind Narrow Water Castle.

Warrenpoint ambush

Guerrilla attack by the Provisional Irish Republican Army on 27 August 1979.

Guerrilla attack by the Provisional Irish Republican Army on 27 August 1979.

A British Army lorry destroyed in the ambush. The hills of the Cooley Peninsula in County Louth can be seen in the background, behind Narrow Water Castle.
Narrow Water Castle.

The IRA's South Armagh Brigade ambushed a British Army convoy with two large roadside bombs at Narrow Water Castle outside Warrenpoint, Northern Ireland.

1979 Afghan postage stamp commemorating the leftist Saur Revolution

War in Afghanistan (2001–2021)

Conflict that took place from 2001 to 2021 in the South-Central Asian country of Afghanistan.

Conflict that took place from 2001 to 2021 in the South-Central Asian country of Afghanistan.

1979 Afghan postage stamp commemorating the leftist Saur Revolution
Afghan guerrilla leader Ahmad Shah Massoud (right) with the Pashtun anti-Taliban leader and later Vice President of the Karzai administration, Haji Abdul Qadir
The military situation of the Afghan Civil War in 1996 between the Taliban (red) and the Northern Alliance (blue)
Ahmad Shah Massoud was assassinated by Al-Qaeda in Afghanistan's Takhar Province on 9 September 2001
Ground Zero in New York following the attacks of 11 September 2001
US Army Special Forces and US Air Force Combat Controllers with Northern Alliance troops on horseback, Samangan Province
American and British special forces operators at Tora Bora, 2001
US Humvee crossing water in 2002
Map detailing the spread of the Taliban insurgency, 2002–2006
US troops board a helicopter in Zabul province, 2003
A US Navy Corpsman searches for Taliban fighters in Mihtarlam, spring of 2005
3rd Battalion, 3rd Marine Regiment at the Khost-Gardez Pass, 2004
An Apache helicopter provides protection from the air, Lwar Kowndalan in Kandahar, October 2005
A US Army soldier from 10th Mountain Division, patrols Aranas
Swedish Army medic in the Mazar-e Sharif region
A US soldier conducts a mountain patrol in Nuristan Province
US and British troops during a patrol in Helmand Province
Chinooks transporting troops to Bagram
Development of ISAF troop strength
A German Bundeswehr soldier, part of ISAF's Regional Command North at Camp Marmal
Burning hashish seized in Operation Albatross, a combined operation of Afghan officials, NATO and the DEA
Barack Obama with Afghan President Hamid Karzai and Pakistani President Asif Ali Zardari in 2009
A US soldier and an Afghan interpreter in Zabul, 2009
Former Taliban fighters turn in their weapons as part of a reintegration program in Ghor Province
UK service members of the Royal Air Force Regiment stop on a road while conducting a combat mission near Kandahar Airfield
Australian and Afghan soldiers patrol the poppy fields in the Baluchi Valley Region, April 2010.
Coalition forces conducting an airdrop in Shahjoy District, Zabul
Troops from the 31st and 33rd Kandak, Afghan National Army, execute a departure for Operation Valley Flood
US soldiers walk by local Afghan boys during a patrol in Gardez
US Army soldiers boarding a Black Hawk in Nari District, near the Pakistani border
An Australian service light armored vehicle drives through Tangi Valley, 29 March 2011
Afghan Army units neutralizes an IED in Sangin, Helmand province
Soldiers from the Michigan Army National Guard and the Latvian Army patrol through a village in Konar province.
Resolute Support Colors presented at Kabul on 28 December 2014, after the ISAF colors are encased
Russian made Mil Mi-8 chopper landing at Forward Operating Base Airborne to deliver mail and supplies
Green Berets of the 10th SFG memorialize two comrades who were killed in action during the Battle of Boz Qandahari on 2–3 November 2016
Actress Scarlett Johansson meets with US service members during a troop engagement at Forward Operation Base Gamberi, Afghanistan, December 2016
US Army soldier in Nangarhar Province, 6 January 2015
TAAC-E advisers in February 2015
A USAF F-16 Fighting Falcon takes off at Bagram Airfield for a combat sortie, 14 March 2016
USAF pilots fly a CH-47 Chinook in Nangarhar, April 2017
Map showing insurgent (white) and government-controlled (red) areas of Afghanistan in January 2019.
US, British and Afghan security forces train together in an aerial reaction force exercise at Camp Qargha in Kabul, 16 January 2018.
US representative Zalmay Khalilzad (left) and Taliban representative Abdul Ghani Baradar (right) sign the Agreement for Bringing Peace to Afghanistan in Doha, Qatar on 29 February 2020
NATO's Resolute Support Mission commander Austin S. Miller alongside US Secretary of Defense Lloyd Austin in Afghanistan, March 2021
A map of Afghanistan showing the Taliban offensive
Taliban fighters in Kabul, 17 August 2021
Victims of the Narang night raid that killed at least 10 Afghan civilians, December 2009
Gathering outside Afghan embassy in Tehran to condemn the 2021 Kabul school bombing
Foreign donated clothing being handed out by an Afghan civil officer to children at a refugee camp, 2011
Afghanistan opium poppy cultivation, 1994–2016 (hectares)
A young Afghan girl in Qalat pictured by the 116th Infantry Battalion before receiving school supplies in 2011
Afghan boy murdered on 15 January 2010 by a group of US Army soldiers called the Kill Team
Hamid Karzai and Barack Obama in 2009
Afghan Commandos practice infiltration techniques, 1 April 2010 at Camp Morehead in the outer regions of Kabul.
Soldiers from the Afghan army patrolling a village in Khost Province in 2010
US Marines and ANA soldiers take cover in Marja on 13 February 2010 during their offensive to secure the city from the Taliban.
An Afghan soldier surveying a valley during an anti-Taliban operation
A-29 plane of the Afghan Air Force
A US marine interacting with Afghan children in Helmand Province
22 June 2007 demonstration in Québec City against the Canadian military involvement in Afghanistan
Taliban fighters at a market in Kabul, September 2021. A vendor selling Islamic Emirate flags can be seen.

The Taliban increasingly used guerrilla tactics such as suicide, car and roadside bombs (IEDs), and targeted assassinations.

Boko Haram

Islamist terrorist organization based in northeastern Nigeria, which is also active in Chad, Niger, and northern Cameroon.

Islamist terrorist organization based in northeastern Nigeria, which is also active in Chad, Niger, and northern Cameroon.

The maximum extent of Boko Haram in January 2015 shown in dark grey
Nigerian states with sharia law shown in green
Map of Nigeria from the CIA World Factbook
Lake Chad
Michelle Obama raising public awareness of the Chibok kidnapping
Northern Cameroon
Wounded people following a bomb attack by Boko Haram in Nyanya, in April 2014
Location of the town of Mubi within Adamawa State
Map of Boko Haram's territorial control on 10 April 2015, over 2 months after the start of the 2015 West African offensive
Boko Haram fighters executing a man in 2017

It launched a string of IED attacks against soft targets and its first vehicle-borne IED attack on 16 June 2011, killing six at Abuja's police headquarters.

Place

2013 Hyderabad blasts

On 21 February 2013, at around 19:00 IST, two blasts occurred in the city of Hyderabad, India.

On 21 February 2013, at around 19:00 IST, two blasts occurred in the city of Hyderabad, India.

Place
Destroyed bus shelter due to the first blast

Andhra Pradesh's Director General of Police noted that Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) had been used in the two blasts to cause maximum damage.

Moments after the first explosion

Boston Marathon bombing

Domestic terrorist attack that took place during the annual Boston Marathon on April 15, 2013.

Domestic terrorist attack that took place during the annual Boston Marathon on April 15, 2013.

Moments after the first explosion
The blasts (red) occurred along the marathon course (dark blue), the first nearer the finish line than the second.
Security camera images of Tamerlan Tsarnaev (front) and Dzhokhar Tsarnaev just prior to the bombings
Emergency services at work after the bombing
This pressure cooker fragment was part of one of the explosive devices.
Emptied fireworks from Dzhokhar Tsarnaev's backpack, found in a landfill near the UMass Dartmouth campus
Scenes and approximate times of events of April 18–19
Post-capture celebrations in Boston's student-heavy Mission Hill neighborhood
Dzhokhar Tsarnaev in a court holding cell on July 10, 2013
An apartment was searched in West New York, New Jersey that belonged to a sister of the Tsarnaevs.
The Prudential Tower lit up with a large "1" for the One Fund Boston a week after the bombing
The Boston Red Sox wore this patch on their uniforms in memory of the victims.
Victims of the bombing are remembered at Copley Square in Boston.
A monument memorializing the victims of the bombing was installed on Boylston Street, at the location of the explosions, in 2019
Flag flying at half staff at the American consulate in Milan, Italy
Boston Police Commissioner Edward F. Davis gives a news conference about the bombing on April 15. Governor Deval Patrick is second from right and Suffolk District Attorney Daniel F. Conley is at far left.

Both of the improvised explosive devices were pressure cooker bombs manufactured by the bombers.

Pressure cooker fragment believed by the FBI to be part of one of the explosive devices used in the 2013 Boston Marathon bombings

Pressure cooker bomb

Pressure cooker fragment believed by the FBI to be part of one of the explosive devices used in the 2013 Boston Marathon bombings
Pressure cooker
Justice Department diagram showing positioning of pressure cooker in Faisal Shahzad's vehicle in New York’s Times Square bombing

A pressure cooker bomb is an improvised explosive device (IED) created by inserting explosive material into a pressure cooker and attaching a blasting cap into the cover of the cooker.

An amputee, seen here running with a blade prosthetic.

Amputation

Removal of a limb by trauma, medical illness, or surgery.

Removal of a limb by trauma, medical illness, or surgery.

An amputee, seen here running with a blade prosthetic.
An above-knee amputation
The 18th century guide to amputations
Partial amputation of index finger.
Transfemoral amputation due to liposarcoma
Three fingers from a soldier's right hand were traumatically amputated during World War I.
Curved knives such as this one were used, in the past, for some kinds of amputations.
Private Lewis Francis was wounded July 21, 1861, at the First Battle of Bull Run by a bayonet to the knee.

This type of injury has been especially common among soldiers wounded by improvised explosive devices in the Iraq War.