Independent suspension

independent front suspensionindependent rear suspensionindependenttransverse leaf springfully independentindependent wheel suspensionIRSfully independent suspensionindependent rear4-wheel independent suspension
Independent suspension is any automobile suspension system that allows each wheel on the same axle to move vertically (i.e. reacting to a bump on the road) independently of the others.wikipedia
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Beam axle

live axlesolid axlelive rear axle
This is contrasted with a beam axle or deDion axle system in which the wheels are linked – movement on one side does not affect the wheel on the other side.
In most automobiles, beam axles have been replaced by front and rear independent suspensions.

De Dion tube

De DionDe Dion axleDeDion
This is contrasted with a beam axle or deDion axle system in which the wheels are linked – movement on one side does not affect the wheel on the other side.
It is a sophisticated form of non-independent suspension and is a considerable improvement over the swing axle, Hotchkiss drive, or live axle.

Car suspension

suspensionrear suspensionsuspension system
Independent suspension is any automobile suspension system that allows each wheel on the same axle to move vertically (i.e. reacting to a bump on the road) independently of the others.
Today, most cars have independent suspension on all four wheels.

Swing axle

swing-axlesswinging half-axlesTwin I-Beam
Some early independent systems used swing axles, but modern systems use Chapman or MacPherson struts, trailing arms, multilink, or wishbones.
A swing axle is a simple type of independent (rear wheel) suspension designed and patented by Edmund Rumpler in 1903.

Chapman strut

Chapman
Some early independent systems used swing axles, but modern systems use Chapman or MacPherson struts, trailing arms, multilink, or wishbones.
The Chapman strut is a design of independent rear suspension used for light cars, particularly sports and racing cars.

Axle

axlesrear axlehalf shaft
Independent suspension is any automobile suspension system that allows each wheel on the same axle to move vertically (i.e. reacting to a bump on the road) independently of the others.
Thus, transverse pairs of wheels in an independent suspension may be called an axle in some contexts.

Double wishbone suspension

double wishboneDouble wishboneswishbone
Some early independent systems used swing axles, but modern systems use Chapman or MacPherson struts, trailing arms, multilink, or wishbones.
In automobiles, a double wishbone suspension is an independent suspension design using two (occasionally parallel) wishbone-shaped arms to locate the wheel.

Multi-link suspension

multi-linkmultilinkmulti-link rear suspension
Some early independent systems used swing axles, but modern systems use Chapman or MacPherson struts, trailing arms, multilink, or wishbones.
A multi-link suspension is a type of vehicle suspension design typically used in independent suspensions, using three or more lateral arms, and one or more longitudinal arms.

Trailing-arm suspension

trailing armsemi-trailing armtrailing link
Some early independent systems used swing axles, but modern systems use Chapman or MacPherson struts, trailing arms, multilink, or wishbones.
A trailing arm design can also be used in an independent suspension arrangement.

Constant-velocity joint

CV jointconstant velocity jointCV
The relative movement between the wheels and the differential is achieved through the use of swinging driveshafts connected via universal joints (U joints), analogous to the constant-velocity (CV) joints used in front-wheel-drive vehicles.
Modern rear wheel drive cars with independent rear suspension typically use CV joints at the ends of the rear axle halfshafts and increasingly use them on the drive shafts.

Chevrolet Corvette (C2)

Corvette Sting RayChevrolet CorvetteCorvette Stingray
Alternatively, the 1963 Corvette's rear suspension is an example where the transverse leaf spring is used only as a ride spring.
The Q-Corvette, initiated in 1957, envisioned a smaller, more advanced Corvette as a coupe-only model, boasting a rear transaxle, independent rear suspension, and four-wheel disc brakes, with the rear brakes mounted inboard.

Corvette leaf spring

transverse fiberglass mono-leaf springscomposite leaf springsdual pivot mounts with FRP leaf springs
Chevrolet Corvettes, starting with the 4th generation in 1984 have combined the dual pivot mounts with FRP leaf springs.
Corvette leaf spring commonly refers to a type of independent suspension that utilizes a fiber-reinforced plastic (FRP) mono-leaf spring instead of more conventional coil springs.

AC Cobra

Shelby CobraCobraShelby 427
The AC Cobra is an example of a transverse, multi-leaf steel spring suspension that uses the leaf spring as the upper suspension arm.
In late 1962, Alan Turner, AC's chief engineer completed a major design change of the car's front end to accommodate rack and pinion steering while still using transverse leaf spring suspension.

Triumph Herald

HeraldHerald 1200Herald Saloon
The Herald, Vitesse, Spitfire, and GT6 all used a rear transverse leaf spring, as well as the 1995-98 Volvo 960/S90/V90 and a rare Swedish sports car incorporating the Volvo 960 rear suspension called the JC Indigo (Longhurst 4).
Coil and double-wishbone front suspension was fitted, while the rear suspension, a new departure for Triumph, offered "limited" independent springing via a single transverse leaf-spring bolted to the top of the final drive unit and swing axles.

Volvo 900 Series

Volvo 960940Volvo 940
The Herald, Vitesse, Spitfire, and GT6 all used a rear transverse leaf spring, as well as the 1995-98 Volvo 960/S90/V90 and a rare Swedish sports car incorporating the Volvo 960 rear suspension called the JC Indigo (Longhurst 4).
The rear suspension received a completely redesigned multi-link independent system with a single fibreglass transverse leaf spring.

Car

automobileautomobilescars
Independent suspension is any automobile suspension system that allows each wheel on the same axle to move vertically (i.e. reacting to a bump on the road) independently of the others.

MacPherson strut

MacPherson strutsMacPhersonMacPherson strut suspension
Some early independent systems used swing axles, but modern systems use Chapman or MacPherson struts, trailing arms, multilink, or wishbones.

Ride quality

rideRide controlsmooth ride
Independent suspension typically offers better ride quality and handling characteristics, due to lower unsprung weight and the ability of each wheel to address the road undisturbed by activities of the other wheel on the vehicle.

Automobile handling

handlingcar handlingvehicle handling
Independent suspension typically offers better ride quality and handling characteristics, due to lower unsprung weight and the ability of each wheel to address the road undisturbed by activities of the other wheel on the vehicle.

Differential (mechanical device)

differentialdifferential geardifferentials
The key reason for lower unsprung weight relative to a live axle design is that, for driven wheels, the differential unit does not form part of the unsprung elements of the suspension system.

Chassis

framehullundercarriage
Instead, it is either bolted directly to the vehicle's chassis or more commonly to a subframe.

Subframe

sub-framesub framecrossbeam
Instead, it is either bolted directly to the vehicle's chassis or more commonly to a subframe.

Universal joint

Cardan jointuniversal jointscardan
The relative movement between the wheels and the differential is achieved through the use of swinging driveshafts connected via universal joints (U joints), analogous to the constant-velocity (CV) joints used in front-wheel-drive vehicles.

Front-wheel drive

front wheel drivefront-wheel-driveFWD
The relative movement between the wheels and the differential is achieved through the use of swinging driveshafts connected via universal joints (U joints), analogous to the constant-velocity (CV) joints used in front-wheel-drive vehicles.

Chevrolet Corvette (C3)

Chevrolet Corvette C3Chevrolet CorvetteCorvette
In 1981, General Motors pioneered the use of a FRP plastic transverse leaf spring on the third-generation Corvette.