Incarceration in the United States

mass incarcerationmaximum security prisonmaximum securityincarcerationMaximumincarceratedmaximum-security prisonmaximum-securityprisonAmerican prisons
Incarceration in the United States is one of the main forms of punishment and rehabilitation for the commission of felony and other offenses.wikipedia
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Youth incarceration in the United States

juvenile detentionjuvenilejuvenile correctional institution
In addition, there were 54,148 juveniles in juvenile detention in 2013.
The United States incarcerates more of its youth than any other country in the world through the juvenile courts and the adult criminal justice system, which reflects the larger trends in incarceration practices in the United States.

Prison

jailgaolpenitentiary
According to the US Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS), 2,220,300 adults were incarcerated in US federal and state prisons and county jails in 2013 about 0.91% of adults (1 in 110) in the U.S. resident population.
They developed systems of mass incarceration, often with hard labor, as a solution.

Brennan Center for Justice

Brennan CenterBrennan Center for Justice at NYU School of LawBrennan Center Free Expression Policy Project
According to a 2015 study by the Brennan Center for Justice, falling crime rates cannot be ascribed to mass incarceration.
The Brennan Center opposes mass incarceration and produces research on causes of violent crime in the United States.

Marie Gottschalk

According to Marie Gottschalk, a professor of political science at the University of Pennsylvania, studies that claim private prisons are cheaper to run than public prisons fail to "take into account the fundamental differences between private and public facilities," and that the prison industry "engages in a lot of cherry-picking and cost-shifting to maintain the illusion that the private sector does it better for less."
Marie Gottschalk (born December 17, 1958) is an American political scientist and professor of political science at the University of Pennsylvania, known for her work on mass incarceration in the United States.

Prison rape

raped in prisonrapedrape
In a survey of 1,788 male inmates in Midwestern prisons by Prison Journal, about 21% responded they had been coerced or pressured into sexual activity during their incarceration, and 7% that they had been raped in their current facility.
A 1986 study by Daniel Lockwood put the number at around 23 percent for maximum security prisons in New York.

Southern Poverty Law Center

SPLCthe Southern Poverty Law CenterSouthern Poverty Law Center Hatewatch blog
A federal lawsuit filed by the ACLU and the Southern Poverty Law Center on behalf of prisoners at the privately run East Mississippi Correctional Facility in 2013 claims the conditions there are "hyper-violent," "barbaric" and "chaotic," with gangs routinely beating and exploiting mentally ill inmates who are denied medical care by prison staff.
The SPLC has also filed suits related to the conditions of incarceration for adults and juveniles.

Jeff Sessions

SessionsAttorney GeneralAttorney General Sessions
On February 23, the DOJ under Attorney General Jeff Sessions overturned the ban on using private prisons.
As U.S. Attorney General, Sessions overturned a memo delivered by one of his predecessors, Eric Holder, that had sought to curb mass incarceration by avoiding mandatory sentencing, and ordered federal prosecutors to begin seeking the maximum criminal charges possible.

Private prison

for-profit prisonprivate prisonsplaced at the disposal of private individuals, companies or associations
According to federal data from 2011, around 40% of the nation's juvenile inmates are housed in private facilities.
A 2011 report by the American Civil Liberties Union point out that private prisons are more costly, more violent and less accountable than public prisons, and are actually a major contributor to increased mass incarceration.

Prison–industrial complex

prison-industrial complexprison industrial complexprison industry
Such private companies comprise what has been termed the prison–industrial complex.
Proponents of this view, including civil rights organizations such as the Rutherford Institute and the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU), believe that the desire for monetary gain through prison privatization has led to the growth of the prison industry and contributed to the increase of incarcerated individuals.

CoreCivic

Corrections Corporation of AmericaCCACorrections Corporations of America
Over the same time period the stock price of the industry leader, Corrections Corporation of America (CCA), which rebranded as CoreCivic in 2016 amid increased scrutiny of the private prison industry, climbed from $8 a share to $30.
This 256-bed facility was the first maximum-security private prison under direct contract to a federal agency.

United States Department of Justice

Department of JusticeJustice DepartmentU.S. Department of Justice
Individuals who violate state laws and/or territorial laws generally are placed in state or territorial prisons, while those who violate United States federal law are generally placed in federal prisons operated by the Federal Bureau of Prisons (BOP), an agency of the United States Department of Justice (USDOJ).
Incarceration in the United States

Slavery in the 21st century

modern slaverycontemporary slaverymodern day slavery
In September 2016, large, coordinated prison strikes took place in 11 states, with inmates claiming they are subjected to poor sanitary conditions and jobs that amount to forced labor and modern day slavery.
As of 2018, many prisoners in the US perform work.

Federal Bureau of Prisons

federal prisonBureau of Prisonsfederal prison system
Individuals who violate state laws and/or territorial laws generally are placed in state or territorial prisons, while those who violate United States federal law are generally placed in federal prisons operated by the Federal Bureau of Prisons (BOP), an agency of the United States Department of Justice (USDOJ). The United States Federal Bureau of Prisons operates a federal supermax, A.D.X. Florence, located in Florence, Colorado, also known as the "Alcatraz of the Rockies" and widely considered to be perhaps the most secure prison in the United States.
Incarceration in the United States

Religion in United States prisons

Religion in United States prisons
Inmates incarcerated in the United States penal system practice a variety of religions.

13th (film)

13th13th 13th'' (film)
For example, Ava DuVernay's Netflix film 13th, released in 2017, criticizes mass incarceration and compares it to the history of slavery throughout the United States, beginning with the provision of the 13th Amendment that allows for involuntary servitude "as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted."
DuVernay contends that slavery has been perpetuated in practices since the end of the American Civil War through such actions as criminalizing behavior and enabling police to arrest poor freedmen and force them to work for the state under convict leasing; suppression of African Americans by disenfranchisement, lynchings and Jim Crow; politicians declaring a war on drugs that weigh more heavily on minority communities and, by the late 20th century, mass incarceration of people of color in the United States.

Human rights in the United States

human rightsrightsU.S.
Human rights in the United States#Prison system
On a number of human rights issues, the United States has been internationally criticized for its human rights record, including the least protections for workers of most Western countries, the imprisonment of debtors, and the criminalization of homelessness and poverty, the invasion of the privacy of its citizens through surveillance programs, police brutality, police impunity, the incarceration of citizens for profit, the mistreatment of prisoners and juveniles in the prison system, having the longest prison sentences of any country, being the last Western country with a death penalty, abuses of illegal immigrants, including children, facilitating state terrorism and the continued support for foreign dictators who commit abuses (including genocide), forced disappearances, extraordinary renditions, extrajudicial detentions, torture of prisoners at Guantanamo Bay and black sites, and extrajudicial targeted killings (Disposition Matrix).

Race in the United States criminal justice system

racial inequality in the United States criminal justice systemdisproportionateimpose inequality, repression, and discrimination
Race in the United States criminal justice system
There have been different outcomes for different racial groups in convicting and sentencing felons in the United States criminal justice system.

War on drugs

counter-narcoticsdrug interdictiondrug war
In recent decades the U.S. has experienced a surge in its prison population, quadrupling since 1980, partially as a result of mandatory sentencing that came about during the "War on Drugs."
The result of increased demand was the development of privatization and the for-profit prison industry.

The New Jim Crow

The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindnessimprisonment rate
In The New Jim Crow in 2011, legal scholar and advocate Michelle Alexander contended that the U.S. incarceration system worked to bar black men from voting.
The book discusses race-related issues specific to African-American males and mass incarceration in the United States, but Alexander noted that the discrimination faced by African-American males is prevalent among other minorities and socio-economically disadvantaged populations.

ADX Florence

United States Penitentiary, Florence ADXUnited States Penitentiary Administrative Maximum FacilityFederal Supermax prison
The United States Federal Bureau of Prisons operates a federal supermax, A.D.X. Florence, located in Florence, Colorado, also known as the "Alcatraz of the Rockies" and widely considered to be perhaps the most secure prison in the United States.
Incarceration in the United States

Supermax prison

supermaxmaximum securitymaximum security prison
California, for example, classifies its facilities from Reception Center through Levels I to V (minimum to maximum security) to specialized high security units (all considered Level V) including Security Housing Unit (SHU)—California's version of supermax—and related units.
Incarceration in the United States (security levels)

Ava DuVernay

DuVernayForward Movement
For example, Ava DuVernay's Netflix film 13th, released in 2017, criticizes mass incarceration and compares it to the history of slavery throughout the United States, beginning with the provision of the 13th Amendment that allows for involuntary servitude "as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted."
DuVernay's documentary opens with the idea that 25 percent of the people in the world who are incarcerated are incarcerated in the U.S. and argues that slavery is being effectively perpetuated in the U.S. through mass incarceration.

Bernie Sanders

SandersSenator Bernie SandersSanders, Bernie
In September 2015, Senator Bernie Sanders introduced the "Justice Is Not for Sale" Act, which would prohibit the United States government at federal, state and local levels from contracting with private firms to provide and/or operate detention facilities within two years.
Sanders has denounced institutional racism and called for criminal justice reform to reduce the number of people in prison, advocates a crackdown on police brutality, and supports abolishing private, for-profit prisons and the death penalty.

Michelle Alexander

In The New Jim Crow in 2011, legal scholar and advocate Michelle Alexander contended that the U.S. incarceration system worked to bar black men from voting.
Her book concentrated on the high rate of incarceration of African-American men for various crimes.

Prisons in California

California prison systemCalifornia State Prison SystemCalifornia prison
Prisons in California
The California system has been the origin of many trends in prison conditions within the United States as a whole.