Income and fertility

Graph of Total Fertility Rate vs. GDP (PPP) per capita of the corresponding country, 2015.
Demographic transition
TFR vs HDI showing "J curve", from UN Human Development Report 2009

Association between monetary gain on one hand, and the tendency to produce offspring on the other.

- Income and fertility

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Fertility

Capability to produce offspring through reproduction following the onset of sexual maturity.

Countries by fertility rate as of 2020
Chance of fertilization by menstrual cycle day relative to ovulation.
United States crude birth rate (births per 1000 population); Baby Boom years in red.

Factors generally associated with decreased fertility include wealth, education, female labor participation, urban residence, cost of housing, intelligence, increased female age and (to a lesser degree) increased male age.

Total fertility rate

Obtained by summing the single-year age-specific rates at a given time.

Map of countries by fertility rate (2020), according to the Population Reference Bureau
Total fertility rate for selected countries
A plot of population growth rate vs total fertility rate (logarithmic). Symbol radius reflect population size in each country
Total Fertility Rate vs Human Development Index for Selected Countries
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Total fertility rate projections by region
Map of East Asia by total fertility rate (TFR) in 2020
Map of U.S. states by total fertility rate (TFR) in 2013.
History of US Total Fertility Rate from 1933 to 2016.
Map of East Asia by total fertility rate (TFR) in 2021

Factors generally associated with decreased fertility include rising income, value and attitude changes, education, female labor participation, population control, age, contraception, partner reluctance to having children, a low level of gender equality, and infertility.The effect of all these factors can be summarized with a plot of Total Fertility Rate against Human Development Index (HDI) for a sample of countries.

Sub-replacement fertility

Total fertility rate that (if sustained) leads to each new generation being less populous than the older, previous one in a given area.

Countries by crude birth rate (CBR) in 2014
Global fertility rates as of 2020
Americans with a bachelor's degree or higher by state according to the U.S. Census Bureau's American Community Survey in 2019.
Child labor is common in many parts of the world
Human Development Index map. Darker is higher.
The Danshan, Sichuan Province Nongchang Village people Public Affairs Bulletin Board in September 2005 noted that RMB 25,000 in social compensation fees were owed in 2005, for violation of the one child policy. Thus far 11,500 RMB had been collected, so another 13,500 RMB had to be collected.
Japan, a highly developed country, has low fertility rates and a rapidly aging population
Infant mortality rates, under age 1, in 2013. Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest infant mortality rate, as well as the highest TFR.

This is part of the fertility-income paradox, as these high fertility countries are very poor, and it may seem counter-intuitive for families there to have so many children.

Life history theory

Analytical framework designed to study the diversity of life history strategies used by different organisms throughout the world, as well as the causes and results of the variation in their life cycles.

Lucretius

Life history theory has provided new perspectives in understanding many aspects of human reproductive behavior, such as the relationship between poverty and fertility.

Fertility and intelligence

The relationship between fertility and intelligence has been investigated in many demographic studies.

Map of countries by fertility rate (2020), according to the Population Reference Bureau

There is thus an inverse correlation between income and fertility within and between nations.

Role conflict

Role conflict occurs when there are incompatible demands placed upon a person relating to their job or position.

Individuals in groups are connected to each other by social relationships.

Researchers have noticed a declining fertility rate in developed countries.

Richard Easterlin

Professor of economics at the University of Southern California.

He is also known for the Easterlin hypothesis, which states that the relationship between income and fertility is dependent on relative income (income relative to aspirations).

Fertility factor (demography)

Individual is likely to have.

A Norwegian family ca 1900, parents plus five children
A family of rural Africa
Graph of total fertility rate vs. GDP (PPP) per capita of the corresponding country, 2015.
Cumulative percentage and average age for women reaching subfertility, sterility, irregular menstruation and menopause.

Factors generally associated with decreased fertility include rising income, value and attitude changes, education, female labor participation, population control, age, contraception, partner reluctance to having children, very low level of gender equality, infertility, pollution, and obesity,

Population decline

Reduction in a human population size.

However, almost all societies experience a drastic drop in fertility to well below 2 as they grow more wealthy (see income and fertility).

Birth rate

Total number of live births per 1,000 population divided by the length of the period in years.

Countries by crude birth rate (CBR) in 2017.
Placard showing negative effects of lack of family planning and having too many children and infants (Ethiopia)
Historic population of Japan (1920-2010) with projected population (2011-2060).
Human Development Index map. Darker is higher. Countries with a higher HDI usually have a lower birth rate, known as the fertility-income paradox.

This is part of the fertility-income paradox, as these countries are very poor, and it may seem counter-intuitive for families there to have so many children.