Independent station (North America)

independent stationIndependentindependent stationsInd.independent television stationIndReligious independentindependent television stationsindependentsSpanish Independent
An independent station is a type of television station broadcasting in the United States or Canada that is not affiliated with any broadcast television network; most commonly, these stations carry a mix of syndicated, brokered and in some cases, local programming to fill time periods when network programs typically would air.wikipedia
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Fox Broadcasting Company

FoxFox networkFox.com
Stations that are affiliated with networks such as The CW, MyNetworkTV or to a lesser degree, even Fox may be considered to be quasi-independent stations as these networks mainly provide programming during primetime, with limited to no network-supplied content in other time periods. In 1986 several independent outlets, led by the Metromedia stations, formed the Fox Broadcasting Company, the first major venture at a fourth U.S. broadcast television network since the DuMont Television Network shut down in August 1956 (which resulted in some of its affiliates, including those owned by Metromedia, becoming independents).
In May 1985, News Corporation, a media company owned by Australian publishing magnate Rupert Murdoch that had mainly served as a newspaper publisher at the time of the TCF Holdings deal, agreed to pay $2.55 billion to acquire independent television stations in six major U.S. cities from the John Kluge-run broadcasting company Metromedia: WNEW-TV in New York City, WTTG in Washington, D.C., KTTV in Los Angeles, KRIV-TV in Houston, WFLD-TV in Chicago, and KRLD-TV in Dallas.

WJXT

4WJXT 4WMBR-TV
WJXT, virtual channel 4 (UHF digital channel 42), is an independent television station licensed to Jacksonville, Florida, United States.

Broadcast syndication

syndicatedsyndicationfirst-run syndication
An independent station is a type of television station broadcasting in the United States or Canada that is not affiliated with any broadcast television network; most commonly, these stations carry a mix of syndicated, brokered and in some cases, local programming to fill time periods when network programs typically would air. Independent radio is a similar concept with regards to community radio stations, although with a slightly different meaning (as many non-"indie" commercial broadcasting radio stations produce the vast majority of their own programming, perhaps retaining only a nominal affiliation with a radio network for news updates or syndicated radio programming).
Some stations were not affiliated with any network, operating as independent stations.

WGN-TV

WGNWGN 9K32MF-D
Soon, other companies decided to copy Turner's idea and applied for satellite uplinks to distribute other stations; WGN-TV in Chicago, KTVU in Oakland-San Francisco, and WPIX and WOR-TV in New York City would begin to be distributed nationally during the late 1970s and early 1980s (in the case of KTVU, it would revert to being a regional superstation by the early part of the latter decade).
WGN-TV, virtual channel 9 (UHF digital channel 19), is an independent television station licensed to Chicago, Illinois, United States.

WPCH-TV

WTBSWTCGPeachtree TV
In December 1976, Ted Turner decided to uplink his struggling Atlanta, Georgia station WTCG to satellite for national distribution.
WPCH-TV, virtual channel 17 (UHF digital channel 31), is an independent television station licensed to Atlanta, Georgia, United States.

MyNetworkTV

My Network TVMNTMy
Stations that are affiliated with networks such as The CW, MyNetworkTV or to a lesser degree, even Fox may be considered to be quasi-independent stations as these networks mainly provide programming during primetime, with limited to no network-supplied content in other time periods. Some of the newly independent stations subsequently found a new network home through MyNetworkTV, itself created out of the prospect that the UPN affiliates of corporate sister Fox Television Stations would become independents due to The CW choosing to affiliate with CBS Television Stations and Tribune Broadcasting stations in overlapping markets.
Media reports speculated that the Fox-owned UPN affiliates would all revert to being independent stations, or else form another network by uniting with other UPN and WB affiliated stations that were left out of The CW's affiliation deals.

Superstation

superstationscable superstationsvia satellite
As cable television franchises began to be incorporated around the United States during the 1960s and 1970s, independent stations from large and mid-sized markets were imported by these systems via wire or microwave relay to smaller media markets, which often only had stations that were affiliated with the Big Three television networks (ABC, NBC and CBS); these independents became the first "superstations," which were distributed on a statewide or regional basis.
Although six American television stations—none of which have widespread national distribution beyond home satellite or regional cable coverage—still are designated under this classification, these stations were primarily popularized between the late 1970s and the 1990s, in large part because of their carriage of sporting events from local professional sports franchises and theatrical feature films, offerings that were common of the time among independent stations that composed the superstation concept.

KTVU

KTVU 2KTVU-TVKTVU Channel 2
Soon, other companies decided to copy Turner's idea and applied for satellite uplinks to distribute other stations; WGN-TV in Chicago, KTVU in Oakland-San Francisco, and WPIX and WOR-TV in New York City would begin to be distributed nationally during the late 1970s and early 1980s (in the case of KTVU, it would revert to being a regional superstation by the early part of the latter decade).
The station is owned by the Fox Television Stations subsidiary of Fox Corporation, as part of a duopoly with San Jose-licensed independent station KICU-TV (channel 36).

KCAL-TV

KHJ-TVKCALKCAL 9
Some stations in larger markets (such as WGN-TV in Chicago; KTLA, KCOP-TV and KHJ-TV in Los Angeles; KWGN-TV in Denver; and (W)WOR-TV, WPIX and WNEW-TV in New York City) ventured into local news broadcasts, usually airing at 10:00 p.m. in the Eastern and Pacific time zones, and 9:00 p.m. in the Central and Mountain time zones.
KCAL-TV, virtual and VHF digital channel 9, is an independent television station licensed to Los Angeles, California, United States.

Trinity Broadcasting Network

TBNTrinity Broadcast NetworkiShine KNECT
TBN began their broadcasting activities by renting time on independent station KBSA (now UniMás owned-and-operated station KFTR-DT) in Ontario, California.

WPIX

WPIX-TVPIX 11WPIX 11
Soon, other companies decided to copy Turner's idea and applied for satellite uplinks to distribute other stations; WGN-TV in Chicago, KTVU in Oakland-San Francisco, and WPIX and WOR-TV in New York City would begin to be distributed nationally during the late 1970s and early 1980s (in the case of KTVU, it would revert to being a regional superstation by the early part of the latter decade).
The station first signed on the air on June 15, 1948; it was the fifth television station to sign on in New York City and was the market's second independent station.

WWOR-TV

WOR-TVWWORWOR
Soon, other companies decided to copy Turner's idea and applied for satellite uplinks to distribute other stations; WGN-TV in Chicago, KTVU in Oakland-San Francisco, and WPIX and WOR-TV in New York City would begin to be distributed nationally during the late 1970s and early 1980s (in the case of KTVU, it would revert to being a regional superstation by the early part of the latter decade).
WOR-TV entered the New York market as the last of the city's VHF stations to sign on, and one of three independents—the others being WPIX (channel 11) and Newark, New Jersey-based WATV (channel 13).

KTLA

KTLA-TVKTLA 5Golden West Broadcasters
Some stations in larger markets (such as WGN-TV in Chicago; KTLA, KCOP-TV and KHJ-TV in Los Angeles; KWGN-TV in Denver; and (W)WOR-TV, WPIX and WNEW-TV in New York City) ventured into local news broadcasts, usually airing at 10:00 p.m. in the Eastern and Pacific time zones, and 9:00 p.m. in the Central and Mountain time zones.
KTLA was originally affiliated with the DuMont Television Network, of which Paramount held a minority stake; it disaffiliated from the network in 1948 and converted into an independent station.

KCOP-TV

KCOPKLAC-TVK17GJ
Some stations in larger markets (such as WGN-TV in Chicago; KTLA, KCOP-TV and KHJ-TV in Los Angeles; KWGN-TV in Denver; and (W)WOR-TV, WPIX and WNEW-TV in New York City) ventured into local news broadcasts, usually airing at 10:00 p.m. in the Eastern and Pacific time zones, and 9:00 p.m. in the Central and Mountain time zones.
Operating as an independent station early on, it began running some programming from the DuMont Television Network in 1949 after KTLA (channel 5) disaffiliated from the network after a one-year tenure.

News broadcasting

newscasttelevision newsnews channel
Independent radio is a similar concept with regards to community radio stations, although with a slightly different meaning (as many non-"indie" commercial broadcasting radio stations produce the vast majority of their own programming, perhaps retaining only a nominal affiliation with a radio network for news updates or syndicated radio programming).
Unlike in the United States, primetime newscasts in the 10:00 p.m. timeslot are relatively uncommon (three Global owned-and-operated stations in Manitoba and Saskatchewan – CKND-DT, CFSK-DT, and CFRE-DT – and Victoria, British Columbia independent station CHEK-DT are the only television stations in the country carrying a primetime newscast); conversely, pre-5:00 a.m. local newscasts are also uncommon in Canada, Hamilton, Ontario independent station CHCH-DT, whose weekdaily programming consists largely of local news, is currently the only station in the country that starts its weekday morning newscasts before 5:30 a.m. (the station's morning news block begins at 4:00 a.m. on weekdays).

WNYW

WABDWNEW-TVWNYW-TV
Some stations in larger markets (such as WGN-TV in Chicago; KTLA, KCOP-TV and KHJ-TV in Los Angeles; KWGN-TV in Denver; and (W)WOR-TV, WPIX and WNEW-TV in New York City) ventured into local news broadcasts, usually airing at 10:00 p.m. in the Eastern and Pacific time zones, and 9:00 p.m. in the Central and Mountain time zones.
It decided to shut down the network's operations and operate WABD and its Washington, D.C., station WTTG (also operating on channel 5) as independent stations.

Prime Time Entertainment Network

PTENWBN
In September 1993, many independents began carrying the Prime Time Entertainment Network (PTEN), an ad-hoc programming service that emulated a network model, which featured drama series and made-for-TV movies intended for first-run syndication.
At the time of PTEN's founding, co-owner Chris-Craft Industries owned independent television stations in several large and mid-sized U.S. cities (among them its two largest stations, WWOR-TV in New York City and KCOP-TV in Los Angeles) through its BHC Communications and United Television divisions, which formed the nuclei of the network.

Tribune Broadcasting

TribuneTribune Studiosits own television stations
During the next six decades, Tribune Broadcasting (known originally as WGN, Incorporated, and from 1966 to 1981 as WGN Continental Broadcasting Company) would acquire radio and television stations throughout the United States; most of the television properties acquired by the company prior to 1995 were independent stations.

Sinclair Broadcast Group

SinclairSinclair Broadcasting GroupSinclair Broadcasting
All three stations originally were independents, though WBFF and WTTE became charter affiliates of the Fox Broadcasting Company at its launch in 1986, while the Fox affiliation in Pittsburgh went to higher-rated WPGH-TV, which would later be purchased by Sinclair in 1990.

CBS Television Stations

CBSCBS owned television stationParamount Stations Group
Some of the newly independent stations subsequently found a new network home through MyNetworkTV, itself created out of the prospect that the UPN affiliates of corporate sister Fox Television Stations would become independents due to The CW choosing to affiliate with CBS Television Stations and Tribune Broadcasting stations in overlapping markets.
As of November 2019, CBS Corporation owns 29 stations, broken down as follows: fifteen are the core stations of the CBS Television Network; eight are aligned with The CW Television Network, which is co-owned by CBS with WarnerMedia; one Start TV affiliate and five independent stations, two of which carry the MyNetworkTV programming service in primetime.

The WB

WBThe WB Television NetworkWB Network
In January 1995, many remaining independents, including those that carried PTEN, joined upstart networks The WB and the United Paramount Network (UPN).
Much like its competitor UPN, The WB was summoned in reaction primarily to the Federal Communications Commission (FCC)'s then-recent deregulation of media ownership rules that repealed the Financial Interest and Syndication Rules, and partly due to the success of the Fox network (which debuted in October 1986, nine years before The WB launched) and first-run syndicated programming during the late 1980s and early 1990s (such as Baywatch, Star Trek: The Next Generation and War of the Worlds), as well as the erosion in ratings suffered by independent television stations due to the growth of cable television and movie rentals.

Fox Television Stations

FoxFox Television Stations GroupFox-owned
Some of the newly independent stations subsequently found a new network home through MyNetworkTV, itself created out of the prospect that the UPN affiliates of corporate sister Fox Television Stations would become independents due to The CW choosing to affiliate with CBS Television Stations and Tribune Broadcasting stations in overlapping markets.
FTS was formed in April 1986 after the acquisition of the Metromedia-owned independent stations by the 20th Century Fox film studio, at the time jointly owned by Australian media mogul Rupert Murdoch's News Corporation, and Denver-based billionaire Marvin Davis.

Fourth television network

fourth networkfourth major networkMGM/UA Premiere Network
In 1986 several independent outlets, led by the Metromedia stations, formed the Fox Broadcasting Company, the first major venture at a fourth U.S. broadcast television network since the DuMont Television Network shut down in August 1956 (which resulted in some of its affiliates, including those owned by Metromedia, becoming independents).
The end of the DuMont Network left many UHF stations without a reliable source of programming, and many were left to become independent stations.

1994–1996 United States broadcast TV realignment

1994 United States broadcast TV realignmentaffiliation agreementaffiliation deal
WSVN in Miami was the first to deviate from the independent-style format of other Fox stations, choosing to expand its news programming when it joined the network in January 1989 to replace national newscasts and late-prime time network programs it aired as an NBC affiliate; this model was replicated by the major network stations owned by New World Communications and SF Broadcasting that switched to Fox in the mid-1990s, and eventually spread to other news-producing Fox and minor network affiliates and independent stations by the 2000s.

UPN

United Paramount NetworkUPN NetworkUnited Paramount Network (UPN)
In January 1995, many remaining independents, including those that carried PTEN, joined upstart networks The WB and the United Paramount Network (UPN).
Independent stations, even more than network affiliates, were feeling the growing pressure of audience erosion to cable television in the 1980s and 1990s; there were unaffiliated commercial television stations in most of the major television markets, even after the foundation of Fox in 1986.