In-circuit test

Bed of nails tester in-circuit testing (ICT)Bed of nailsbed of nails" testerbed-of-nailsICTIncircuit test systems
In-circuit test (ICT) is an example of white box testing where an electrical probe tests a populated printed circuit board (PCB), checking for shorts, opens, resistance, capacitance, and other basic quantities which will show whether the assembly was correctly fabricated.wikipedia
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White-box testing

White box testingwhite-boxWhite Box
In-circuit test (ICT) is an example of white box testing where an electrical probe tests a populated printed circuit board (PCB), checking for shorts, opens, resistance, capacitance, and other basic quantities which will show whether the assembly was correctly fabricated.
This is analogous to testing nodes in a circuit, e.g. in-circuit testing (ICT).

Flying probe

Fixtureless in-circuit test
It may be performed with a bed of nails type test fixture and specialist test equipment, or with a fixtureless in-circuit test setup.
A traditional "bed of nails" tester for testing a PCB requires a custom fixture to hold the PCBA and the Pogo pins which make contact with the PCBA.

Device under test

DUTdevices under testcapacitor under test
Named by analogy with a real-world bed of nails, these devices contain an array of small, spring-loaded pogo pins; each pogo pin makes contact with one node in the circuitry of the DUT (device under test).
For circuit boards, the DUT is often connected to the test equipment using a bed of nails tester of pogo pins.

Pogo pin

Pogo Pin Connectors
Named by analogy with a real-world bed of nails, these devices contain an array of small, spring-loaded pogo pins; each pogo pin makes contact with one node in the circuitry of the DUT (device under test).
They are commonly found in automatic test equipment in the form of a bed of nails, where they facilitate the rapid, reliable connection of the devices under test (DUTs).

Printed circuit board

circuit boardPCBprinted circuit boards
In-circuit test (ICT) is an example of white box testing where an electrical probe tests a populated printed circuit board (PCB), checking for shorts, opens, resistance, capacitance, and other basic quantities which will show whether the assembly was correctly fabricated.

Pad cratering

In-circuit testing has been known to cause mechanical failures such as capacitor flex cracking and pad cratering.
Pad cratering most often occurs during dynamic mechanical events such as mechanical shock or board flexure due to In-circuit test (ICT), board depaneling, or connector insertion.

Bead probe technology

Bead probe technology (BPT) is technique used to provide electrical access (called “nodal access”) to printed circuit board (PCB) circuitry for performing in-circuit testing (ICT).

Automated optical inspection

AOIautomated inspectioninspect
This technique of testing PCBs is being slowly superseded by boundary scan techniques (silicon test nails), automated optical inspection, and built-in self-test, due to shrinking product sizes and lack of space on PCB's for test pads.

Automated X-ray inspection

AXI
AXI is often paired with the testing provided by boundary scan test, in-circuit test, and functional test.

JTAG

Joint Test Action GroupSWDJTAG header
Since modern PCs tend to omit serial ports, such integrated debug links can significantly reduce clutter for developers.) Production boards often rely on bed-of-nails connections to test points for testing and programming.

Boundary scan

boundary-scan
This technique of testing PCBs is being slowly superseded by boundary scan techniques (silicon test nails), automated optical inspection, and built-in self-test, due to shrinking product sizes and lack of space on PCB's for test pads.

Wire

stranded wireInsulated wirewire products
A bed of nails tester is a traditional electronic test fixture which has numerous pins inserted into holes in an epoxy phenolic glass cloth laminated sheet (G-10) which are aligned using tooling pins to make contact with test points on a printed circuit board and are also connected to a measuring unit by wires.

Bed of nails

fakir bedsbeds of nails
Named by analogy with a real-world bed of nails, these devices contain an array of small, spring-loaded pogo pins; each pogo pin makes contact with one node in the circuitry of the DUT (device under test).

Vacuum

free spaceevacuatedhigh vacuum
The hold-down force may be provided manually or by means of a vacuum or a mechanical presser, thus pulling the DUT downwards onto the nails.

Built-in self-test

BISTBuilt-in test(Limp-Home)
This technique of testing PCBs is being slowly superseded by boundary scan techniques (silicon test nails), automated optical inspection, and built-in self-test, due to shrinking product sizes and lack of space on PCB's for test pads.

Strain gauge

strain gaugesstrain gagestrain gages
Current methods typically employ strain gaging or similar techniques to monitor board flexure.

Finite element method

finite element analysisfinite elementfinite elements
More recently, some have looked at finite element simulation to proactively design or adjust an ICT fixture to avoid these mechanical failure modes.

Design for manufacturability

design for manufacturingDesign for ManufactureDFM
This approach can be implemented as part of a design for manufacturability methodology to provide rapid feedback on ICT design and reduce costs.

EEPROM

electrically erasable programmable read-only memoryE2PROMEEPROM memory