Inca Empire

IncaIncasIncanIncan EmpireTawantinsuyuTahuantinsuyuTahuantinsuyoInca cultureIncansempire
The Inca Empire (Tawantinsuyu, lit. "The Four Regions"), also known as the Incan Empire and the Inka Empire, was the largest empire in pre-Columbian America.wikipedia
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Cusco

CuzcoCusco, PeruCuzco, Peru
The administrative, political and military center of the empire was located in the city of Cusco.
The city was the historic capital of the Inca Empire from the 13th until the 16th-century Spanish conquest.

Peru

PerúRepublic of PeruPeruvian
The Inca civilization arose from the Peruvian highlands sometime in the early 13th century. At its largest, the empire joined Peru, southwest Ecuador, western and south central Bolivia, northwest Argentina, a large portion of what is today Chile, and a small part of southwest Colombia into a state comparable to the historical empires of Eurasia.
Ranging from the Norte Chico civilization in the 32nd century BC, the oldest civilization in the Americas and one of the five cradles of civilization, to the Inca Empire, the largest state in pre-Columbian America, the territory now including Peru has one of the longest histories of civilization of any country, tracing its heritage back to the 4th millennia BCE.

Ecuador

ECURepublic of EcuadorEcuadorian
At its largest, the empire joined Peru, southwest Ecuador, western and south central Bolivia, northwest Argentina, a large portion of what is today Chile, and a small part of southwest Colombia into a state comparable to the historical empires of Eurasia.
The territories of modern-day Ecuador were once home to a variety of Amerindian groups that were gradually incorporated into the Inca Empire during the 15th century.

Spanish Empire

SpanishSpainSpanish colonies
Its last stronghold was conquered by the Spanish in 1572.
In the early 16th century, it conquered and incorporated the Aztec and Inca empires, retaining indigenous elites loyal to the Spanish crown and converts to Christianity as intermediaries between their communities and royal government.

Incas in Central Chile

a large portionconquest of northern ChileInca attempt to conquer Chile
At its largest, the empire joined Peru, southwest Ecuador, western and south central Bolivia, northwest Argentina, a large portion of what is today Chile, and a small part of southwest Colombia into a state comparable to the historical empires of Eurasia.
Inca rule in Chile was brief; it lasted from the 1470s to the 1530s when the Inca Empire collapsed.

Argentina

ArgentineARGArgentinian
At its largest, the empire joined Peru, southwest Ecuador, western and south central Bolivia, northwest Argentina, a large portion of what is today Chile, and a small part of southwest Colombia into a state comparable to the historical empires of Eurasia.
The Inca Empire expanded to the northwest of the country in Pre-Columbian times.

Colombia

COLRepublic of ColombiaColombian
At its largest, the empire joined Peru, southwest Ecuador, western and south central Bolivia, northwest Argentina, a large portion of what is today Chile, and a small part of southwest Colombia into a state comparable to the historical empires of Eurasia.
Colombia has been inhabited by various American Indian peoples since at least 12,000 BCE, including the Muisca, Quimbaya, and the Tairona, along with the Inca Empire that expanded to the southwest of the country.

Neo-Inca State

last Inca strongholdlast strongholdNeo-Inca Empire
Its last stronghold was conquered by the Spanish in 1572.
It is considered a rump state of the Inca Empire (1438–1533), which collapsed after the Spanish conquest in the mid-1500s.

Bolivia

BOLBolivianPlurinational State of Bolivia
At its largest, the empire joined Peru, southwest Ecuador, western and south central Bolivia, northwest Argentina, a large portion of what is today Chile, and a small part of southwest Colombia into a state comparable to the historical empires of Eurasia.
Before Spanish colonization, the Andean region of Bolivia was part of the Inca Empire, while the northern and eastern lowlands were inhabited by independent tribes.

Andes

AndeanAndes MountainsAndean region
From 1438 to 1533, the Incas incorporated a large portion of western South America, centered on the Andean Mountains, using conquest and peaceful assimilation, among other methods.
The majority consensus is that it derives from the Quechua word anti, which means "east" as in Antisuyu (Quechua for "east region"), one of the four regions of the Inca Empire.

Chile

Republic of ChileChileanCHI
At its largest, the empire joined Peru, southwest Ecuador, western and south central Bolivia, northwest Argentina, a large portion of what is today Chile, and a small part of southwest Colombia into a state comparable to the historical empires of Eurasia.
According to 17th-century Spanish chronicler Diego de Rosales, the Incas called the valley of the Aconcagua "Chili" by corruption of the name of a Picunche tribal chief ("cacique") called Tili, who ruled the area at the time of the Incan conquest in the 15th century.

Inca road system

Qhapaq Ñanroad systemCamino Real
Notable features of the Inca Empire include its monumental architecture, especially stonework, extensive road network reaching all corners of the empire, finely-woven textiles, use of knotted strings (quipu) for record keeping and communication, agricultural innovations in a difficult environment, and the organization and management fostered or imposed on its people and their labor.
The road system allowed for the transfer of information, goods, soldiers and persons, without the use of wheels, within the Tawantinsuyu or Inka Empire throughout a territory with an extension was almost 2,000,000 km2 and inhabited by about 12 million people.

Quechuan languages

QuechuaQuechua languageQuechuan
Its official language was Quechua.
It is perhaps most widely known for being the main language family of the Inca Empire.

Inti

Cult of Inti
Many local forms of worship persisted in the empire, most of them concerning local sacred Huacas, but the Inca leadership encouraged the sun worship of Inti – their sun god – and imposed its sovereignty above other cults such as that of Pachamama.
Worshiped as a patron deity of the Inca Empire, Pachacuti is often linked to the origin and expansion of the Inca Sun Cult.

Sapa Inca

IncaSapan InkaInca Emperor
The Incas considered their king, the Sapa Inca, to be the "son of the sun." In 1438, they began a far-reaching expansion under the command of Sapa Inca (paramount leader) Pachacuti-Cusi Yupanqui, whose name literally meant "earth-shaker".
The Sapa Inca (Hispanicized spelling), Sapan Inka or Sapa Inka (Quechua for "the only Inca"), also known as Apu ("divinity"), Inka Qhapaq ("mighty Inca"), or simply Sapa ("the only one"), was the ruler of the Kingdom of Cuzco and, later, the Emperor of the Inca Empire (Tawantinsuyu) and the Neo-Inca State.

Americas

Americathe AmericasAmerican
Its political and administrative structure is considered by most scholars to have been the most developed in the Americas before Columbus' arrival.
The term Pre-Columbian is used especially often in the context of the great indigenous civilizations of the Americas, such as those of Mesoamerica (the Olmec, the Toltec, the Teotihuacano, the Zapotec, the Mixtec, the Aztec, and the Maya) and the Andes (Inca, Moche, Muisca, Cañaris).

Lake Titicaca

TiticacaTiticaca LakeLago Titicaca
300–1100 AD), based around Lake Titicaca and the Wari or Huari (c.
Other cultures lived on Lake Titicaca prior to the arrival of the Incas.

Llama

llamasLama glamacamelids
Troll did also argue that llamas, the Inca's pack animal, can be found in its largest numbers in this very same region.
The llama (Lama glama) is a domesticated South American camelid, widely used as a meat and pack animal by Andean cultures since the Pre-Columbian era.

Ayacucho

HuamangaAyacucho (disambiguation)Capitulation of Ayacucho
600–1100 AD) centered near the city of Ayacucho.
During the Inca Empire and Viceroyalty of Peru periods the city was known by the name of Huamanga (Quechua: Wamanga), and it continues to be the alternative name of the city.

South America

South AmericanSouthSouth-America
From 1438 to 1533, the Incas incorporated a large portion of western South America, centered on the Andean Mountains, using conquest and peaceful assimilation, among other methods.
Known as Tawantin suyu, and "the land of the four regions," in Quechua, the Inca Empire was highly distinct and developed.

Tiwanaku empire

TiwanakuTiwanaku cultureTiahuanaco
The Inca Empire was preceded by two large-scale empires in the Andes: the Tiwanaku (c.
One obsolete theory suggests that Tiwanaku was an expansive military empire, based on comparisons to the later Inca Empire, but supporting evidence is weak.

Machu Picchu

Historic Sanctuary of Machu PicchuMachu Pikchu2010 Machu Picchu floods
Pachacuti is thought to have built Machu Picchu, either as a family home or summer retreat, although it may have been an agricultural station.
Machu Picchu ( or, ; Machu Pikchu ) is a 15th-century Inca citadel, located in the Eastern Cordillera of southern Peru, on a 2430 m mountain ridge.

Manco Cápac

Manco CapacManqo QhapaqAyar Manco
They were: Ayar Manco, Ayar Cachi, Ayar Awqa (Ayar Auca) and Ayar Uchu; and Mama Ocllo, Mama Raua, Mama Huaco and Mama Qura (Mama Cora).
Manco Cápac (Quechua: Manqu Qhapaq, "the royal founder"), also known as Manco Inca and Ayar Manco was, according to some historians, the first governor and founder of the Inca civilization in Cusco, possibly in the early 13th century.

Chanka

ChancasChankasChanka people
The name of Pachacuti was given to him after he conquered the Tribe of Chancas (modern Apurímac).
Enemies of the Incas, they were centered primarily in Andahuaylas, located in the modern-day region of Apurímac.

Pachacuti

Pachacuti Inca YupanquiPachacutecPachakutiq
In 1438, they began a far-reaching expansion under the command of Sapa Inca (paramount leader) Pachacuti-Cusi Yupanqui, whose name literally meant "earth-shaker".
Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui (Pachakutiq Inka Yupanki) was the ninth Sapa Inca (1418–1471/1472) of the Kingdom of Cusco which he transformed into the Inca Empire (Tawantinsuyu).