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Limited release

limited theatrical releaselimitedselect theaters
Generally, the marketing of independent films is characterized by limited release, but can also have major marketing campaigns and a wide release.
The purpose is often used to gauge the appeal of specialty films, like documentaries, independent films and art films.

Twentieth Century Pictures

20th Century Pictures20th Century20th Century Pictures, Inc.
Schenck resigned in 1933 to organize a new company with Darryl F. Zanuck, Twentieth Century Pictures, which soon provided four pictures a year to UA's schedule.
Twentieth Century Pictures was an independent Hollywood motion picture production company created in 1933 by Joseph Schenck (the former president of United Artists) and Darryl F. Zanuck from Warner Bros. Financial backing came from Schenck's younger brother Nicholas Schenck, president of Loew's, the theater chain that owned Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer (MGM), and from Louis B. Mayer of MGM, who wanted a position for his son-in-law, William Goetz.

Filmmaking

filmmakerfilm productionproduction
An independent film, independent movie, indie film or indie movie, is a feature film or short film that is produced outside the major film studio system, in addition to being produced and distributed by independent entertainment companies.
Many Hollywood blockbusters employ a cast and crew of hundreds, while a low-budget, independent film may be made by a skeleton crew of eight or nine (or fewer).

Republic Pictures

RepublicRepublic Pictures Home VideoRepublic Pictures Television
Created in 1935 by Herbert J. Yates, a longtime investor in film (having invested in 20th Century Pictures at its founding 1933) and owner of the film processing laboratory Consolidated Film Industries, Republic was initially formed by Yates' acquisition of six smaller independent Poverty Row studios.

Darryl F. Zanuck

Darryl ZanuckZanuckDaryl F. Zanuck
Schenck resigned in 1933 to organize a new company with Darryl F. Zanuck, Twentieth Century Pictures, which soon provided four pictures a year to UA's schedule.
During that short time (1933–1935), 20th Century became the most successful independent movie studio of its time, breaking box-office records with 18 of its 19 films, all in profitability, including Clive of India, Les Miserables, and The House of Rothschild.

Satyajit Ray

RayRāy, SatyajitSatyajit Ray Award
As the 1950s progressed, the new low-budget paradigm of filmmaking gained increased recognition internationally, with films such as Satyajit Ray's critically acclaimed Apu Trilogy (1955–1959).
Starting his career as a commercial artist, Ray was drawn into independent filmmaking after meeting French filmmaker Jean Renoir and viewing Vittorio De Sica's Italian neorealist film Bicycle Thieves (1948) during a visit to London.

Shirley Clarke

ShirleySkyscraper
Founded in 1962 by Jonas Mekas, Stan Brakhage, Shirley Clarke, Gregory Markopoulos, and others, the Cooperative provided an important outlet for many of cinema's creative luminaries in the 1960s, including Jack Smith and Andy Warhol.
Shirley Clarke (October 2, 1919 – September 23, 1997) was an American experimental and independent filmmaker.

Samuel Goldwyn

Sam GoldwynGoldwynSamuel Goldfish
Within a few years, ambitious men like Samuel Goldwyn, Carl Laemmle, Adolph Zukor, Louis B. Mayer, and the Warner Brothers (Harry, Albert, Samuel, and Jack) had switched to the production side of the business.
During that time, Goldwyn made numerous films and reigned as the most successful independent producer in the US. Many of his films were forgettable; his collaboration with John Ford, however, resulted in Best Picture Oscar nomination for Arrowsmith (1931).

Easy Rider

1969 Peter Fonda and Dennis Hopper film of the same namecustomized Harley-Davidson bikesEasy Rider',
Dennis Hopper, the American actor, made his writing and directing debut with Easy Rider (1969).
Easy Rider is a 1969 American independent road drama film written by Peter Fonda, Dennis Hopper, and Terry Southern, produced by Fonda, and directed by Hopper.

Film studio

movie studiostudiofilm studios
Soon they were the heads of a new kind of enterprise: the movie studio.
In the same year, another 15 independents settled in Hollywood.

Cult film

cultcult classiccult following
The cult audiences these pictures attracted soon made them ideal candidates for midnight movie screenings revolving around audience participation and cosplay.
Eventually, the rise of home video would marginalize midnight movies once again, after which many directors joined the burgeoning independent film scene or went back underground.

Cinema of the United States

HollywoodAmericanUnited States
By establishing a new system of production, distribution, and exhibition which was independent of The Edison Trust in New York, these studios opened up new horizons for cinema in the United States.
Since then, American films have become increasingly divided into two categories: Blockbusters and independent films.

Scott B and Beth B

Beth B
Other key players in this movement included Kembra Pfahler, Casandra Stark, Beth B, Tommy Turner, Richard Kern and Lydia Lunch.
They went on to form an independent film production company called B Movies (a pun on B movies), which made the feature film Vortex on 16-mm film, starring Lydia Lunch (of Teenage Jesus and the Jerks) with James Russo, Bill Rice, Haoui Montaug, Richard Prince, Brent Collins, and Ann Magnuson, among others.

Sundance Film Festival

SundanceThe Sundance Film FestivalSundance Festival
In 1978, Sterling Van Wagenen and Charles Gary Allison, with Chairperson Robert Redford, (veteran of New Hollywood and star of Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid) founded the Utah/US Film Festival in an effort to attract more filmmakers to Utah and showcase what the potential of independent film could be. At the time, the main focus of the event was to present a series of retrospective films and filmmaker panel discussions; however it also included a small program of new independent films.
Held in January in Park City and Salt Lake City, Utah, as well as at the Sundance Resort, the festival is a showcase for new work from American and international independent filmmakers.

Steven Soderbergh

Peter AndrewsCleoMary Ann Bernard
Such notable figures as Kevin Smith, Robert Rodriguez, Quentin Tarantino, David O. Russell, Paul Thomas Anderson, Steven Soderbergh, James Wan, Hal Hartley and Jim Jarmusch garnered resounding critical acclaim and unprecedented box office sales In 2005, about 15% of the U.S. domestic box office revenue was from independent studios.
He is considered one of the founding pioneers of the independent cinema movement and among the most acclaimed and prolific filmmakers of his generation.

Jim Jarmusch

Jarmush Jim
Such notable figures as Kevin Smith, Robert Rodriguez, Quentin Tarantino, David O. Russell, Paul Thomas Anderson, Steven Soderbergh, James Wan, Hal Hartley and Jim Jarmusch garnered resounding critical acclaim and unprecedented box office sales In 2005, about 15% of the U.S. domestic box office revenue was from independent studios.
He has been a major proponent of independent cinema since the 1980s, directing such films as Stranger Than Paradise (1984), Down by Law (1986), Mystery Train (1989), Dead Man (1995), Ghost Dog: The Way of the Samurai (1999), Coffee and Cigarettes (2003), Broken Flowers (2005), Only Lovers Left Alive (2013), and Paterson (2016).

Hal Hartley

Such notable figures as Kevin Smith, Robert Rodriguez, Quentin Tarantino, David O. Russell, Paul Thomas Anderson, Steven Soderbergh, James Wan, Hal Hartley and Jim Jarmusch garnered resounding critical acclaim and unprecedented box office sales In 2005, about 15% of the U.S. domestic box office revenue was from independent studios.
Hal Hartley (born November 3, 1959) is an American film director, screenwriter, producer and composer who became a key figure in the American independent film movement of the 1980s and '90s.

Quentin Tarantino

TarantinoQuentin TarentinoScarearantino
Such notable figures as Kevin Smith, Robert Rodriguez, Quentin Tarantino, David O. Russell, Paul Thomas Anderson, Steven Soderbergh, James Wan, Hal Hartley and Jim Jarmusch garnered resounding critical acclaim and unprecedented box office sales In 2005, about 15% of the U.S. domestic box office revenue was from independent studios.
In the early 1990s, he began his career as an independent filmmaker with the release of Reservoir Dogs in 1992, which was funded by money from the sale of his script Natural Born Killers to Oliver Stone.

Midnight movie

midnight screeningsmidnight moviesmidnight screening
The cult audiences these pictures attracted soon made them ideal candidates for midnight movie screenings revolving around audience participation and cosplay.
Filmed on weekends in Waters's hometown of Baltimore, with a mile-long extension cord as a power conduit, it was also crucial in inspiring the growth of the independent film movement.

Star Wars (film)

Star WarsA New HopeStar Wars Episode IV: A New Hope
In retrospect, it can be seen that Steven Spielberg's Jaws (1975) and George Lucas's Star Wars (1977) marked the beginning of the end for the New Hollywood.
With a background in independent filmmaking, Lucas was accustomed to creating most of the elements of the film himself.

Sex, Lies, and Videotape

sex, lies and videotapeSex, Lies and Videotape.
Miramax Films had a string of hits with Sex, Lies, and Videotape, My Left Foot: The Story of Christy Brown, and Clerks, putting Miramax and New Line Cinema in the sights of big companies looking to cash in on the success of independent studios.
Sex, Lies, and Videotape (styled as sex, lies, and videotape) is a 1989 American independent drama film that brought director Steven Soderbergh to prominence.

Clerks

Clerks III1994 comedy of the same nameClerk
Miramax Films had a string of hits with Sex, Lies, and Videotape, My Left Foot: The Story of Christy Brown, and Clerks, putting Miramax and New Line Cinema in the sights of big companies looking to cash in on the success of independent studios.
Clerks is a 1994 American independent black comedy film written, directed and co-produced by Kevin Smith.

Fine Line Features

Fine Line
Turner Broadcasting, in a billion-dollar deal, acquired New Line Cinema, Fine Line Features, and Castle Rock Entertainment in 1994.
From 1991–2005, under founder and president Ira Deutchman, Fine Line acquired, distributed and marketed films of a more "indie" flavor than its parent company, including such critically acclaimed films as Hoop Dreams, The Player, Short Cuts, Night on Earth, Spanking the Monkey, Shine, My Own Private Idaho, Hedwig and the Angry Inch, and Mrs. Parker and the Vicious Circle.

No budget film

no budgetno-budgetlow budgets
The success of films like Little Fugitive, which had been made with low (or sometimes non-existent) budgets encouraged a huge boom in popularity for non-studio films.
No-budget films can receive distribution at film festivals that focus on independent and experimental films, such as the Flicker Film Festival and No Budget Film Festival in Los Angeles, The 8 Fest in Toronto, and the Trasharama A-Go-Go festival in Australia.

Sony Pictures Classics

SonySony ClassicsCBS
Sony Pictures Classics (1992–present)
It distributes, produces and acquires specialty films such as documentaries, independent and art films in the United States and internationally.