A report on In vitro fertilisation

Illustrated schematic of IVF with single-sperm injection (ICSI)
A triple-line endometrium is associated with better IVF outcomes.
A depiction of the procedure of in-vitro fertilisation.
Demonstration of IVF
Normal Vaginal Canal Vs Menopause
Schematic illustration of artificial insemination.

Process of fertilisation where an egg is combined with sperm in vitro ("in glass").

- In vitro fertilisation
Illustrated schematic of IVF with single-sperm injection (ICSI)

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Illustration depicting intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), an example of assisted reproductive technology.

Assisted reproductive technology

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Assisted reproductive technology (ART) includes medical procedures used primarily to address infertility.

Assisted reproductive technology (ART) includes medical procedures used primarily to address infertility.

Illustration depicting intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), an example of assisted reproductive technology.
Steps of IVF Treatment
Number of assisted reproductive technology cycles in Europe between 1997 and 2014.
Conditions of assisted reproductive technology in different European countries. 
ART authorized for lesbian couples
ART authorized for single women
ART authorized for single women and lesbian couples
ART prohibited for single women and lesbian couples

This subject involves procedures such as in vitro fertilization (IVF), intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), cryopreservation of gametes or embryos, and/or the use of fertility medication.

8-cell embryo for transfer 3 days after fertilization

Embryo transfer

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Embryo transfer refers to a step in the process of assisted reproduction in which embryos are placed into the uterus of a female with the intent to establish a pregnancy.

Embryo transfer refers to a step in the process of assisted reproduction in which embryos are placed into the uterus of a female with the intent to establish a pregnancy.

8-cell embryo for transfer 3 days after fertilization
Bovine embryos in vitro.

This technique (which is often used in connection with in vitro fertilization (IVF), may be used in humans or in animals, in which situations the goals may vary.

Nomogram for the starting dosage of FSH preparation as estimated from age, antral follicle count (AFC) and endogenous serum FSH taken day 3 of the menstrual cycle. An example is given in the nomogram, wherein an age of 32 years and an AFC of 12 gives a point on the middle line that, when continued to an FSH of 5 IU/l, results in a starting FSH dosage of almost 200 IU/l.

Controlled ovarian hyperstimulation

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Technique used in assisted reproduction involving the use of fertility medications to induce ovulation by multiple ovarian follicles.

Technique used in assisted reproduction involving the use of fertility medications to induce ovulation by multiple ovarian follicles.

Nomogram for the starting dosage of FSH preparation as estimated from age, antral follicle count (AFC) and endogenous serum FSH taken day 3 of the menstrual cycle. An example is given in the nomogram, wherein an age of 32 years and an AFC of 12 gives a point on the middle line that, when continued to an FSH of 5 IU/l, results in a starting FSH dosage of almost 200 IU/l.
Nomogram for the starting dosage of FSH as estimated from age, anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) and endogenous serum FSH taken day 3 of the menstrual cycle (same as previous nomogram but with AMH instead of AFC).

These multiple follicles can be taken out by oocyte retrieval (egg collection) for use in in vitro fertilisation (IVF), or be given time to ovulate, resulting in superovulation which is the ovulation of a larger-than-normal number of eggs, generally in the sense of at least two.

Preimplantation genetic diagnosis

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Collected from a male.

Collected from a male.

PGD thus is an adjunct to assisted reproductive technology, and requires in vitro fertilization (IVF) to obtain oocytes or embryos for evaluation.

Hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis in females, with estrogen exerting mainly negative feedback on follicle-stimulating hormone secretion from the pituitary gland.

Ovulation induction

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Stimulation of ovulation by medication.

Stimulation of ovulation by medication.

Hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis in females, with estrogen exerting mainly negative feedback on follicle-stimulating hormone secretion from the pituitary gland.
Pregnancy rates in ovulation induction when using antiestrogens, as functions of the size of the leading follicle as measured by transvaginal ultrasonography at days 11 - 13 (bottom scale), as well as the thickness of the endometrial lining (4 different curves).

However, this article focuses on medical ovarian stimulation, during early to mid-follicular phase, without subsequent in vitro fertilization, with the aim of developing one or two ovulatory follicles (the maximum number before recommending sexual abstinence).

Transvaginal oocyte retrieval

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Transvaginal oocyte retrieval (TVOR), also referred to as oocyte retrieval (OCR), is a technique used in in vitro fertilization (IVF) in order to remove oocytes from the ovary of a woman, enabling fertilization outside the body.

A depiction of the procedure of in-vitro fertilization.

Infertility

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Inability of a person, animal or plant to reproduce by natural means.

Inability of a person, animal or plant to reproduce by natural means.

A depiction of the procedure of in-vitro fertilization.

Advances in assisted reproductive technologies, such as IVF, can offer hope to many couples where treatment is available, although barriers exist in terms of medical coverage and affordability.

A woman in the third trimester of pregnancy

Pregnancy

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Time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman's womb.

Time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman's womb.

A woman in the third trimester of pregnancy
William Hunter, Anatomia uteri humani gravidi tabulis illustrata, 1774
Melasma: pigment changes to the face due to pregnancy
In the later part of pregnancy the uterus takes up much of the abdomen
Timeline of pregnancy, including (from top to bottom): Trimesters, embryo/fetus development, gestational age in weeks and months, viability and maturity stages
Distribution of gestational age at childbirth among singleton live births, given both when gestational age is estimated by first trimester ultrasound and directly by last menstrual period. Roughly 80% of births occur between 37 and 41 weeks of gestational age.
Fertilization and implantation in humans
The initial stages of human embryogenesis
Breast changes as seen during pregnancy. The areolae are larger and darker.
The uterus as it changes in size over the duration of the trimesters
By the end of the second trimester, the expanding uterus has created a visible "baby bump". Although the breasts have been developing internally since the beginning of the pregnancy, most of the visible changes appear after this point.
Pregnant woman in third trimester of pregnancy (last month)
The uterus expands making up a larger and larger portion of the woman's abdomen. At left anterior view with months labeled, at right lateral view labeling the last 4 weeks. During the final stages of gestation before childbirth the fetus and uterus will drop to a lower position.
Linea nigra in a woman at 22 weeks pregnant.
CT scanning (volume rendered in this case) confers a radiation dose to the developing fetus.
A pregnant woman undergoing an ultrasound. Ultrasound is used to check on the growth and development of the fetus.
Giotto di Bondone Visitation, circa 1305
Embryo at 4 weeks after fertilization (gestational age of 6 weeks)
Fetus at 8 weeks after fertilization (gestational age of 10 weeks)
Fetus at 18 weeks after fertilization (gestational age of 20 weeks)
Fetus at 38 weeks after fertilization (gestational age of 40 weeks)
Relative size in 1st month (simplified illustration)
Relative size in 3rd month (simplified illustration)
Relative size in 5th month (simplified illustration)
Relative size in 9th month (simplified illustration)
Anatomical model of a pregnant woman; Stephan Zick (1639–1715); 1700; Germanisches Nationalmuseum
Statue of a pregnant woman, Macedonia
Bronze figure of a pregnant naked woman by Danny Osborne, Merrion Square, Dublin, Ireland
Marcus Gheeraerts the Younger Portrait of Susanna Temple, second wife of Sir Martin Lister, 1620
Octave Tassaert, The Waif aka L'abandonnée 1852, Musée Fabre, Montpellier
The Visitation: Mary, pregnant with Jesus, visiting pregnant Elizabeth, depicted as a statue at the Church of the Visitation in Ein Karem, Israel.
Venus of Willendorf, c. 25,000 BC, Austria
Taweret ancient Egyptian goddess of pregnancy.
Pottery figure from ancient Mexico
Picture of the tragic and gory story about the life of a travelling actress called Okume.<ref name="British Museum">{{cite web | title=Collections Online | website=British Museum | url=https://www.britishmuseum.org/collection/term/BIOG177414 | access-date=2022-07-01}}</ref>
Gustav Klimt, 1903, Hoffnung I (Hope I)

In case of in vitro fertilization, calculating days since oocyte retrieval or co-incubation and adding 14 days.

Oocyte cytoplasm is injected with the sperm during ICSI

Intracytoplasmic sperm injection

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Oocyte cytoplasm is injected with the sperm during ICSI
Schematic image of intracytoplasmic sperm injection in the context of IVF.
A medical animation still showing the ICSI procedure.

Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI ) is an in vitro fertilization (IVF) procedure in which a single sperm cell is injected directly into the cytoplasm of an egg.

Schematic illustration of human artificial insemination

Artificial insemination

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Schematic illustration of human artificial insemination
The human female reproductive system. The cervix is part of the uterus. The cervical canal connects the interiors of the uterus and vagina.
Approximate pregnancy rate as a function of total sperm count (may be twice as large as total motile sperm count). Values are for intrauterine insemination. (Old data, rates are likely higher today)
A man performing artificial insemination of a cow.
A breeding mount with built-in artificial vagina used in semen collection from horses for use in artificial insemination
Artificial insemination tools brought from the USSR by Luis Thomasset in 1935 to work at Cambridge Laboratories and South America.

Artificial insemination (AI) is the deliberate introduction of sperm into a female's cervix or uterine cavity for the purpose of achieving a pregnancy through in vivo fertilization by means other than sexual intercourse or in vitro fertilisation.