Indian philosophy

philosophyIndianIndian philosopherIndian philosophersIndian philosophiesphilosopherIndian philosophicalreligious philosophiesphilosophersIndian thought
Indian philosophy refers to ancient philosophical traditions of the Indian subcontinent.wikipedia
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History of India

ancient IndiaIndiaIndian history
Indian philosophy refers to ancient philosophical traditions of the Indian subcontinent.
Many of the concepts of Indian philosophy espoused later, like dharma, trace their roots to Vedic antecedents.

Samkhya

SankhyaSāṃkhyaSāṅkhya
There are six major schools of orthodox Indian Hindu philosophy—Nyaya, Vaisheshika, Samkhya, Yoga, Mīmāṃsā and Vedanta, and five major heterodox schools—Jain, Buddhist, Ajivika, Ajñana, and Charvaka.
Sometimes described as one of the rationalist schools of Indian philosophy, this ancient school's reliance on reason was exclusive but strong.

Ājīvika

AjivikaAjivikasAjivaka
There are six major schools of orthodox Indian Hindu philosophy—Nyaya, Vaisheshika, Samkhya, Yoga, Mīmāṃsā and Vedanta, and five major heterodox schools—Jain, Buddhist, Ajivika, Ajñana, and Charvaka. Notable philosophies that arose from Śramaṇic movement were Jainism, early Buddhism, Charvaka, Ajñana and Ājīvika.
Ajivika (IAST: ) is one of the nāstika or "heterodox" schools of Indian philosophy.

Vedanta

VedanticVedāntaVedantist
There are six major schools of orthodox Indian Hindu philosophy—Nyaya, Vaisheshika, Samkhya, Yoga, Mīmāṃsā and Vedanta, and five major heterodox schools—Jain, Buddhist, Ajivika, Ajñana, and Charvaka.
Vedanta is one of the six orthodox (āstika) schools of Indian philosophy.

Charvaka

CārvākaCarvakaLokayata
There are six major schools of orthodox Indian Hindu philosophy—Nyaya, Vaisheshika, Samkhya, Yoga, Mīmāṃsā and Vedanta, and five major heterodox schools—Jain, Buddhist, Ajivika, Ajñana, and Charvaka.
Charvaka is categorized as a heterodox school of Indian philosophy.

Āstika and nāstika

AstikaĀstikaNastika
The principal schools are classified as either orthodox or heterodox – āstika or nāstika – depending on one of three alternate criteria: whether it believes the Vedas as a valid source of knowledge; whether the school believes in the premises of Brahman and Atman; and whether the school believes in afterlife and Devas. Several Śramaṇic movements have existed before the 6th century BCE, and these influenced both the āstika and nāstika traditions of Indian philosophy.
These have been concepts used to classify Indian philosophies by modern scholars, and some Hindu, Buddhist and Jaina texts.

Raseśvara

However, there are other methods of classification; Vidyaranya for instance identifies sixteen schools of Indian philosophy by including those that belong to the Śaiva and Raseśvara traditions.
Raseśvaras, like many other schools of Indian philosophy, believed that liberation was identity of self with Supreme lord Shiva and freedom from transmigration.

Buddhism

BuddhistBuddhistsBuddhadharma
There are six major schools of orthodox Indian Hindu philosophy—Nyaya, Vaisheshika, Samkhya, Yoga, Mīmāṃsā and Vedanta, and five major heterodox schools—Jain, Buddhist, Ajivika, Ajñana, and Charvaka.
Several Śramaṇa movements are known to have existed in India before the 6th century BCE (pre-Buddha, pre-Mahavira), and these influenced both the āstika and nāstika traditions of Indian philosophy.

Atheism in Hinduism

atheismatheist Hinduatheistic schools
* Charvaka is a materialistic and atheistic school of thought and, is noteworthy as evidence of a materialistic movement within Hinduism.
Atheism (Sanskrit: निरीश्वरवाद, lit. "statement of no Lord", "doctrine of godlessness") or disbelief in God or gods has been a historically propounded viewpoint in many of the orthodox and heterodox streams of Indian philosophy.

Dharma

DhammaDharmicdharmas
Indian philosophies share many concepts such as dharma, karma, samsara, reincarnation, dukkha, renunciation, meditation, with almost all of them focussing on the ultimate goal of liberation of the individual through diverse range of spiritual practices (moksha, nirvana).
Dharma is a concept of central importance in Indian philosophy and religion.

Hindu philosophy

Hindu philosopherdarsanasDarshanas
There are six major schools of orthodox Indian Hindu philosophy—Nyaya, Vaisheshika, Samkhya, Yoga, Mīmāṃsā and Vedanta, and five major heterodox schools—Jain, Buddhist, Ajivika, Ajñana, and Charvaka.
It is a rationalist school of Indian philosophy, and had a strong influence on other schools of Indian philosophies.

Epistemology

epistemologicalepistemictheory of knowledge
Ancient and medieval era texts of Indian philosophies include extensive discussions on Ontology (metaphysics, Brahman-Atman, Sunyata-Anatta), reliable means of knowledge (epistemology, Pramanas), value system (axiology) and other topics.
Indian philosophical schools such as the Hindu Nyaya, and Carvaka, and later, the Jain and Buddhist philosophical schools, developed an epistemological tradition termed "pramana" independently of the Western philosophical tradition.

Pre-sectarian Buddhism

early Buddhismattainment of insightthe deathless
Notable philosophies that arose from Śramaṇic movement were Jainism, early Buddhism, Charvaka, Ajñana and Ājīvika.
The time of the Buddha was a time of urbanisation in India, and saw the growth of the śramaṇas, wandering philosophers that had rejected the authority of Vedas and Brahmanic priesthood, intent on escaping saṃsāra through various means, which involved the study of ascetic practices, and ethical behavior.

Metaphysics

metaphysicalmetaphysicianmetaphysic
Ancient and medieval era texts of Indian philosophies include extensive discussions on Ontology (metaphysics, Brahman-Atman, Sunyata-Anatta), reliable means of knowledge (epistemology, Pramanas), value system (axiology) and other topics.
It is described as the rationalist school of Indian philosophy.

Maya (religion)

MayaMaya (illusion)māyā
Maya (Devanagari: माया, IAST: māyā), literally "illusion" or "magic", has multiple meanings in Indian philosophies depending on the context.

Vishishtadvaita

VishistadvaitaVisishtadvaitaVishishtadvaita Vedanta
The Vedanta school is further divided into six sub-schools: Advaita (monism/nondualism), also includes the concept of Ajativada, Visishtadvaita (monism of the qualified whole), Dvaita (dualism), Dvaitadvaita (dualism-nondualism), Suddhadvaita, and Achintya Bheda Abheda schools.
The (cause) and (effect) in Vishishtadvaita is different from other systems of Indian philosophy.

Dualistic cosmology

dualismdualisticdualist
The Vedanta school is further divided into six sub-schools: Advaita (monism/nondualism), also includes the concept of Ajativada, Visishtadvaita (monism of the qualified whole), Dvaita (dualism), Dvaitadvaita (dualism-nondualism), Suddhadvaita, and Achintya Bheda Abheda schools.
The Dvaita Vedanta school of Indian philosophy espouses a dualism between God and the universe by theorizing the existence of two separate realities.

Śramaṇa

SramanaShramanaSramanic
Notable philosophies that arose from Śramaṇic movement were Jainism, early Buddhism, Charvaka, Ajñana and Ājīvika. Several Śramaṇic movements have existed before the 6th century BCE, and these influenced both the āstika and nāstika traditions of Indian philosophy.
The Jain philosophy of anekantavada and syādvāda, which posits that the truth or reality is perceived differently from different points of view, and that no single point of view is the complete truth, have made very important contributions to ancient Indian philosophy, especially in the areas of skepticism and relativity.

Anekantavada

SyādvādaanekantaSyadvada
Jainism places strong emphasis on asceticism, ahimsa (non-violence) and anekantavada (relativity of viewpoints) as a means of spiritual liberation, ideas that influenced other Indian traditions.
The Jain philosophical concept of Anekantavada made important contributions to ancient Indian philosophy, in the areas of skepticism and relativity.

Indian logic

logiclogicianIndia
Indian logic stands as one of the three original traditions of logic, alongside the Greek and the Chinese logic.

The World as Will and Representation

The World as Will and IdeaWorld as Will and RepresentationDie Welt als Wille und Vorstellung
In the preface to his book The World As Will And Representation, Schopenhauer writes that one who "has also received and assimilated the sacred primitive Indian wisdom, then he is the best of all prepared to hear what I have to say to him" The 19th century American philosophical movement Transcendentalism was also influenced by Indian thought
The reader will be at an even further advantage if they are already familiar with the ancient Indian philosophy contained within the Upanishads.

Indian psychology

Hindu psychology
Other scholarly and scientific fields that are relevant to Indian psychology and often partly overlap with it include modern scientific psychology, neurophysiology, consciousness studies, and Indian philosophy and religion.

Affection

endearmentAffectionismaffections
Although it is not found in mainstream Western philosophy, it does exist in Indian philosophy.