India–Pakistan relations

India and PakistanIndia-Pakistan relationsIndo-Pakistani relationsrelationstwo nationsIndo-PakIndiaIndo-Pakistanbilateral negotiationsforeign relations
Relations between India and Pakistan have been complex and largely hostile due to a number of historical and political events.wikipedia
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Partition of India

independencepartitionIndian independence
Relations between the two states have been defined by the violent partition of British India in 1947, the Kashmir conflict, and the numerous military conflicts fought between the two nations.
The violent nature of the partition created an atmosphere of hostility and suspicion between India and Pakistan that plagues their relationship to the present.

Aftermath of the 2008 Mumbai attacks

post 26/11severe blowtensions heightened
Additionally, the 2008 Mumbai attacks carried out by Pakistani militants resulted in a severe blow to the ongoing India-Pakistan peace talks.
There were also after-effects on the Indian government, centre-state relations within India, Indo-Pakistani relations, domestic impact within Pakistan, the United States's relationships with both countries, the US-led NATO war in Afghanistan, and on the Global War on Terror.

2016 Pathankot attack

attackedPathankot attack2 January 2016
After a brief thaw following the election of new governments in both nations, bilateral discussions again stalled after the 2016 Pathankot attack.
The attack led to a breakdown in India-Pakistan relations, which remained largely unresolved as of September 2019.

Lahore Declaration

Lahore SummitLahore peace declarationtravelling to Lahore
There have been numerous attempts to improve the relationship—notably, the Shimla summit, the Agra summit and the Lahore summit.
The Lahore Declaration signalled a major breakthrough in overcoming the historically strained bilateral relations between the two nations in the aftermath of the publicly performed atomic tests carried out by both nations in May 1998.

Islam in India

Indian MuslimsIndian MuslimMuslims
India emerged as a secular nation with a Hindu majority population and a large Muslim minority, while Pakistan with a Muslim majority population and a large Hindu minority later became an Islamic Republic although its constitution guaranteed freedom of religion to people of all faiths.
The violent nature of the partition created an atmosphere of mutual hostility and suspicion between India and Pakistan that plagues their relationship to this day.

Pokhran-II

Operation Shaktinuclear testsIndian
Since the early 1980s, relations between the two nations soured particularly after the Siachen conflict, the intensification of Kashmir insurgency in 1989, Indian and Pakistani nuclear tests in 1998 and the 1999 Kargil war.
Prime Minister V.P. Singh down played the relations with the Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto whose Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP) won the general elections in 1988.

Pakistan

Islamic Republic of PakistanPAKPakistani
India emerged as a secular nation with a Hindu majority population and a large Muslim minority, while Pakistan with a Muslim majority population and a large Hindu minority later became an Islamic Republic although its constitution guaranteed freedom of religion to people of all faiths.
The Kashmir—the most northwesterly region of South Asia—is a major territorial dispute that has hindered relations between India and Pakistan.

India

IndianRepublic of IndiaIND
India emerged as a secular nation with a Hindu majority population and a large Muslim minority, while Pakistan with a Muslim majority population and a large Hindu minority later became an Islamic Republic although its constitution guaranteed freedom of religion to people of all faiths.
India has had tense relations with neighbouring Pakistan; the two nations have gone to war four times: in 1947, 1965, 1971, and 1999.

Revocation of the special status of Jammu and Kashmir

Indian revocation of Jammu and Kashmir's special statusrevokedrevocation of its autonomous status
In August 2019, following the approval of the Jammu and Kashmir Reorganisation Bill in the Indian Parliament, which revoked the special status of Jammu and Kashmir, further tension was brought between the two countries, with Pakistan downgrading their diplomatic ties, closing its airspace and suspending bilateral trade with India.
On 7 August, a meeting of the National Security Committee decided to downgrade Pakistan's diplomatic relations with India. Pakistan's ambassador from India was recalled and the Indian ambassador to Pakistan was expelled.

Insurgency in Jammu and Kashmir

Kashmir insurgencyterrorism in Kashmirinsurgency
Since the early 1980s, relations between the two nations soured particularly after the Siachen conflict, the intensification of Kashmir insurgency in 1989, Indian and Pakistani nuclear tests in 1998 and the 1999 Kargil war.
However, the number of insurgency-related deaths in the state have fallen sharply since the start of a slow-moving peace process between India and Pakistan.

2016 Indian Line of Control strike

2016 India–Pakistan military confrontationsurgical strikes2016 Line of Control strike
The attack sparked a military confrontation across the Line of Control, with an escalation in ceasefire violations and further militant attacks on Indian security forces.

Jaish-e-Mohammed

Jaish-e-MohammadJeMJaish-e-Muhammad
According to some reports published by the Council of Foreign Relations, the Pakistan military and the ISI have provided covert support to terrorist groups active in Kashmir, including the al-Qaeda affiliate Jaish-e-Mohammed.
The group was responsible for several terror attacks: 2001 attack on Jammu and Kashmir legislative assembly, 2001 Indian Parliament attack, 2016 Pathankot airbase attack, 2016 attack on the Indian Mission in Mazar-i-Sharif, 2016 Uri attack, and 2019 Pulwama attack, each of which has had strategic consequences for India–Pakistan relations.

2016 Uri attack

Uri attack2016 Uri terror attackattack on the Indian army
In September 2016, a terrorist attack on an Indian military base in Indian-administered Kashmir, the deadliest such attack in years, killed 19 Indian Army soldiers.

2019 Pulwama attack

Pulwama attackPulwama Terror attack2019 Pulwama attack on Armed Forces
Notably, following the 2019 Pulwama attack, the Indian government revoked Pakistan's most favoured nation trade status, which it had granted to Pakistan in 1996.

Simla Agreement

Shimla AgreementShimla Treaty1972 Shimla agreement
There have been numerous attempts to improve the relationship—notably, the Shimla summit, the Agra summit and the Lahore summit.

Foreign relations of Pakistan

foreign policyforeignForeign policy of Pakistan
Pakistan has been maintaining a tensed relationship with neighbouring Republic of India and close relationships with People's Republic of China and Arab nations.

Foreign relations of India

Indian foreign policyforeign policyIndia
The partition and various territorial disputes, particularly that over Kashmir, would strain its relations with Pakistan for years to come.

India–Pakistan cricket rivalry

India-Pakistan cricket rivalryhostilityIndia versus Pakistan cricket rivalry
The tense relations between the two nations, resulting from bitter diplomatic relationships and conflict that originated during the Partition of British India into India and Pakistan in 1947, the Indo-Pakistani Wars, and the Kashmir conflict, laid the foundations for the emergence of an intense sporting rivalry between the two nations who had shared a common cricketing heritage.

Indus Waters Treaty

Indus Water TreatyIndus Basin Development Fund (Supplemental) Agreement, 1964Indus Basin Development Fund Agreement
The Indus Waters Treaty governs the rivers that flow from India into Pakistan.

Lashkar-e-Taiba

Lashkar-e-ToibaLeTJamaat-ud-Dawa
On 22 December 2000, a group of terrorists belonging to the Lashkar-e-Toiba stormed the famous Red Fort in New Delhi.
LeT attacks have increased tensions in the already contentious relationship between India and Pakistan.

Pakistan, India

Pakistan
There is also a village in India named Pakistan, despite occasional pressure over the years to change its name the villagers have resisted.
Relations between Pakistan and India have historically been turbulent.

Indo-Pakistani War of 1971

Indo-Pakistan War of 19711971 war1971
The Kashmir conflict is the main centre-point of all of these conflicts with the exception of the Indo-Pakistan War of 1971 and Bangladesh Liberation War, which resulted in the secession of East Pakistan (now Bangladesh).
On 2 July 1972, the Indo-Pakistani summit was held in Simla, Himachal Pradesh, India where the Simla Agreement was reached and signed between President Zulfikar Ali Bhutto and Prime Minister Indira Gandhi.

2001–02 India–Pakistan standoff

Operation Parakram2001–2002 India–Pakistan standoff2001-2002 India-Pakistan standoff
The 2001 Indian Parliament attack almost brought the two nations to the brink of a nuclear war.

South Asia

SouthSouth AsianSouthern Asia
Being located in the northernmost region of the South Asia, Pakistan's culture is somewhat similar to that of North India, especially the northwest.
However, deterioration of India-Pakistan ties have led India to emphasize more on sub-regional groups SASEC and BBIN.

Aman ki Asha

peacepeace initiatives
Aman ki Asha is a joint venture and campaign between The Times of India and the Jang Group calling for mutual peace and development of diplomatic and cultural relations.