Indian Ocean

Extent of the Indian Ocean according to International Hydrographic Organization
The Indian Ocean, according to the CIA The World Factbook (blue area), and as defined by the IHO (black outline - excluding marginal waterbodies).
During summer, warm continental masses draw moist air from the Indian Ocean hence producing heavy rainfall. The process is reversed during winter, resulting in dry conditions.
Air pollution in South Asia spread over the Bay of Bengal and beyond.
Madagascar's Elephant bird, Mauritius's Dodo bird and ostrich (from left to right)
According to the Coastal hypothesis, modern humans spread from Africa along the northern rim of the Indian Ocean.
The Austronesian maritime trade network was the first trade routes in the Indian Ocean.
Greco-Roman trade with ancient India according to the Periplus Maris Erythraei 1st century CE
The economically important Silk Road was blocked from Europe by the Ottoman Empire in c. undefined 1453 with the fall of the Byzantine Empire. This spurred exploration, and a new sea route around Africa was found, triggering the Age of Discovery.
For most of the 16th century, the Portuguese dominated the Indian Ocean trade.
Malé's population has increased from 20,000 people in 1987 to more than 220,000 people in 2020.
An unnamed Chagossian on Diego Garcia in 1971 shortly before the British expelled the islanders when the island became a U.S. military base. The man spoke a French-based creole language and his ancestors were most likely brought to the uninhabited island as slaves in the 19th century.
Major ocean trade routes in the world includes the northern Indian Ocean.
Mombasa Port on Kenya's Indian Ocean coast

Third-largest of the world's five oceanic divisions, covering 70560000 km2 or ~19.8% of the water on Earth's surface.

- Indian Ocean

500 related topics


Ming treasure voyages

The Ming treasure voyages were the seven maritime expeditions undertaken by Ming China's treasure fleet between 1405 and 1433.

Modern wax statue of Admiral Zheng He (Quanzhou Maritime Museum)
Painting of the Yongle Emperor, Ming dynasty (National Palace Museum)
Ming China in 1415 as depicted in Albert Herrmann's Historical and Commercial Atlas of China (1935)
The Great Bao'en Temple as depicted in Fischer von Erlach's A Plan of Civil and Historical Architecture (1721)
Route of the seventh voyage
Admiral Zheng He's empty tomb at Nanjing
Painting of the Xuande Emperor, Ming dynasty (National Palace Museum)
Model of a treasure ship (Hong Kong Science Museum)
Porcelain wares, similar to these Yongle-era porcelain flasks, were often presented as trade goods during the expeditions (British Museum)
Cakra Donya bell, a gift from Zheng He to Semudera (Aceh Museum)
Section of the Mao Kun map (Library of Congress)
Tribute Giraffe with Attendant, depicting a giraffe presented by Bengali envoys to the Ming court (Philadelphia Museum of Art)
Pages from a copy of Ma Huan's Yingya Shenglan
A 2008 Summer Olympics opening ceremony performance representing the Ming-era maritime voyages

The grand project resulted in far-reaching ocean voyages to the coastal territories and islands in and around the South China Sea, the Indian Ocean, and beyond.

Atlantic Ocean

Second-largest of the world's five oceans, with an area of about 106460000 km2.

Extent of the Atlantic Ocean according to the 2002 IHO definition, excluding Arctic and Antarctic regions
The Aethiopian Ocean in a 1710 French map of Africa
False color map of ocean depth in the Atlantic basin
As the Gulf Stream meanders across the North Atlantic from the North American east coast to Western Europe its temperature drops by 20 C-change.
Path of the thermohaline circulation. Purple paths represent deep-water currents, while blue paths represent surface currents.
In the subpolar gyre of the North Atlantic warm subtropical waters are transformed into colder subpolar and polar waters. In the Labrador Sea this water flows back to the subtropical gyre.
Approximate extent of the Sargasso Sea
Sargassum fish (Histrio histrio)
Waves in the trade winds in the Atlantic Ocean—areas of converging winds that move along the same track as the prevailing wind—create instabilities in the atmosphere that may lead to the formation of hurricanes.
Tropical wet and dry climate in San Andrés Island Caribbean, Colombia
Iceberg A22A in the South Atlantic Ocean
Excavation of the Ertebølle middens in 1880
Based on the medieval Íslendingasögur sagas, including the Grœnlendinga saga, this interpretative map of the "Norse World" shows that Norse knowledge of the Americas and the Atlantic remained limited.
The Atlantic Gyres influenced the Portuguese discoveries and trading port routes, here shown in the India Run ("Carreira da Índia"), which would be developed in subsequent years.
Embarked and disembarked slaves in the Atlantic slave trade 1525–1863 (first and last slave voyages)
Cod fishery in Norway
Banks of the North-East Atlantic
Banks of the North-West Atlantic
Capture of Atlantic north-west cod in million tons
Bahama Banks
Agulhas Bank
Marine debris strewn over the beaches of the South Atlantic Inaccessible Island

As one component of the interconnected World Ocean, it is connected in the north to the Arctic Ocean, to the Pacific Ocean in the southwest, the Indian Ocean in the southeast, and the Southern Ocean in the south (other definitions describe the Atlantic as extending southward to Antarctica).

Persian Gulf

Mediterranean sea in Western Asia.

Persian Gulf from space
Map of the Persian Gulf. The Gulf of Oman leads to the Arabian Sea. Detail from [[:File:MiddleEast.png|larger map of the Middle East]].
A historical map of the Persian Gulf in a Dubai museum with the word Persian removed
Picture depicting extent of early civilizations around the Persian Gulf, including Lackhmids and Sassanids.
Picture depicting the Achaemenid Persian empire in relation to the Persian Gulf.
A painting depicting the British Expeditionary Force off the coast of Ras Al Khaimah in 1809.
The Portuguese Castle on Hormuz Island (Gaspar Correia. "Lendas da Índia", c. 1556)
Operation Earnest Will: Tanker convoy No. 12 under US Navy escort in October 1987
Oil and gas pipelines and fields
Khasab, Musandam, Oman
Dubai, UAE
Abu Dhabi, UAE
Doha, Qatar
Manama, Bahrain
Khobar, Saudi Arabia
Kuwait City, Kuwait
Al-Faw, Iraq
Bandar Abbas, Iran
Dugong mother and her offspring in shallow water
Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins off the southern shore of Iran, around Hengam Island
Spinner dolphins leaping in the Persian gulf
Critically endangered Arabian humpback whales (being the most isolated, and the only resident population in the world) off Dhofar, Oman
Palm and sunset in Minoo Island

The body of water is an extension of the Indian Ocean located between Iran and the Arabian Peninsula.

Red Sea

Red Sea coast at Makadi Bay
Tihama on the Red Sea near Khaukha, Yemen
Ancient Egyptian expedition to the Land of Punt on the Red Sea coast during the reign of Queen Hatshepsut
Settlements and commercial centers in the vicinity of the Red Sea involved in the spice trade, as described in the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea
Annotated view of the Nile and Red Sea, with a dust storm
Dust storm over the Red Sea
Red Sea coast in Taba, Egypt
Hawksbill sea turtle in the Elphinstone Reef
Nudibranch egg ribbon at Shaab Mahmoud
Red Sea coral and marine fish
Hotels in Eilat, Israel
A four color map of the Red Sea and its bordering countries

The Red Sea (البحر الأحمر; יַם-סוּף or הַיָּם הָאָדְוֹם) is a seawater inlet of the Indian Ocean, lying between Africa and Asia.

Cape Agulhas

Rocky headland in Western Cape, South Africa.

A marker at Cape Agulhas indicates the official dividing line between the Atlantic and Indian oceans.
Map showing the location of Cape Agulhas relative to the Cape of Good Hope.
The lighthouse at Cape Agulhas has guided many ships around the cape over the years.

It is the geographic southern tip of the African continent and the beginning of the dividing line between the Atlantic and Indian Oceans according to the International Hydrographic Organization.


India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), – "Official name: Republic of India.";

An illustration from an early-modern manuscript of the Sanskrit epic Ramayana, composed in story-telling fashion c. undefined.
Cave 26 of the rock-cut Ajanta Caves
India has the majority of the world's wild tigers, approximately 3,000 in 2019.
A Chital (Axis axis) stag attempts to browse in the Nagarhole National Park in a region covered by a moderately dense forest.
The last three Asiatic cheetahs (on record) in India were shot dead in Surguja district, Madhya Pradesh, Central India by Maharajah Ramanuj Pratap Singh Deo. The young males, all from the same litter, were sitting together when they were shot at night in 1948.
Children awaiting school lunch in Rayka (also Raika), a village in rural Gujarat. The salutation Jai Bhim written on the blackboard honours the jurist, social reformer, and Dalit leader B. R. Ambedkar.
Indian cricketer Sachin Tendulkar about to score a record 14,000 runs in test cricket while playing against Australia in Bangalore, 2010.
Bhutesvara Yakshis, Buddhist reliefs from Mathura, {{CE|2nd century}}
Gupta terracotta relief, Krishna Killing the Horse Demon Keshi, 5th century
thumb|Elephanta Caves, triple-bust (trimurti) of Shiva, {{convert|18|ft|m}} tall, {{circa|550}}
Chola bronze of Shiva as Nataraja ("Lord of Dance"), Tamil Nadu, 10th or 11th century.
Jahangir Receives Prince Khurram at Ajmer on His Return from the Mewar Campaign, Balchand, {{circa|1635}}
Krishna Fluting to the Milkmaids, Kangra painting, 1775–1785

Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west; China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the north; and Bangladesh and Myanmar to the east.


The Zambezi and its river basin.
Victoria Falls, the end of the upper Zambezi and beginning of the middle Zambezi
Annotated view of the Zambezi river delta from space.
NASA false-colour image of the upper Zambezi and Barotse (Balozi) floodplain during an extreme flood in 2003.
Elephants crossing the river
Hippopotamus in the Zambezi River
View of the Middle Zambezi
Victoria Falls National Park marker
Map by Willem Janszoon Blaeu, dated 1635, showing the course of the Zambezi, and its source in a great lake.
Satellite image showing Victoria Falls and subsequent series of zigzagging gorges
Two local people in the Zambezi river near Victoria falls, Zambia.
1975 photo of Victoria Falls Bridge
Tourist boat on the Zambezi River, Mosi-oa-Tunya National Park, Zambia. 1971 photo.
Lake Cahora Bassa in Mozambique, one of the river's major sources of hydroelectric energy

The Zambezi River (also spelled Zambeze and Zambesi) is the fourth-longest river in Africa, the longest east-flowing river in Africa and the largest flowing into the Indian Ocean from Africa.

Limpopo River

Sign at the viewing deck of the Limpopo River at Mapungubwe National Park, South Africa, featuring a quote from Rudyard Kipling
The river as seen from Crook's Corner in Kruger National Park, South Africa. Straight ahead of the river is Mozambique. Across the river is Zimbabwe.
Crossing Limpopo in Mozambique

The Limpopo River rises in South Africa, and flows generally eastwards through Mozambique to the Indian Ocean.

Mozambique Channel

Location of Mozambique Channel

The Mozambique Channel (Canal du Mozambique, Lakandranon'i Mozambika, Canal de Moçambique) is an arm of the Indian Ocean located between the Southeast African countries of Madagascar and Mozambique.


A Köppen climate classification map of Madagascar
Biogeographic timetable of Madagascar over the last 200 million years
The ring-tailed lemur is one of over 100 known species and subspecies of lemur found only in Madagascar.
Malagasy ancestry reflects a blend of Southeast Asian and Bantu (East African) roots.
European contact began in 1500 when Portuguese explorer Diogo Dias recorded the island while participating in the 2nd Portuguese India Armadas.
Matatana, represented in a picture of 1613, regarding a settlement of the beginning of the 16th century, in the Book of Humberto Leitão"
King Andrianampoinimerina (1787–1810)
A French poster about the Franco-Hova War
National monument in Moramanga commemorating the beginning of the Malagasy Uprising on 29 March 1947. Between 11,000 and 90,000 Malagasy died during the uprising which lasted nearly two years.
Philibert Tsiranana, the first president of Madagascar (1960-72).
Antananarivo is the political and economic capital of Madagascar.
Madagascar's President Andry Rajoelina
A map of Madagascar's regions
A proportional representation of Madagascar's exports in 2019
Historical change in per capita GDP of Madagascar since 1950
Nosy Iranja is one of the international tourism destinations in Madagascar
Toy animals made from raffia, a native palm
A news stand in Antananarivo
Education access and quality were prioritized under Ravalomanana.
The regional distribution of Malagasy ethnic subgroups
A Malagasy child
Faravohitra Catholic Church in Antananarivo
A Hiragasy dancer.
Moraingy is a traditional martial art of Madagascar.
Catholic cathedral in Antsirabe

The Republic of Madagascar (Repoblikan'i Madagasikara, ; République de Madagascar), or Madagascar (Madagasikara) (and previously known as the Malagasy Republic), is an island country in the Indian Ocean, approximately 250 miles off the coast of East Africa across the Mozambique Channel.