Indian campaign of Alexander the Great

Indian campaignAlexander's India campaigncampaign in IndiaGreek invasion of IndiaAlexander invaded IndiaAlexander the Great's campaigns in IndiaAlexander the Great's conquest of the Indus ValleyAlexander's invasioncampaign of Indiacampaign to conquer India
The Indian campaign of Alexander the Great began in 326BC.wikipedia
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Alexander the Great

AlexanderAlexander III of MacedonAlexander of Macedon
The Indian campaign of Alexander the Great began in 326BC.
Alexander endeavoured to reach the "ends of the world and the Great Outer Sea" and invaded India in 326 BC, winning an important victory over the Pauravas at the Battle of the Hydaspes.

Achaemenid conquest of the Indus Valley

Achaemenid invasion of the Indus ValleyAchaemenid invasion of Indus ValleyAchaemenid occupation of the Indus Valley
After conquering the Achaemenid Empire of Persia, the Macedonian king (and now the great king of the Persian Empire), Alexander, launched a campaign into the Indian subcontinent in present-day Pakistan, part of which formed the easternmost territories of the Achaemenid Empire following the Achaemenid conquest of the Indus Valley (6th century BC).
The Achaemenid occupation of the Indus Valley ended with the Indian campaign of Alexander the Great circa 323 BCE.

Nearchus

NearchosNearchus of Lato
Of those who accompanied Alexander to India, Aristobulus, Onesicritus, and Nearchus wrote about the Indian campaign.
He is known for his celebrated voyage from the Indus river to the Persian Gulf following the Indian campaign of Alexander the Great, in 326–324 BC.

Chandragupta Maurya

ChandraguptaChandra Gupta MauryaSandracottus
322 BC, one year after Alexander's death, Chandragupta Maurya of Magadha founded the Maurya Empire in India.
Plutarch claims that he was a young man when he met Alexander during the latter's invasion of India (c.

The Anabasis of Alexander

Anabasis AlexandriAnabasis of AlexanderAnabasis
This report is preserved in Arrian's Anabasis (c.
Book 4 describes the long Sogdian campaign of 329-327 BC against Bessus, Spitamenes, and Oxyartes, and the early stages of the campaigns in the Punjab (327-326 BC), with a notable departure from chronological sequence at 4.7-14, where Arrian collects many of the most notorious stories tending to Alexander's discredit in a single apologetic digression (the killing of Cleitus, the proskynesis affair, the pages' conspiracy and the death of Callisthenes).

Punjab

Punjab regionPanjabPunjabi
After gaining control of the former Achaemenid satrapy of Gandhara, including the city of Taxila, Alexander advanced into Punjab, where he engaged in battle against the regional king Porus, whom Alexander defeated in the Battle of the Hydaspes in 326 BC, but was so impressed by the demeanor with which the king carried himself that he allowed Porus to continue governing his own kingdom as a satrap. The site lies north of Attock in what is now the Punjab, Pakistan, on a strongly reinforced mountain spur above the narrow gorges in a bend of the upper Indus. The Battle of the Hydaspes River was fought by Alexander in July 326BC against king Porus (possibly, Paurava) on the Hydaspes River (Jhelum River) in the Punjab, near Bhera.
The Punjab region has been inhabited by the Indus Valley Civilisation, Indo-Aryan peoples, and Indo-Scythians, and has seen numerous invasions by the Persians, Greeks, Kushans, Ghaznavids, Timurids, Mughals, Pashtuns, British, and others.

Mallian campaign

MalloiMallisiege of Malli
These states appear to have been based on dominance of particular tribes, as the Greek writers mention tribes such as the Malloi as well as kings whose name seem to be tribal designations (such as Porus of Puru tribe).

Nanda Empire

Nanda dynastyNandaNandas
Alexander's march east put him in confrontation with the Nanda Empire of Magadha and the Gangaridai of Bengal.
The chroniclers of Alexander the Great, who invaded north-western India during 327-325 BCE, characterize this king as a militarily powerful and prosperous ruler.

Peithon (son of Agenor)

PeithonPeithon, son of AgenorPeithon the son of Agenor
Peithon, one of Alexander's generals, managed to put down the revolt:
Peithon, son of Agenor (died 312 BCE) was an officer in the expedition of Alexander the Great to India, who became satrap of the Indus from 325 to 316 BCE, and then satrap of Babylon, from 316 to 312 BCE, until he died at the Battle of Gaza in 312 BCE.

Aśvaka

AspasioiAssakenoiAshvakas
Alexander personally took command of the shield-bearing guards, foot-companions, archers, Agrianians, and horse-javelin-men and led them against the clans – the Aspasioi of Kunar valleys, the Guraeans of the Guraeus (Panjkora) valley, and the Assakenoi of the Swat and Buner valleys.
The Assakenoi fielded 2,000 cavalry, 30 elephants and 30,000 infantry against Alexander during his campaign in India, which began in 327 BCE, but they eventually had to surrender after losses at places such as Beira, Massaga and Ora.

Pakistan

Islamic Republic of PakistanPAKPakistani
The site lies north of Attock in what is now the Punjab, Pakistan, on a strongly reinforced mountain spur above the narrow gorges in a bend of the upper Indus.
The rise of Buddhism and the influence of Greek civilisation led to the development of a Greco-Buddhist style, starting from the 1st century CE.

Pauravas

PauravaPaurava KingdomPaurava Dynasty
The Battle of the Hydaspes River was fought by Alexander in July 326BC against king Porus (possibly, Paurava) on the Hydaspes River (Jhelum River) in the Punjab, near Bhera.

Macedonia (ancient kingdom)

MacedonMacedoniaancient Macedonia
After conquering the Achaemenid Empire of Persia, the Macedonian king (and now the great king of the Persian Empire), Alexander, launched a campaign into the Indian subcontinent in present-day Pakistan, part of which formed the easternmost territories of the Achaemenid Empire following the Achaemenid conquest of the Indus Valley (6th century BC).
Following the Indian campaign of Alexander the Great, the Macedonian military officer Nearchus wrote a work of his voyage from the mouth of the Indus river to the Persian Gulf.

Achaemenid Empire

AchaemenidPersianPersian Empire
After conquering the Achaemenid Empire of Persia, the Macedonian king (and now the great king of the Persian Empire), Alexander, launched a campaign into the Indian subcontinent in present-day Pakistan, part of which formed the easternmost territories of the Achaemenid Empire following the Achaemenid conquest of the Indus Valley (6th century BC).

India

IndianRepublic of IndiaIND
The rationale for this campaign is usually said to be Alexander's desire to conquer the entire known world, which the Greeks thought ended in India.

Gandhara

GandhāraGandharanGandahara
After gaining control of the former Achaemenid satrapy of Gandhara, including the city of Taxila, Alexander advanced into Punjab, where he engaged in battle against the regional king Porus, whom Alexander defeated in the Battle of the Hydaspes in 326 BC, but was so impressed by the demeanor with which the king carried himself that he allowed Porus to continue governing his own kingdom as a satrap.

Taxila

Takshashilaancient TaxilaTakshasila
After gaining control of the former Achaemenid satrapy of Gandhara, including the city of Taxila, Alexander advanced into Punjab, where he engaged in battle against the regional king Porus, whom Alexander defeated in the Battle of the Hydaspes in 326 BC, but was so impressed by the demeanor with which the king carried himself that he allowed Porus to continue governing his own kingdom as a satrap.

Magadha

MagadhMagadha KingdomMagadhas
322 BC, one year after Alexander's death, Chandragupta Maurya of Magadha founded the Maurya Empire in India. Alexander's march east put him in confrontation with the Nanda Empire of Magadha and the Gangaridai of Bengal.

Gangaridai

Gangaridai EmpireGangaridai KingdomGônggarriddhi
Alexander's march east put him in confrontation with the Nanda Empire of Magadha and the Gangaridai of Bengal.

Bengal

Bengal regionBengal, IndiaBengali
Alexander's march east put him in confrontation with the Nanda Empire of Magadha and the Gangaridai of Bengal.

Beas River

BeasRiver BeasHyphasis
His army, exhausted, homesick, and anxious by the prospects of having to further face large Indian armies throughout the Indo-Gangetic Plain, mutinied at the Hyphasis (modern Beas River) and refused to march further east.

Coenus (general)

Coenus
Alexander, after a meeting with his officer, Coenus, and after hearing about the lament of his soldiers, eventually relented, being convinced that it was better to return.

Sindh

Sindh ProvinceSindSindh, Pakistan
This caused Alexander to turn south, advancing through southern Punjab and Sindh, along the way conquering more tribes along the lower Indus River, before finally turning westward.

Maurya Empire

Mauryan EmpireMauryanMaurya
322 BC, one year after Alexander's death, Chandragupta Maurya of Magadha founded the Maurya Empire in India.

Aristobulus of Cassandreia

AristobulusAristobulos
Of those who accompanied Alexander to India, Aristobulus, Onesicritus, and Nearchus wrote about the Indian campaign.